Nuclear Waste Disposal, Characterization, Quality Control & Numerical Assessment of Radioactive Waste Properties

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1 Mitglied der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Nuclear Waste Disposal, Characterization, Quality Control & Numerical Assessment of Radioactive Waste Properties IAEA Annual Meeting of LABONET Network Radioactive Waste Characterization - Practices and Trends Dec 2013, Vienna, Austria Holger Tietze-Jaensch, Yuliya Aksyutina, Ivan Fast, Marc Weidenfeld, Eric Mauerhofer IEK-6 Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Dept. for Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany

2 Nuclear Waste: What to Do After Use? Safe and Sustainable Disposal Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 2

3 Radwaste: Types, Origin & Streams BWR / PWR / RR Used Nuclear Fuel, BU < 70 GWd/tU Direct Disposal Used Nuclear Fuel BU < 50 GWd/tU until 2004 MOX-Fuel La Hague, Sellafield, Karlsruhe F: ILW (CSD-B) F: ILW (CSD-C) F, UK, D: HLW Glass Container (CSD-V etc.)??? D: Radwast from Operation & Decommissioning, Repository Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 3

4 Sources of Radioactive Waste 1. Operations 1. HLW: spent fuel element 1. Reprocessing 2. Direct disposal 2. LLW / MLW: solid & liquid operational waste 1. Rinsing & filter residues 2. Activated or contaminated waste 2. Decommissioning 1. HLW: spent fuel (cf. 1.1) 2. Solid / liquid waste (large quantities) Professional Characterization Sorting Conditioning Packing Documentation Transport Interim storage Final disposal Product quality control Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 4

5 Disposability & PQC Methods Repository relevant properties Requirements & products specs Check criteria Tasks are: Comply with legal conditions Adopt a set of (16/14) repository relevant properties & the waste residue specs Evaluate production process, methodology & metrology Check declaration of guaranteed process & product parameters or properties and declaration of other radio nuclides Verify waste properties compliant with specs & repository WAC Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 5

6 Outline 1. Radioactive Waste in Germany 2. Disposability & Product Quality Control Methods 3. Examples: Vitrification & Compaction 4. Qualified Processes & Numerical Tools 5. Key Nuclides, Inventory Bandwidth & Correlation Range 6. Fuel & Reactor Operation Parameters, Nuclide Vectors 7. Characterization of Large Volume Waste Compounds 8. Summary & Conclusion Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 6

7 Vitrification & Compaction Vitrification Process Acceptance Criteria Product Specification Qualified Process HAL Glass Frit Analyses of Chem. & FP Vitrification Process Checks & Verif.: Weldg, Deco, DR Waste Product ACC-Compaction Process Acceptance Criteria Product Specification compare Hulls Qualified Process (QP1) QP2 Ends Tech- Waste Entrance Measurements Dosing Super- Compaction Dosing Waste Product Final Product Characterization: Nucl. Inventory (P2) Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 7

8 Vitrification & Compaction Vitrification Process Acceptance Criteria Product Specification Qualified Process HAL Glass Frit Analyses of Chem. & FP Vitrification Process Checks & Verif.: Weldg, Deco, DR Waste Product ACC-Compaction Process Acceptance Criteria Product Specification compare Hulls Qualified Process (QP1) QP2 Ends Tech- Waste Entrance Measurements Dosing Super- Compaction Dosing Waste Product Simulation for Numerical Verification Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 8

9 Waste Characterization by Nuclear Measurements 1. Gamma-spec: Eu-154, Cs-134, Cs-137, Co-60, Sb Correlation: U-235 / U-238 ratio Pu-239 / Pu-241 ratio 3. Verification of: CT, BU & nuclide declaration 4. Calibrated pulsed & passive neutron spec: masses of fissile material (U, Pu) MA & n-emitters, mainly Cm Activity from correlation & transfer function: Fissile material (U, Pu) Fission & activation products (Cs, Co) Heat load & dose rate Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 9

10 Measurement and Radio Nuclides Measurement Detected Radio Nuclide Gamma Spectrometry Passive Neutron Counting Neutron Coincidence Counting Active Neutron Interrogation (Prompt Neutron Counting) Active Neutron Interrogation (Delayed Neutron Counting) 60 Co, 125 Sb, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 154 Eu 238 Pu Pu Pu Pu Am Cm Cm Cm 238 Pu Pu Pu Cm Cm Cm 235 U Pu Pu 235 U U Pu Pu viewgraph from: H. Toubon et al., WM 03 Conf, Feb 2003, Tuscon AZ, USA Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. also cf. NW Disp. H. Toubon, Char., et QC al., & Safewaste Numerical 2000 Assessment Conf, Oct of 2000 Radwaste in Montpellier, France 10

11 Nuclides to be Declared β/ɣ-nuclides: 3 H, 14 C, 36 Cl, 55 Fe, 60 Co, 59 Ni, 63 Ni, 79 Se, 85 Kr, 87 Rb, 90 Sr, 90 Y, 93 Zr, 93 Mo, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 106 Rh, 107 Pd, 110m Ag, 125 Sb, 126 Sn, 129 I, 134 Cs, 135 Cs, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 144 Pr, 147 Pm, 151 Sm, 152 Eu, 154 Eu, 155 Eu, 241 Pu, 242m Am α-nuclides: 226 Ra, 228 Th, 232 Th, 231 Pa, 232 U, 233 U, 234 U, 235 U, 236 U, 238 U, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 242 Pu, 241 Am, 243 Am, 242 Cm, 243 Cm, 244 Cm, 245 Cm, 246 Cm, 247 Cm, 248 Cm, 249 Cf, 251 Cf, 252 Cf (key nuclides in bold) + guaranteed parameters (GP) Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 11

12 Areva NC Approach: Key Nuclide Families Key Correlations Family 1 60 Co 36 Cl, 55 Fe, 59 Ni, 63 Ni, 93 Mo Family 2 90 Sr 93 Zr, 94 Nb, 110m Ag, 107 Pd Family Sb 79 Se, 126 Sn Family Cs 14 C, 87 Rb, 129 I, 135 Cs Family Eu 147 Pm, 151 Sm, 152 Eu, 155 Eu Family 6 Pu(α) 226 Ra, 232 Th, 231 Pa, 242m Am Family Cm 242 Cm, 243 Cm, 245 Cm, 246 Cm, 247 Cm, 248 Cm, 249 Cf, 251 Cf Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 12

13 Interpretation of Nuclear Measurements 1. Gamma measurement: only ~10% of the volume Pics from AREVA NC Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 13

14 Interpretation of Nuclear Measurements 1. Gamma measurement: only ~10% of the volume Pics from AREVA NC 2. Neutron measurement: large statistical uncertainties heterogeneity of the material matrix Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 14

15 Numerical Simulation Reactor Operation Chemical Reprocessing Nuclear Measurements A) Burnup-calulation SCALE 6.0 TRITON/KENO-VI ORIGEN-ARP C) Coupling System Process Parameters Convert nuclide-vectors Generation of source terms Output in other codes planed B) Radiation Transport MCNP MCNP/X c MAVRIC/MONACO Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 15

16 Process Simulation Structure n H (z 6,t 7 ) CSD-V(HLW) n H (z 5,t 6 ) Conditioning: create source terms & MCPN models: Vitrification n H (z 4,t 5 ) Extraction (Purex) HAL, remove U, Pu n H (z 3,t 4 ) n 1 (x 1,t 1 ) Reactor: calcbu & CT nuclide vector Reception: select SNF, calc prior decay n 1 (x 1,t 2 ) criticality, activity balance, nuclear properties Chop & Leach: split HAL from scrap metal n H (z 3,t 3 ) n C (x 2,t 3 ) criticality, dissolution rates CSD-C (ILW) n c (x 5,t 11 ) n c (x 4,t 10 ) Conditioning: create source terms & MCPN models: Compaction n c (x 3,t 9 ) Storage: calcdecay between reprocessing & conditioning n c (x 2,t 8 ) Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 16

17 VR: Exp vs. Simul: dose rate VEK: vitrified residues Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 17

18 VR: Exp vs. Simul: thermal power VEK: vitrified residues Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 18

19 VR: Exp vs. Simul: Linear Regression VEK: vitrified residues Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 19

20 Evaluation of Nuclear Property Simulations Assessment of error margins & parameter sensitivity Comparing Areva NC nuclear measurements results with our numerical calculations Burn-up calculation of EDF PWD 17x17 fuel element Fuel - parameters IE = 3.7 [w.%] BU = [MWd/tU] CT = 5 a Calculated activitiy in [TBq/tU] Nuclide Areva-NC PKS Triton calculation Relative difference % 134 Cs % 137 Cs % 154 Eu % 125 Sb % Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 20

21 Numerical (Non-Analytical) HLW Assessment 1. Vitrified waste is assessed by chemical analysis & nuclear measurements 2. Compacted waste is characterized by nuclear measurements, only 3. UNF is mainly characterized by BU-calculations of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP operation dependent!) Systematic study of: 1.) Fuel parameters (IE, ρ F, T F ) 2.) Secondary reactor operation parameters (ρ M, T M, c bor, linear power density, intermittent cooling time ict) to investigate their influence on the nuclide spectrum in radwaste & UNF Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 21

22 Fuel / Moderator Estimate on Inventory / Uncertainties Very conservative data set for the parameter space (from SF-compo): 1.FE Geometry: 14 x 14 Siemens type 2.BU: GWd /t HM 3.IE: 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 wt% of U FE temperature: 900 K, 1800 K 5.FE density: 10,4 g/cm³ ± 10% 6.Moderator temp: 556 K in, 586 K out 7.Mod. density: 0,73 g/cm³ ± 10% Results are within the expected range of moderate variations of Eu-154 & Cs-134 activity build-up with increasing burn-up. Uncertainties diminish with increasing activity build-up, but commonly used correlation range is limited! Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 22

23 Fuel / Moderator Impact on Inventory / Uncertainties Eu-154 Cs-134 IE IE, ρ M, IE, T F, ρ F, T M, ρ M, From I. Fast et al., WM2013 Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 23

24 Fuel / Moderator Impact on CT & BU Correlations Cs-137 activity ~ burn-up (direct FP, i.e. no secondary reactor parameter dependence) Famous Eu-154/Cs-137 correlation ~ BU is not valid for high-bu > 45 GWd/t HM From I. Fast et al., WM2013 Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 24

25 Fission Product & TRU Build-up for Various IE Nuclide build-up with BU depends on IE and down times periods: 1.) Eu-154 very sensitive to IE: it builds up predominantly from Pu-fission and neutron capture of Eu ) massive TRU build-up from low-ie with BU: higher IE is favorable & efficient Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 25

26 Fission Product & TRU Build-up vs Cooling & Breaks Long intermittent cooling time builds up Am-241 (long term safety relevant), whereas for Cs-137 intermittent CT acts conservatively Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 26

27 Fission Product & TRU Build-up vs Cooling & Breaks The longer the cooling time, the less important the intermittent operational down-time However, long & frequent ict favors activtion, for fission product it s conservative Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 27

28 Target for Numerical Simulations: CSD-C Model CSD-C MCNPX Model Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 28

29 Simulation Outlook: Application & Waste Compound Scenario Waste scenarios: varying inhomogeneity of material matrix & composition Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 29

30 Tasks for Spent / Used Nuclear Fuel Direct Disposal Legal requirements & contraints: cf. HLW to Gorleben State of UNF: whereabouts, volumes & content activities level and history of operation in NPP Monitoring UNF inventory: BU / CT vs IE & operation legacy AVK data base Interim storage vs long term disposal Castor vs Pollux PKA Gorleben: mechanical packaging Criticality assessment, criticality prevention, proliferation Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 30

31 Summary: HLW / UNF Direct Disposal: UNF Actions HLW & UNF in USA HLW & UNF in Germany nn Long term storage / cooling time derived from: correlation laws based on short lives key nuclides CT as function of Eu-154/Cs-134 (9yrs/2yrs). This is not prudent to employ after long interim storage! Long term storage: FE-cladding degradation?? (cf. ANS 2013, Albuquerque) Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 31

32 Summary & Conclusion: UNF Actions Actions to do 1.) Characterization 2.) Individual fuel element characterization vs. all in Castor characterization? 3.) FE handling station? 4.) Ɣ-scan or (internal) PGN-self-activation (PGNsA) 5.) Numerical calculation only? Not sufficient in DE Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 32

33 Characterization of Radioactive Waste Packages Radioactive waste has to fulfill the specifications and acceptance criteria for an intermediate or final storage as defined by the national regulator. The characterization of radioactive waste is the first basic step for its classification. Non-destructive measuring techniques and methods are developed for the radiological and chemo-toxic characterization or product control radioactive waste. Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 33

34 Characterization of Nuclear Waste Packages 8000 PGNAA for the characterization of chemo-toxic components (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) Counts Cd-113 Pb-207m Ge-74 Ge-73 Ge-73 Cd-113 Cs-137 Fe-56 Ge-73 Ca-40 Fe-56 Cl Energy [kev] PGNAA-spectrum for 3 g Cd and 260 g Pb in 38 kg cement Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 34

35 Experience: Gamma Test Scans 1 on AVR Castor (2005) Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 35

36 Experience: Gamma Test Scans 2 on AVR Castor (2005) Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 36

37 UNF Knowledge State-of-the-art knowledge in DE, US, CH, BE, FR, SE, FIN?? RUS? CN? Summary: what can be done? what must be done? Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 37

38 Considerations For how long is UNF stable & safe? Under what conditions is UNF stable & safe? Criticality of LBU & vhbu vs water break-in? How to assess UNF for exp. characterization Is there any NDA of UNF compounds? How to scale & normalize NDA on NF compounds? Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 38

39 Thank You for Your Attention! Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 39

40 Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 40

41 How to Implement Waste Stream Quality Assurance? Government (BMU) defines waste repository acceptance criteria (WAC) 1 Total activity α and β 2 Activities of relevant nuclides 3 Criticality safety 4 Thermal properties 5 Dose rate (n,γ at surface & 1m distance) Chemical & nuclear analyses: ICP-AES, ICP-MS, α, γ- spectrometry, (AAS), themal induced mass spec (TIMS) Measurements & calculation 6 Surface contamination Wipe test 7 Raw glass matrix quality Glass composition, tolerances 8 Raw waste properties Chem. composition, oxide content 9 Mass balance, incorporation rate Process handling, dosing 10 Homogeneity of glass blend & activity Furnace temperature, process time, pouring rate 11 State of glass product QA of Hydrolytic stability of waste form R&D characterizsation 13 (empty) container mechanical properties Manufacturers design & QA, welding & corrosion QA 14 Weight Weighing 15 Stackability & handling Container design 16 Residue package identification Visual control Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 41

42 Elements of Quality Review Quality of the process / methods and installations: - assessment with process approval scheme Quality of the process performance (inspection & audit): - process specification - QA - System of the operator (quality control plan) - controlled by on-site inspectors Quality of the product (doc-check, measurements if needed): - guarantied parameters - waste specification - repository relevant properties and characteristics Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 42

43 Example: Product Quality Control by Plant Inspection glass quality weighing / dosing dosing temp-distribution blending / agitation pouring agitation sampling chem. analysis empty container id-no, log chart cooling time welding, weight wipe test dose rate dosing Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 43

44 Example: VR Product Quality Control: Doc-Check Chem. analyses & vitrification process data Glass- and Principal Process Data (~90) VEK Gebinde Zusammensetzung der Glasfritte in % zusätzl. Parameter aus STG1 Kokille SiO2 B2O3 Al2O3 Na2O Li2O CaO MgO TiO2 Fe2O3 MoO3 ZrO2 lfd Nr. Kokillennr % % % % % % % % % % % VEK ,4 14,78 2,6 5,96 2,94 4,45 1,85 1, Chem Analyses of Feed (~70) Datum Uhrzeit Probe Nummer: Auftrag : Probenahme : Probe stelle: Probenm aterial: Prüfplan : Freigabe : Teilfreigabe : Dichte Suspension [g/ml] : : Übernahmebehälter VEK BB01 10:45 Reiner Praetorius, Fachbereich 09:46 Analytik Dimitrij Lemmer, der WAK Fachbereich 1,2328 Analy HAL Feed Dosing Cycle Log (~35) Generieren : Nummer Chargenherkunft des aktuell abgeschloss enen Dosierbehält erzyklus 03 Analysen- Prüfbericht (Probenahme- Nr.) 04 Zyklusbeginn 05 Zyklusende 06 Zyklusdauer 07 Befülldauer 08 Übernommenes Befüllrate 09 Volumen aus 841 BB 01, 841 BB 02 bzw. 848 BK Feeddosierrate zum Schmelzofen 842 RS 01 [ s ] [dm³] [dm³/h] [dm³/h] :29: BK :32: :28:20 01:56: ,1 333,7 10, :07: BK :59: :06:36 02:07: ,6 327, :15: BK :09: :15:14 02:06: ,3 334,4 9, :13: BK :17: :12:12 01:55: ,9 328,7 10,3 Glasa Pouring Record (~32) Generieren : 01 Kokillenident- Nummer 02 Laufende Kokillen- Nummer 03 Teilbefüllung (A, B, C, D) 04 Einleitung der Glasabfüllung <Glasabfüllung beginnen> 05 Glasfüllstands mess einrichtung 842 L RS01-04 zu Beginn Glasabfüll. 06 Temp. 842 T RS01-12 Oberofeng asraum zu Beginn Glas abfüllung 07 Temp. 842 T RS01-12 Oberofeng asraum am Ende Glas abfüllung 08 Temp. 842 T RS01-13 Prozess zone zu Beginn Glas abfüllung 09 Temp. 842 T RS01-13 Prozess zone am Ende Glas abfüllung 10 Temp. 842 T RS01-14 Prozess zone zu Beginn Glas abfüllung 11 Temp. 842 T RS01-14 Prozess zone am Ende Glas abfüllung 12 Temp. 842 T RS01-15 Glasbad zu Beginn Glas abfüllung 13 Temp. 842 T RS01-15 Glasbad am Ende Glas abfüllung [mbar] [ C] [ C] [ C] [ C] [ C] [ C] [ C] [ C] :40: ? :35:23 8, :35: A :55:09 7, :02: B :13:11 10, :28: C :30:12 10, :28: D :19:19 8, :57: A :31:20 9, Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 44

45 Elements of Quality Review Quality of the process / methods and installations: - assessment with process approval scheme Quality of the process performance (inspection & audit): - process specification - QA - System of the operator (quality control plan) - controlled by on-site inspectors Quality of the product (doc-check, measurements if needed): - guarantied parameters - waste specification - repository relevant properties and characteristics Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 45

46 Example: VR Product Quality Control: Doc-Check Guaranteed parameters Kokillen-Nr: 156 P Konformitäts-Prüfung von WAK-Kokillen R Beladung VEK01 Ü F L Blatt WAK Datenblatt-Angaben PKS - Prüfung auf Richtigkeit und Vollständigkeit E I S 2 Garantierte Parameter Datenblatt A Garantierte Parameter T E Ident-Nummer W WAK -Glaskokille 156 Bezugsdatum Werte aus der schriftl- Wert Minimum Maximum Dokumentation Kalzinat 16,0 % % 16 % OK Gebindemasse 499,00 kg < 550 kg 499,00 kg OK β/γ Aktivität Sr90/Y90 2,93E+15 Bq 0 < 4,50E+15 Bq 2,93E+15 Bq OK β/γ Aktivität Cs137/Ba137m 3,60E+15 Bq 0 < 5,10E+15 Bq 3,60E+15 Bq OK Gesamt α - Aktivität 5,47E+13 Bq 0 < 8,60E+13 Bq 5,47E+13 Bq OK Gesamt β/γ - Aktivität 6,28E+15 Bq 0 < 9,60E+15 Bq 6,28E+15 Bq OK Gesamtmenge - Uran 4282,0 g 0 < 7200 g 4282,0 g OK Gesamtmenge - Plutonium 115,0 g 0 < 190 g 115,0 g OK Gesamtmenge - Curium 9,0 g 0 < 25 g 9,0 g OK Wärmeleistung 570,0 W 0 < 734 W 570,0 W OK β/γ -Dosisleistung, Oberfläche 314,0 Gy/h 0 < 440,0 Gy/h 314,0 Gy/h OK β/γ -Dosisleistung, 1m Abstand 24,0 Gy/h 0 < 35,0 Gy/h 24,0 Gy/h OK n-dosisleistung, Oberfläche 1,0E-03 Gy/h 0 < 2,0E-03 Gy/h 1,0E-03 Gy/h OK n-dosisleistung, 1 m Abstand 2,0E-04 Gy/h 0 < 3,0E-04 Gy/h 2,0E-04 Gy/h OK Nichtfesthaftende α-kontamination 0,4 Bq/cm 2 0 < 0,4 Bq/cm2 0,4 Bq/cm2 OK Nichtfesthaftende β-kontamination 4 Bq/cm 2 0 < 4,0 Bq/cm2 4,0 Bq/cm2 OK Garantiewerte eingehalten ja / nein Garantiewerte eingehalten ja X nein - Abweichungsbericht Nr. - erstellt LÜR Unterschrift (LÜR) ja X nein - geprüft ZQ Unterschrift (ZQ) ja X nein - fregegeben IBS-VEK Unterschrift (IBS-VEK) ja X nein - Gültigkeit: 1) ja X nein - 1) Das Dokument besitzt Gütigkeit, bei vorhandener Unterschrift, Datum des Ausstellers. PV Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 46

47 Example: VR Product Quality Control: Doc-Check Radio-nuclide inventory declaration Kokillen-Nr: 156 Konformitäts-Prüfung von WAK-Kokillen Beladung VEK01 Blatt WAK Datenblatt-Angaben PKS - Prüfung auf Richtigkeit und Vollständigkeit 3 Charakteristische Gebindedaten, Aktivitätsinvent. - Datenblatt B Anlayseblatt LISA Ident-Nummer W WAK -Glaskokille 156 Bezugsdatum HAWC 540,00 l Inventare der β-, γ-nuklide Inventare der β-, γ-nuklide β-, γ Aktivität β-, γ Aktivität β-, γ Aktivität Sr90+Y 2,93E+15 Bq Sr90+Y 2,71E+12 Bq/l 2,93E+15 Bq OK Tc-99 3,75E+11 Bq Tc-99 6,94E+08 Bq/l 3,75E+11 Bq OK Ru-106+Rh 8,59E+13 Bq Ru-106+Rh 7,95E+10 Bq/l 8,59E+13 Bq OK Pd-107 4,20E+09 Bq Pd-107 7,78E+06 Bq/l 4,20E+09 Bq OK Sb-125 4,43E+12 Bq Sb-125 8,21E+09 Bq/l 4,43E+12 Bq OK Cs-134 1,62E+12 Bq Cs-134 3,00E+09 Bq/l 1,62E+12 Bq OK Cs-135 1,74E+10 Bq Cs-135 3,21E+07 Bq/l 1,73E+10 Bq OK Cs-137+Ba 3,51E+15 Bq Cs-137+Ba 3,34E+12 Bq/l 3,61E+15 Bq OK Ce-144+Pr 9,59E+06 Bq Ce-144+Pr 8,88E+03 Bq/l 9,59E+06 Bq OK Pm-147 4,72E+12 Bq Pm-147 8,74E+09 Bq/l 4,72E+12 Bq OK Eu-154 2,10E+13 Bq Eu-154 3,89E+10 Bq/l 2,10E+13 Bq OK Eu-155 3,96E+12 Bq Eu-155 7,32E+09 Bq/l 3,95E+12 Bq OK Pu-241 1,48E+13 Bq Pu-241 2,70E+10 Bq/l 1,46E+13 Bq OK Am-241 2,91E+13 Bq Am-241 5,39E+10 Bq/l 2,91E+13 Bq OK Gesamt β-, γ 6,28E+15 Bq Gesamt β-, γ 1,16E+13 Bq/l 6,27E+15 Bq OK Inventare der α-nuklide Inventare der α-nuklide α Aktivität α Aktivität U-233 1,03E+06 Bq U-233 1,90E+03 Bq/l 1,03E+06 Bq OK U-235 2,41E+06 Bq U-235 4,45E+03 Bq/l 2,40E+06 Bq OK U-238 5,28E+07 Bq U-238 9,77E+04 Bq/l 5,28E+07 Bq OK Np-237 9,04E+09 Bq Np-237 1,67E+07 Bq/l 9,02E+09 Bq OK Pu-238 7,94E+11 Bq Pu-238 1,45E+09 Bq/l 7,83E+11 Bq OK Pu-239 1,64E+11 Bq Pu-239 2,99E+08 Bq/l 1,61E+11 Bq OK Pu-240 2,89E+11 Bq Pu-240 5,27E+08 Bq/l 2,85E+11 Bq OK Am-241 2,91E+13 Bq Am-241 5,39E+10 Bq/l 2,91E+13 Bq OK Cm-242 1,56E+11 Bq Cm-242 2,89E+08 Bq/l 1,56E+11 Bq OK Cm-244 2,49E+13 Bq Cm-244 4,61E+10 Bq/l 2,49E+13 Bq OK Gesamt α 5,47E+13 Bq Gesamt α 1,01E+11 Bq/l 5,45E+13 Bq OK α Nuklide α Nuklide Np ,9 g Np ,4 g OK Am ,0 g Am ,2 g OK Am ,4 g Am ,9 g OK Cm-244 8,3 g Cm-244 8,3 g OK Cm-245 0,500 g Cm-245 0,542 g 8,31% Vektoren der Spaltstoffe (U,Pu) Vektoren der Spaltstoffe (U,Pu) U-Vektor U-Vektor U-233 0,000 % U-233 0,000 % OK U-235 0,70 % U-235 0,70 % OK U ,1 % U ,64 % OK U, Gesamt (g) 4282,0 g U, Gesamt (g) 4300,0 g OK Pu-Vektor Pu-Vektor Pu-238 1,1 % Pu-238 1,08 % OK Pu % Pu ,54 % OK Pu % Pu ,65 % OK Pu % Pu-241 3,34 % OK Pu % Pu-242 4,02 % OK Pu, Gesamt (g) 115 g Pu, Gesamt (g) 114,3 g OK Sonstige Angaben Sonstige Angaben Dokumentation Masse des Leerbehälters 96,09 kg Masse des Leerbehälters 96,09 kg OK Masse des Glasproduktes 402,5 kg Masse des Glasproduktes 402,47 kg OK Gesamtgebindemasse 498,56 kg Gesamtgebindemasse 498,56 kg OK Wärmeleistung 570 W Wärmeleistung 570,0 W 570 W OK erstellt LÜR Unterschrift (LÜR) ja X nein - geprüft ZQ Unterschrift (ZQ) ja X nein - fregegeben IBS-VEK Unterschrift (IBS-VEK) ja X nein - Gültigkeit: Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment 1) ja X nein - of Radwaste 47 1) Das Dokument besitzt Gütigkeit, bei vorhandener Unterschrift, Datum des Ausstellers.

48 Example: VR Product Quality Control: Doc-Check Dose rate & thermal power Dosisleistung γ und n- DL max = DL nom x (M GP max / M GP nom ) x (B max / B nom ) PV f Übereinstim. Kokillen-Nr: 156 Berechnung der Dosisleistung zum Zeitpunkt der Produktion Rechnung Datenblatt Dbauszug 440 Gy/h Garantie Abweichung % Fehlergrenze % Nuklid DL nom M GP max 455,0 kg M GP nom 402,5 kg Gamma DL B max 19 % Ru/Rh 106 Wert B nom 16 % Sb125 Wert Cs 134 Wert Cs/Ba137 Wert Ce/Pr 144 Wert Eu 154 Wert Oberfläche 1-m Abstand Berechnung DL γ = Gy/h Datenblatt DL γ = Gy/h Garantie DL γ = 440,0 35,0 Gy/h Garantiewert eingehalten: - - Neutronen DL Pu-238 Pu-239 Pu-240 Am 241 Cm244 Cm 244 Wert Wert Wert Wert Wert Wert Oberfläche 1-m Abstand Berechnung DL n = Gy/h Datenblatt DL n = Gy/h Garantie DL n = 2,00E-03 2,00E-04 Gy/h Garantiewert eingehalten: - - Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 48

49 Example: VR Product Quality Control: Doc-Check Reporting & conformity certification PKS Produktkontrollstelle für radioaktive Abfälle Beladung: VEK01 Ident.-Nr. W Kokillen-Nr: 156 Ergebnis der Überprüfung auf Einhaltung von spezifizierten Garantiewerte I. Chemische Zusammensetzung des WAK-Glasproduktes Gewichtsanteile in % MIN Massen-% nom. MAX Konformität Glasfrittenanteil SiO 2 48,1 50,40 52,7 OK B 2 O 3 13,7 14,78 15,9 OK Al 2 O 3 2,3 2,60 2,9 OK Li 2 O 2,6 2,94 3,3 OK Na 2 O 5,4 5,96 6,6 OK CaO 4,0 4,45 4,9 OK MgO 1,5 1,85 2,2 OK TiO 2 0,8 1,01 1,2 OK Kalzinat-Anteil 13,0 16,00 19 OK II. Aktivitätsinventar der Kokille Aktinidenmasse in g Garantie U-gesamt OK Pu-gesamt OK Cm OK Nuklidspezif. Aktivitäten in Bq Garantie Cs-137 3,60E+15 5,10E+15 OK Sr-90 2,93E+15 4,50E+15 OK III. Oberflächen-Kontamination und Wärmeleistung Garantie Beta/Gamma-Kontamination in Bq/cm2 4 4 OK Wärmeleistung der Kokille (W) am: OK IV. Gebindemasse Garantie Kokillengewicht 499,00 550,00 OK Datum Prüfer Stempel PKS Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 49

50 Inspection & Checking from External Suppliers Glass frit Empty Containers Spare parts & improved hardware or methods Conformity checks with exp. proto types / mock-ups Photos: WAK Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 50

51 Simulation: Application / Outlook Inspection proof tool for process- & doc-check, e.g. nuclide correlations: Pu-241/Pu-239 ratio vs. gamma key nuclides ratios Eu-154/Cs-137 Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 51

52 Herausforderung: Interpretation d. nuklearen Messungen 1. Gamma Messung: nur ca. 10% d. äußeren Volumens 2. Neutronenmessungen: hohe statistische Unsicherheiten Heterogenität der Materialmatrix 3. Korrelation & Transferfunktion: abhängig v Geometrie & Materialmatrix Pics from AREVA NC Labonet, Vienna, Dec 2013, H. Tietze-Jaensch et al.. NW Disp., Char., QC & Numerical Assessment of Radwaste 52

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