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1 (19) TEPZZ _987B_T (11) EP B1 (12) EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION (4) Date of publication and mention of the grant of the patent: Bulletin 14/17 (21) Application number: (22) Date of filing: (1) Int Cl.: H04L 12/26 (06.01) H04L 12/ (06.01) (86) International application number: PCT/IB08/00236 (87) International publication number: WO 09/034 ( Gazette 09/12) (4) SYSTEM FOR TESTING ETHERNET PATHS AND LINKS WITHOUT IMPACTING NON-TEST TRAFFIC SYSTEM ZUM TESTEN VON ETHERNETPFADEN UND VERBINDUNGEN OHNE AUSWIRKUNG AUF NICHTTESTVERKEHR SYSTÈME POUR TESTER DES PARCOURS ET LIAISONS ETHERNET SANS GÊNER LE TRAFIC SANS TEST (84) Designated Contracting States: AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK TR () Priority: US P (43) Date of publication of application: Bulletin /2 (73) Proprietor: Accedian Networks Inc. Saint-Laurent, QC H4S 2A9 (CA) (72) Inventors: ROBITAILLE, Claude St-placide, Québec J0V 2B0 (CA) ROCHON, Steve Brossard, Québec J4Z 3E1 (CA) (74) Representative: Grünecker, Kinkeldey, Stockmair & Schwanhäusser Leopoldstrasse München (DE) (6) References cited: EP-A US-A US-A US-A US-A US-A US-A US-A US-A US-A US-B US-B EP B1 Note: Within nine months of the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent in the European Patent Bulletin, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to that patent, in accordance with the Implementing Regulations. Notice of opposition shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention). Printed by Jouve, 7001 PARIS (FR)

2 1 EP B1 2 Description CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION [0001] This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/993,622, filed September 13, 07. FIELD OF THE INVENTION [0002] This invention relates generally to testing of Ethernet systems, and, more particularly, to systems for testing Ethernet paths and links without impacting non-test traffic. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION [0003] As depicted in FIG. 1, an Ethernet link 11 is a connection between two adjacent Ethernet devices A or B, while an Ethernet path 13, as depicted in FIG. 2, is a connection between two Ethernet devices A or B via a network 12 composed of multiples links, which may or may not be using Ethernet. The Ethernet device A, B, may be a network element device, such as a router, a switch, etc. or could be a simpler device, such as a personal computer (PC) or other terminal device. In case of a network element device, the Ethernet traffic may originate from or be destined for the device itself or from other devices behind it. The Ethernet link 11 and the Ethernet path 13 can be called an Ethernet circuit. The testing of an Ethernet circuit includes transmitting test traffic from one location toward an Ethernet device A or B. The test location may be anywhere on the Ethernet circuit. Test traffic reception processing, which may include validation, counting, bandwidth determination, etc., is not necessary, albeit useful, for the purpose of this invention. [0004] The test traffic uses specified attributes (e.g., Ethernet ethertype, data payload, priority parameters, IP or MAC addresses, packet size, etc.) and specified transmission characteristics (such as bandwidth, burst size, test duration, etc.). The goal of the testing is to verify the ability of the Ethernet link 11 or path 13 to successfully convey Ethernet frames from one device A or B to another Ethernet device B or A under the specified conditions (packet attributes and transmissions characteristics). The traffic attributes or transmission characteristics used for a given test session may be set to any desired value as necessary but the operation of this invention does not depend on any setting. The Ethernet link 11 or path 13 is said to be in-use or in-service when traffic other than the test traffic is present on the said Ethernet link 11 or path 13 at the location where test traffic is transmitted. [000] EP A2 relates to a decentralized SLS monitoring in a differentiated service environment. A decentralized SLS monitoring structure includes a measurement preparation and minimization module, measurement launching coordination module, measurement scheduler module and measurement initialization module. A configuration server provides information regarding the test parameters for a given test and an SLS Objects database provides information on the SLS specification for a given service level agreement. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION [0006] It is the object of the present invention to improve prior art systems. This object is solved by the subject matter of the independent claims. Preferred embodiments are defined by the dependent claims. [0007] Aspects disclosed herein relate to the testing of an Ethernet link 11 or Ethernet path 13, while it is being used by non-test traffic. In a typical test scenario, not using this invention, the non-test traffic is interrupted so that the validity of the test is not impaired. As a result, such a test is only performed at the installation time of the Ethernet link 11 or path 13 or when the Ethernet circuit is not in use or during non-normal business hours (night, week-ends, etc.). It is, however, desirable to be able to perform a test while non-test traffic is present, because problems (to be detected by the test) usually occur at the time of normal operation of the Ethernet circuit. But the test should be conducted in such a way that the normal non-test traffic is not affected. This invention relates to the methods and techniques used to perform a test while not impairing or impacting the normal operation of the non-test traffic. Impact or impairment occurs when nontest traffic is either excessively delayed or prevented from being delivered from one Ethernet device A or B to the other Ethernet device B or A due to the presence of test traffic. It is possible to execute a test, with nontest traffic present, without the use of this invention however some of the non-test traffic may either be dropped or excessively delayed. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [0008] The invention will be better understood from the following description of preferred embodiments together with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: FIG. 1 is a function block diagram of two Ethernet devices connected via an Ethernet link; FIG. 2 is a functional block diagram of an Ethernet path between two Ethernet devices; FIG. 3 is a functional block diagram of a test traffic generator in an Ethernet network comprising Ethernet links, an Ethernet path, and Ethernet devices; FIG. 4 is a functional block diagram of a transmit generator and its functional blocks including a transmit block coupled to a transmit credit block; and FIG. is a functional block diagram of a transmit generator and its functional blocks like those shown in FIG. 4 except that the transmit credit block is responsive to a scheduler. 2

3 3 EP B1 4 DETAILED DESCRIPTION [0009] An embodiment of the invention includes the test traffic generator 14A, 14B, or 14C of FIGS. 3-, which dynamically adapts its transmission characteristics in such a way as to not impair or impact the non-test traffic. Non-test traffic transmission characteristics (bandwidth, burst size, duration, etc.) may be bound by a bandwidth profile of some sort or may only be limited by the physical characteristics of the Ethernet medium (link speed, etc.). [00] The dynamic test traffic generator 14A may be embedded in an Ethernet device A or B, or it may be located adjacent to the Ethernet link 11 as a generator 14B or it may be located in-line of the Ethernet link 11 as a generator 14C. In the case of generator 14C, there are at least two Ethernet ports that carry non-test traffic. Generator 14C must therefore forward non-test traffic between its ports. This function does not relate to the operation of this invention. In all cases, the information about the amount of non-test traffic flowing in the same direction as the test traffic is made available to the dynamic test traffic generator 14A, 14B, 14C. As an example, if the test traffic generator 14B sends test traffic toward the Ethernet device B, the information about the amount of non-test traffic flowing from Ethernet device A toward the Ethernet device B is made available to the generator 14B. The Ethernet path 13 and the network 12 may or may not be present. If the network 12 and the Ethernet path 13 are not present, the two Ethernet links 11 are connected together and form a single Ethernet link (as in FIG. 1). [0011] The transmit generator of FIG. 4 includes multiple functional building blocks, such as a scheduler 21, a packet creator 22, a transmit block 23 and a transmit credit block 24. Other functional building blocks not related to this invention may be included but are not illustrated. The scheduler 21 determines when a new test packet needs to be generated. It instructs the packet creator 22, which builds a valid test packet and sends it to the transmit block 23. The function of the transmit block 23 depends on where the traffic generator is located. In the case of the traffic generator 14A, embedded in Ethernet device A, the function of the transmit block 23 is to sending the generated traffic to other functions within Ethernet device A. The exact scope and operation of these other functions do not relate to this invention. In the case of the traffic generator 14C, the function of the transmit block 23 is to send the generated traffic to other functions within the device. These other functions do not relate to the operation of this invention. In the case of the traffic generator 14B, the transmit block 23 includes an Ethernet port and is responsible for sending the Ethernet test packet on the Ethernet link 2 attached to it. Two different preferred embodiments are illustrated in FIGS. 4 and. [0012] In the case of FIG. 4, the transmit block 23 queries the transmit credit block 24 and transmits a test packet if sufficient credits are available. Credits represent the number of bytes to transmit. Headers, preamble and other Ethernet frame fields, such as the inter-frame gap, may be included in the credit count depending on the mode of operation of the bandwidth associated with the test. As an example, a layer 2 test includes at least Ethernet headers but not the inter-packet gap. If a transmission occurs, the appropriate amount of credit is debited from the transmit credit block 24. If there is not enough transmit credit available, the transmission is delayed until enough credit is available. The information about the amount of non-test traffic is provided to the transmit credit block 24 via line 26. The method by which this information is made available to block 24 is not relevant to the operation of this invention. Credits are removed from the transmit credit block 24 for each non-test packet. This effectively reduces the amount of credit available to allow transmission of test traffic. The credit total may become negative, due to excessive non-test traffic. This will further delay the transmission of test traffic because more credits will need to be added before enough credit is available to start the transmission of a test packet. Transmission credits are added to the transmit credit block 24 using methods and techniques that are not pertinent to this invention. [0013] In the case of FIG., the scheduler 21 queries the transmit credit block 24 and only sends a request to the packet creator 22 if sufficient credits are available. Credits represent the number of bytes to transmit. Headers, preamble and other Ethernet frame fields, such as the inter-packet gap, may be included in the credit count depending on the mode of operation of the bandwidth associated with the test. As an example, a layer 2 test would include at least Ethernet headers but not the interframe gap. If a request occurs, the appropriate amount of credit is debited from the transmit credit block 24. If not enough transmit credit is available, the request is delayed until enough credit is available. The information about the amount of non-test traffic is provided to the transmit credit block 24 via the line 26. The method by which this information is made available to block 24 is not relevant to the operation of this invention. Credits are removed from the transmit credit block 24 for each nontest packet. This effectively reduces the amount of credit available to allow transmission of test traffic. The credit total may become negative, due to excessive non-test traffic. This will further delay the transmission of test traffic because more credits will need to be added before enough credit is available to start the transmission of a test packet. Transmission credits are added to the transmit credit block 24 using methods and techniques that are not pertinent to this invention. Claims 1. A system for testing Ethernet paths (13) or links (11) without adversely impacting non-test traffic, comprising: 3

4 EP B1 6 a test traffic generator (14A, 14B, 14C, ) that includes a scheduler (21) that determines when a new test packet is generated, a packet creator (22) that builds a test packet, a transmitter (23) for transmitting the test packet via the Ethernet path or link, wherein the packet creator sends the test packet to the transmitter, and a transmit credit block (24) coupled to the transmitter or to the scheduler, the transmit credit block storing an amount of credits representing a number of bytes that are available to transmit the test packet and decrementing the amount each time a non-test packet is communicated via the Ethernet path or link the transmitter or the scheduler querying the transmit credit block to determine whether sufficient credits are available to transmit the test packet. 2. The system of claim 1, wherein the transmit credit block is coupled to the transmitter, the transmitter configured to query the transmit credit block to determine whether sufficient credits are available from the transmit credit block to transmit the test packet. 3. The system of claim 1, wherein the transmit credit block is coupled to the scheduler, the scheduler configured to query the transmit credit block and to send a request to the packet creator to build the test packet responsive to sufficient credits being available from the transmit credit block to transmit the test packet The system of claim 3, wherein credits are decremented from the transmit credit block when the request is sent. 11. A method for testing Ethernet paths (13) or links (11) without adversely impacting non-test traffic, comprising: determining when a new test packet is generated via a test traffic generator (14A, 14B, 14C, ) that includes a scheduler (21); building a test packet via a packet creator (22); transmitting the test packet via a transmitter (23) on the Ethernet path or link; sending the test packet to the transmitter via the packet creator; storing an amount of credits representing a number of bytes that are available to transmit the test packet via a transmit credit block (24) coupled to the transmitter or to the scheduler; decrementing the amount each time a non-test packet is communicated via the Ethernet path or link; and querying the transmit credit block via the transmitter or the scheduler to determine whether sufficient credits are available from the transmit credit block to transmit the test packet. 12. The method of claim 11, further comprising querying the transmit credit block and sending a request to the packet creator to build the test packet responsive to sufficient credits being available from the transmit credit block to transmit the test packet. 4. The system of claim 1, wherein the credits include the number of bytes in at least one field from an Ethernet frame.. The system of claim 4, wherein the at least one field is a preamble field of the Ethernet frame. 6. The system of claim 4, wherein the at least one field is an inter-frame gap of the Ethernet frame. 7. The system of claim 1, further comprising an Ethernet device, the test traffic generator being incorporated into the Ethernet device. 8. The system of claim 1, wherein the test traffic generator includes an Ethernet port, and wherein the test traffic generator is connected to the Ethernet link via the Ethernet port The method of claim 11, wherein the credits include the number of bytes in at least one field from an Ethernet frame, and wherein the at least one field is a preamble field or an inter-frame gap of the Ethernet frame. 14. The method of claim 11, wherein the test traffic generator is incorporated into an Ethernet device and includes an Ethernet port, and wherein the test traffic generator is connected to the Ethernet link via the Ethernet port. Patentansprüche 1. System zum Testen von Ethernetpfaden (13) oder Verbindungen (11) ohne negative Auswirkungen auf Nichttestverkehr, umfassend: 9. The system of claim 1, wherein the test traffic generator includes at least two Ethernet ports for in-line connection of the test traffic generator to the Ethernet link. einen Testverkehr-Generator (14A, 148, 14C, ), der eine Ablaufsteuerung (21), die bestimmt, wann ein neues Testpaket erzeugt wird, einen Paketerzeuger (22), der ein Testpaket erstellt, einen Sender (23) zum Senden des Testpakets über den Ethernetpfad oder die Verbindung, wobei der Paketer- 4

5 7 EP B1 8 zeuger das Testpaket an den Sender sendet, und einen Sendekreditblock (24) aufweist, der an den Sender oder die Ablaufsteuerung gekoppelt ist, wobei der Sendekreditblock einen Kreditbetrag speichert, der eine Anzahl an Bytes repräsentiert, die für das Senden des Testpakets verfügbar sind und der den Betrag jedes Mal dekrementiert, wenn ein Nichttestpaket über den Ethernetpfad oder die Verbindung kommuniziert wird, wobei der Sender oder die Ablaufsteuerung Anfragen an den Sendekreditblock stellen, um zu bestimmen, ob ausreichend Kredite zum Senden des Testpakets verfügbar sind. 2. System nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Sendekreditblock an den Sender gekoppelt ist und der Sender dazu konfiguriert ist, Anfragen an den Sendekreditblock zu stellen, um zu bestimmen, ob ausreichend Kredite von dem Sendekreditblock zum Senden des Testpakets verfügbar sind. 3. System nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Sendekreditblock an die Ablaufsteuerung gekoppelt ist, die Ablaufsteuerung dazu konfiguriert ist, eine Anfrage an den Sendekreditblock zu stellen und eine Anforderung an den Paketerzeuger zu senden, damit dieser das Paket erstellt, in Reaktion darauf, dass ausreichend Kredite von dem Sendekreditblock zum Senden des Testpakets verfügbar sind. 1 2 Sendekreditblock dekrementiert werden, wenn die Anforderung gesendet wird. 11. Verfahren zum Testen von Ethernetpfaden (13) oder Verbindungen (11) ohne negative Auswirkungen auf Nichttestverkehr, umfassend: Bestimmen, wann ein neues Testpaket über einen Testverkehr-Generator (14A, 14B, 14C, ) erzeugt wird, der eine Ablaufsteuerung (21) aufweist; Erstellen eines Testpakets über einen Paketerzeuger (22); Senden des Testpakets über einen Sender (23) auf dem Ethernetpfad oder der Verbindung; Senden des Testpakets über den Paketerzeuger an den Sender; Speichern eines Kreditbetrags, der eine Anzahl an Bytes repräsentiert, die für das Senden des Testpakets über den Sendekreditblock (24) verfügbar sind, der an den Sender oder die Ablaufsteuerung gekoppelt ist; Dekrementieren des Betrags jedes Mal, wenn ein Nichttestpaket über den Ethernetpfad oder die Verbindung kommuniziert wird; und Stellen einer Anfrage an den Sendekreditblock über den Sender oder die Ablaufsteuerung, um zu bestimmen, ob ausreichend Kredite von dem Sendekreditblock zum Senden des Testpakets verfügbar sind. 4. System nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Kredite die Anzahl der Bytes in mindestens einem Feld von einem Ethernet-Rahmen beinhalten.. System nach Anspruch 4, wobei das mindestens eine Feld ein Präambelfeld des Ethernet-Rahmens ist. 6. System nach Anspruch 4, wobei das mindestens eine Feld eine Zwischen-Rahmen-Lücke des Ethernet-Rahmens ist. 7. System nach Anspruch 1, des Weiteren umfassend eine Ethernet-Vorrichtung, wobei der Testverkehr- Generator in die Ethernet-Vorrichtung integriert ist Verfahren nach Anspruch 11, des Weiteren umfassend das Stellen einer Anfrage an den Sendekreditblock und das Senden einer Anforderung an den Paketerzeuger, damit dieser das Testpaket erstellt, in Reaktion darauf, dass ausreichend Kredite von dem Sendekreditblock zum Senden des Testpakets verfügbar sind. 13. Verfahren nach Anspruch 11, wobei die Kredite die Anzahl an Bytes in mindestens einem Feld von einem Ethernet-Rahmen beinhalten und wobei das mindestens eine Feld ein Präambelfeld oder eine Zwischen-Rahmen-Lücke des Ethernet-Rahmens ist. 8. System nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Testverkehr- Generator einen Ethernet-Anschluss aufweist und wobei der Testverkehr-Generator über den Ethernet-Anschluss mit der Ethernet-Verbindung verbunden ist. 9. System nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Testverkehr- Generator mindestens zwei Ethernet-Anschlüsse für die Hintereinanderschaltung des Testverkehr- Generators mit der Ethernet-Verbindung aufweist.. System nach Anspruch 3, wobei die Kredite von dem Verfahren nach Anspruch 11, wobei der Testverkehr-Generator in eine Ethernet-Vorrichtung integriert ist und einen Ethernet-Anschluss aufweist und wobei der Testverkehr-Generator über den Ethernet-Anschluss mit der Ethernet-Verbindung verbunden ist. Revendications 1. Système pour tester des chemins (13) ou des liens (11) Ethernet sans affecter négativement le trafic

6 9 EP B1 non-testé, comprenant : - un générateur de trafic de test (14A, 14B, 14C, ) comprenant un programmateur (21) qui détermine quand un nouveau paquet de test est généré, un créateur de paquet (22) qui construit un paquet de test, un transmetteur (23) pour transmettre le paquet de test via le chemin ou le lien Ethernet, dans lequel le créateur de paquet envoie le paquet de test au transmetteur, et un bloc de crédit de transmission (24) couplé au transmetteur ou au programmateur, le bloc de crédit de transmission stockant une quantité de crédits représentant un nombre de multiplets disponibles pour transmettre le paquet de test et décrémentant cette quantité à chaque fois qu un paquet de non-test est communiqué via le chemin ou le lien Ethernet, le transmetteur ou le programmateur interrogeant le bloc de crédit de transmission afin de déterminer si des crédits suffisants sont disponibles pour transmettre le paquet de test. 2. Système selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le bloc de crédit de transmission est couplé au transmetteur, le transmetteur étant configuré pour interroger le bloc de crédit de transmission pour déterminer si des crédits suffisants sont disponibles auprès du bloc de crédit de transmission pour transmettre le paquet de test. 3. Système selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le bloc de crédit de transmission est couplé au programmateur, le programmateur étant configuré pour interroger le bloc de crédit de transmission et pour envoyer une demande au créateur de paquet pour construire le paquet de test en réponse au fait que des crédits suffisants sont disponibles auprès du bloc de crédit de transmission pour transmettre le paquet de test. 4. Système selon la revendication 1, dans lequel les crédits incluent le nombre de multiplets dans au moins un champ d une trame Ethernet.. Système selon la revendication 4, dans lequel l au moins un champ est un champ de préambule de la trame Ethernet et dans lequel le générateur de trafic de test est connecté au lien Ethernet via le port Ethernet. 9. Système selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le générateur de trafic de test comprend au moins deux ports Ethernet pour une connexion en ligne du générateur de trafic de test au lien Ethernet.. Système selon la revendication 3, dans lequel les crédits sont décrémentés du bloc de crédit de transmission lorsque la demande est envoyée. 11. Procédé pour tester des chemins (13) ou des liens (11) Ethernet sans affecter négativement le trafic non-testé, consistant à : - déterminer quand un nouveau paquet de test est généré via un générateur de trafic de test (14A, 14B, 14C, ) comprenant un programmateur (21) ; - construire un paquet de test via un créateur de paquet (22) ; - transmettre le paquet de test via un transmetteur (23) sur le chemin ou le lien Ethernet ; - envoyer le paquet de test au transmetteur via le créateur de paquet ; - stocker une quantité de crédits représentant un nombre de multiplets disponibles pour transmettre le paquet de test via un bloc de crédit de transmission (24) couplé au transmetteur ou au programmateur ; - décrémenter cette quantité à chaque fois qu un paquet de non-test est communiqué via le chemin ou le lien Ethernet ; et - interroger le bloc de crédit de transmission via le transmetteur ou le programmateur afin de déterminer si des crédits suffisants sont disponibles auprès du bloc de crédit de transmission pour transmettre le paquet de test. 12. Procédé selon la revendication 11, consistant en outre à interroger le bloc de crédit de transmission et à envoyer une demande au créateur de paquet pour construire le paquet de test en réponse au fait que des crédits suffisants sont disponibles auprès du bloc de crédit de transmission pour transmettre le paquet de test. 6. Système selon la revendication 4, dans lequel l au moins un champ est un intervalle inter-trame de la trame Ethernet. 7. Système selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre un dispositif Ethernet, le générateur de trafic de test étant incorporé dans le dispositif Ethernet. 8. Système selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le générateur de trafic de test comprend un port Ethernet Procédé selon la revendication 11, pour lequel les crédits incluent le nombre de multiplets dans au moins un champ d une trame Ethernet et dans lequel l au moins un champ est un champ de préambule ou un intervalle inter-trame de la trame Ethernet. 14. Procédé selon la revendication 11, pour lequel le générateur de trafic de test est incorporé dans un dispositif Ethernet et comprend un port Ethernet et pour lequel le générateur de trafic de test est con- 6

7 11 EP B1 12 necté au lien Ethernet via le port Ethernet

8 EP B1 8

9 EP B1 9

10 EP B1 REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader s convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard. Patent documents cited in the description US P [0001] EP A2 [000]

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