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1 Diss. ETH No Active pixel image sensors with application specific performance based on standard silicon CMOS processes A dissertation submitted to the SWISS FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ZURICH for the degree of DOCTOR OF TECHNICAL SCIENCES presented by Oliver Vietze Dipl. El. Ing. ETH Zurich Born May 8, 1967 Citizen of Frauenfeld, TG accepted on the recommendation of Prof. Dr. H. Jackel, supervisor Dr. P. Seitz, co-examiner 1997

2 1 ABSTRACT Despite the broad application of CMOS semiconductor process technology to digital and analog circuits, this technology has, until now, seldom been used for the crea tion of semiconductor image sensors. Today, image sensing is almost exclusively dominated by sensors that operate according to the charge coupled device (CCD) principle. Such sensors require adapted manufacturing processes that are not compatible with standard CMOS processes. CMOS-based sensors with conventional MOS diode array circuit architecture are inferior to CCD sensors with respect to parameters such as noise and sensitivity. Only as recently as 1993 have reports started to appear in the literature describing so-called CMOS-compatible Active Pixel Sensors (APS), which can stand direct comparison with CCD sensors in almost all their image quality characteristics. Such APS image sensors are extremely promising, in that they are based on standard CMOS processing technology and hence can be combined with additional functionality from the entire existing range of CMOS circuitry. This thesis will be concerned with CMOS APS. Based on standard industrial 2 mi cron CMOS process technologies, which are readily available via inexpensive pro totyping (Multi-Project Wafer) services, we demonstrate, in principle and also by means of selected examples, that the active pixel CMOS technology can offer new application-specific solutions in optical measurement systems and machine vision arenas. At the same time, active pixel sensors represent a significant rival to CCD technology in the area of conventional image sensor applications. We present an overview of the new possibilities that the APS technique has to offer and investigate the limitations, both theoretically and experimentally, having developed an APS image sensor with a dynamic range of 80dB as an example. In particular, taken we have a modular toolbox approach to the development and experimental characteri zation of various novel pixel architectures by means of which the dynamic range of a sensor or its sensitivity can be significantly increased over those of conventional sensors. Offset pixels provide the possibility of subtracting, programmable and for each pixel, a background signal over a dynamic range of 150dB. In this way, the total dynamic range of an image sensor can be increased by magnitude. A further method for raising the dynamic range more than 7 orders of will be demonstrated

3 2 with pixels having a logarithmic sensitivity characteristic. Using so-called gain pixels, an image sensor could be realized whose sensitivity was increased by a factor of several thousands compared to standard architectures, while keeping a compact pixel pitch of 50(im. Finally, a novel MOS photo-detector pixel is proposed, permit ting the construction of active pixels that have a larger sensitive area and, at the same time, a lower diode capacitance. We experimentally demonstrate photo-detec tors of 30,000 micron2 area, having an effective detection capacitance of only 60fF; this compares with 4pF for standard pixels of comparable dimensions. With charge-coupled device structures (CCDs), it is possible to realize fast, lownoise signal processing circuits that can be integrated into future active pixels to perform additional functions. CCDs are currently manufactured exclusively by op timized semi-conductor processes that are incompatible with standard industrial CMOS technology. This work will explore, theoretically and practically, the extent to which powerful CCD structures can be fabricated by invoking a cost-effective modification to a standard CMOS process. Such CCDs should be capable of being driven with 5V in order to be CMOS-compatible. Modern process and device simu lation programs were employed to develop an extension to a specific standard CMOS process; this involves only one additional lithography mask and a single ad ditional implantation to produce buried channel CCD structures. Limitations for future circuits were investigated, theoretically and experimentally. To illustrate the technique, a 2-D matrix CCD image sensor was constructed that demonstrated the efficiency of the CMOS / CCD process by achieving a charge transfer efficiency (CTE) of % under 5V CMOS-compatible operating conditions and a signal dynamic range of 88dB. These properties significantly exceed those of the only comparable commercially available process. In summary, this work has demonstrated that standard or minimally modified CMOS processes can be employed to fabricate outstanding image sensors that open new horizons for image processing and optical measurement by offering additional functionality for application specific tasks.

4 3 KURZFASSUNG Trotz der weiten Verbreitung von CMOS Halbleiterherstellungsprozessen fur digitale und analoge integrierte Schaltungen wird diese Technologie fur die Herstellung von Halbleiter- Bildsensoren bis anhin nur ausnahmsweise verwendet. Die Bildsensorik ist heutzutage beinahe vollumfanglich von Sensoren dominiert, welche nach dem Ladungs-Kopplungs-Prinzip (CCD) funktionieren. Solche Bildsensoren benotigen fur die Herstellung speziell angepasste Fertigungsprozesse, dard CMOS-Prozessen kompatibel sind. die nicht mit Stan CMOS-basierte Sensoren mit konventioneller MOS Diodenarray Schaltungsarchitektur sind CCD-Sensoren beziiglich Rauschen und detektierbarer Lichtintensitatsdynamik unterlegen. Erst seit 1993 wird in der Literatur von sogenannten CMOS kompatiblen Aktiv-Bildpunkt-Sensoren (Active-Pixel-Sensors; APS) berichtet, welche mit den CCD-Sensoren in beinahe alien Bildqualitatsmerkmalen vergleichbar sind. Solche APS-Bildsensoren sind ausserst vielversprechend, da sie auf Standard CMOS Prozesstechnik basieren und so mit zusatzlicher Funktionalitat aus der gesamten CMOS Schaltungstechnik kombiniert werden konnen. Diese Dissertation beschaftigt sich mit CMOS Aktivpixel-Sensoren. Basierend auf Standard 2 i. CMOS Prozesstechnologien, die im kostengiinstigen Prototypen-Service (Multi-Project-Wafer Service) erhaltlich sind, zeigen wir prinzipiell und an ausgewahlten Beispielen, dass die Aktivpixel CMOS-Technik in der optischen Messtechnik und dem Maschinensehen (Machine-Vision) neue anwendungsspezifische Lbsungen bietet. Gleichzeitig stellen Aktivpixel-Sensoren aber auch eine emstzunehmende Konkurrenz fur die CCD-Technik im Bereich der konventionellen Bildsensorik dar. Wir geben einen Einblick in die neuen Moglichkeiten und Limitationen, welche die APS-Technik zu bieten hat, und untersuchen theoretisch und experimentell die Limitationen am Beispiel eines neu entwickelten APS Bildsensors mit 80dB Signaldynamik Im Speziellen haben wir nach einem modularen Baukastenprinzip verschiedene neuartige Pixelarchitekturen entwickelt und experimentell charakterisiert, mit welchen die Dynamik eines Sensors oder die Empfindlichkeit gegenuber konventionellen Sensoren erheblich vergrossert werden konnen: Offset- Pixel erlauben es, individuell fur jeden Bildpunkt im Betrieb programmierbar, ein Hintergrundsignal tiber einen Dynamikbereich von 150dB zu subtrahieren. Somit lasst sich die Gesamtdynamik eines Bildsensors auf iiber 7 Grossenordnungen erhohen. Eine weitere Moglichkeit, die Dynamik zu vergrossern, wird mit Pixeln

5 4 demonstriert, die eine logarithmische Empfindlichkeitskemilinie aufweisen. Mit sogenannten Gain-Pixeln konnte ein Bildsensor mit mehrtausendfach erhohter Emp findlichkeit und dennoch kompakter Pixelarchitektur realisiert werden. Neuartige MOS-Photodetector Pixel schliesslich erlauben es, aktive Pixel mit grosser lichtempfindlicher Flache und dennoch kleiner Diodenkapazitat zu integrieren. Wir demonstrieren experimentell Photodetektoren mit 30'000 j,m Flache und einer effektiven Detektionskapazitat von nur 60fF im Vergleich zu 4pF von Standard Dioden-Pixeln gleicher Dimension. Mit sogenannten ladungsgekoppelten Strukturen (CCDs) lassen sich schnelle, rauscharme Signalverarbeitungsschaltungen realisieren, welche als zusatzliche Funktionen in kiinftige Aktiv-Pixel-Sensoren integriert werden konnen. CCDs wer den heute ausschliesslich mit optimierten Halbleiterfertigungsprozessen hergestellt, welche nicht Standard CMOS kompatibel sind. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird tiieoretisch und praktisch untersucht, inwieweit man basierend auf einem Standard CMOS Prozess durch eine kostengiinstige Prozessmodifikation leistungsfahige CCD Strukturen fabrizieren kann. Diese CCDs sollten mit 5V betrieben werden konnen um einen CMOS kompatibel Betrieb zu ermoglichen. Mit Hilfe moderner Prozess- und Device-Simulationsprogramme wurde eine CMOS Prozesserganzung entwickelt, durch die mit nur einer zusatzlichen Lithographie-Maske und einem einzigen zusatzlichen Implantationsschritt CCD Strukturen mit vergrabenem Kanal (Buried Channel CCDs) hergestellt werden konnen. Die Limitationen fur kunftige Schaltungen wurden theoretisch und experimentell untersucht. Beispielhaft wurde ein 2-D Matrix CCD Bildsensor hergestellt, welcher mit einer Ladungstransfer-Effizienz (CTE) von % bei 5V CMOS kompatiblen Betriebsbedingungen und einer Signaldynamik von 88dB die Leistungsfahigkeit des CMOS / CCD Prozesses aufzeigt. Mit diesen Eigenschaften konnte der einzige vergleichbare, kommerziell erhaltliche CMOS/CCD Prozess deutlich iibertroffen werden. Zusammenfassend wird in dieser Arbeit gezeigt, dass mit Standard- oder nur leicht modifizierten CMOS Prozessen hervorragende Bildsensoren hergestellt werden konnen, welche im Bezug auf zusatzliche Funktionalitat fur anwendungsspezifische Aufgaben neue MogUchkeiten in der Bildsensorik und der optischen Messtechnik eroffnen.

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