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1 Rozvoj klíčových dovedností v cizích jazycích Texty k odborné v ýuce Text y pro technické obory Br n o

2 V roce 2011 vydala Střední škola informatiky a spojů, Brno, Čichnova 23 v projektu OPVK CZ.1.07/1.1.02/ Rozvoj klíčových dovedností v cizích jazycích. Zpracoval kolektiv autorů pod vedením Hany Pospíšilové. Grafická úprava a sazba: Jiří Trachtulec. Výroba: Tiskárny Havlíčkův Brod, a. s. Náklad: výtisků Copyright Střední škola informatiky a spojů, Brno, Čichnova 23, 2011 Texty zpracovali: Anglický jazyk: Leonard Boček, Iva Brandejská, Lyubov Chupil, Ivana Kročová, Bohuslava Musiolková, Gabriela Pavlíková, Hana Pospíšilová, Emilie Smažíková, Jaroslav Vrégr, Irena Zajíčková Německý jazyk: Vendula Dostálová, Miloslava Kocábová, Lenka Malá, Martina Navrátilová, Marie Přikrylová, Marie Žáková Neprodejné

3 CONTENTS Úvodem... 7 Moduly podle ŠVP... 8 Zpracovávané moduly... 8 Modules in Curriculum... 9 Applied Modules... 9 Module nach Schulausbildungsplan... 9 Module... 9 Telecommunications Engineering (Zpracovala Hana Pospíšilová) 11 Telecommunications System Telephony Transmission Systems Cables And Materials Basic Types of Telephone Devices Telephone Devices (Telephone Sets) History of Telephone Exchanges Telephone Exchange Alcatel 1000 S Clock Exchanges Handheld Transceiver Information Devices Electrical Engineering (Zpracoval Leonard Boček) 35 Electrical Circuits...35 Ohm s Law Electric circuits and Kirchhoff s Rules Electrical Measurment Appliances...38 Measuring basic quantities in electrical circuits Operation and Maintenance of electrical measuring devices...40 Control of Electronic Appliances...42 Appliance Controls Safety precautions Hardware and software 47 Hardware...47 Binary numeral system (Zpracovala Iva Brandejská) Boolean algebra (Zpracovala Iva Brandejská) Logic gates (Zpracovala Iva Brandejská) History of computing (Zpracovala Iva Brandejská) Hardware (Zpracovala Iva Brandejská) Motherboard (Zpracoval Jaroslav Vrégr) CPU (Zpracoval Jaroslav Vrégr) RAM and ROM (Zpracoval Jaroslav Vrégr) Input Devices (Zpracovala Lyubov Chupil)...60 Output Devices of a Computer (Zpracovala Lyubov Chupil) Computer Power Supply Unit (Zpracovala Lyubov Chupil) Computer Cooling (Zpracovala Lyubov Chupil)... 65

4 Text Processors (Zpracovala Bohuslava Musiolková)...67 Word processing I Word processing II Formatting a document Formatting Paragraps Spreadsheets (Zpracovala Bohuslava Musiolková) How To Work With Excel 2007 I How to work with Excel 2007 II Working with a Workbook Graphics (Zpracovala Gabriela Pavlíková)...78 Graphic Design Computer Graphics...80 Colours in Computer Graphics Presentation Programmes...84 Data Communication 85 Data Communications (Zpracovala Irena Zajíčková) Digital Technology (Zpracovala Irena Zajíčková)...86 Computer Network (Zpracovala Irena Zajíčková)...88 Workstation (Zpracovala Ivana Kročová) Client-server I (Zpracovala Ivana Kročová) Client-server II (Zpracovala Ivana Kročová) Packet (Zpracovala Ivana Kročová) Operating Systems 97 Computer Software (Zpracovala Irena Zajíčková) Graphical User Interface (GUI) (Zpracovala Bohuslava Musiolková)...99 Programming, the Creating of Webpages 101 Pascal Programming Language (Zpracovala Gabriela Pavlíková) Delphi Programming Language (Zpracovala Gabriela Pavlíková) Other Programming Languages (Zpracovala Gabriela Pavlíková) The Internet and World Wide Web (Zpracovala Bohuslava Musiolková) Telematics in Traffic (Zpracovala Emilie Smažíková) 107 Railroad technology Railway Signal Mechanical Signals Colour light signals Radio Signalling on the Railroad Timetable and train order Wordlist 115

5 INHALT Nachrichtentechnik (Zpracovala Marie Přikrylová) 125 Telekommunikationssysteme Funkanlagen Frequenzbereiche der Funknetze Funkanlagen Verkehrsarten der Funknetze Funkanlagen Sprechfunkverkehrsformen Vermittlungsstellen und Telefonanlagen Telefonapparate Telefonapparate Telefonapparate Informationseinrichtungen Uhrenanlagen Uhrenanlagen Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik (Zpracovala Vendula Dostálová) 143 Elektrische Stromkreise Das Ohmsche Gesetz Kirchhoff Gesetze Kirchhoff Gesetze Elektrische Messgeräte Strom Spannung Widerstand Betrieb der elektrischen Einrichtungen Sicherheit in der Elektrotechnik Befehlsgeber Hardware und Software 155 Definition und Darstellung des Binärsystems (Zpracovala Martina Navrátilová) Boolesche Algebra (Zpracovala Martina Navrátilová) Boolesche Algebra (Zpracovala Martina Navrátilová) Logische Funktion (Zpracovala Martina Navrátilová) Logische Funktion II. (Zpracovala Martina Navrátilová) Logische Schaltungen (Zpracovala Martina Navrátilová) Logische Umfänge (Zpracovala Martina Navrátilová) Physischer Aufbau der Einheit (Zpracovala Martina Navrátilová) Festplattenlaufwerk das Speichermedium (Zpracovala Martina Navrátilová) Bestandteile eines Computers (Zpracovala Martina Navrátilová) Systemeinheit (Zpracovala Martina Navrátilová) Teile des Computers (Zpracovala Martina Navrátilová) Textprozessoren (Zpracovala Miloslava Kocábová) Microsoft Word (Zpracovala Miloslava Kocábová) Tabellenprozessoren (Zpracovala Miloslava Kocábová) Microsoft Excel (Zpracovala Miloslava Kocábová) Graphik (Zpracovala Miloslava Kocábová) Digitalfotografie (Zpracovala Miloslava Kocábová)...165

6 Datenkommunikation 167 Rechnernetz (Zpracovala Marie Žáková) Netzwerke (Zpracovala Marie Žáková) Workstation (Zpracovala Marie Žáková) Topologie (Leitungswege) (Zpracovala Marie Žáková) Übertragungsmedien (Zpracovala Marie Žáková) Funktechnik (Zpracovala Marie Žáková) Vermittlung (Zpracovala Marie Žáková) Protokolle (Zpracovala Marie Žáková) Leitungsgebundene Netze (Zpracovala Marie Žáková) Datenübermittlung in Netzwerken (Zpracovala Marie Žáková) Der Personalcomputer (PC) (Zpracovala Miloslava Kocábová) Betriebssysteme (Zpracovala Miloslava Kocábová) 183 Microsoft Windows Antivirenprogramm Programmieren, Webseitengestaltung (Zpracovala Miloslava Kocábová) 187 Programmiersprachen Programme installieren Das Internet Webseitengestaltung sicherungstechnik im Verkehr (Zpracovala Lenka Malá) 193 Eisenbahnsignale Fahrgastinformationssystem Fußgängerampeln Die schnellsten Züge der Welt Verkehrstelematik Wortschatz 199 Použitá literatura Internetové texty a materiály...208

7 Úvodem Učební texty předkládané v tomto svazku obsahují soubory vnitřně propojených cvičení, která žákům usnadní dokonalejší zvládnutí odborné terminologie a její aplikace v konkrétní komunikativní situaci. Lexikální materiál cvičení vychází z tvůrčím způsobem rozvíjených, běžně dostupných databází knižních a internetových, které autoři ve svazku výběrově uvádějí. Publikace vznikla jako jeden z výstupů projektu Rozvoj klíčových dovedností v cizích jazycích spolufinancovaného z Evropského sociálního fondu a ze státního rozpočtu České republiky vzájemnou spoluprací a koordinací týmu učitelů dvou cizích jazyků z naší školy na základě četby, studia, analýzy, odborných stáží v zahraničí a konzultací s odborníky v České republice, Velké Británii, Irsku a Rakousku. Materiál je určen žákům příslušných oborů, kteří se na vzniku textů spolupodíleli v procesu testování a ověřování ve výuce. Textové soubory odpovídají čtrnácti novým školním vzdělávacím programům a vznikly v podobě deseti produktů, z nichž některé se vyskytují v několika oborech současně. Hana Pospíšilová, editor

8 Moduly podle ŠVP 1. Bankovnictví a pojišťovnictví 2. Logistika 3. Poštovní a finanční služby 4. Poštovní provoz a přeprava 5. Telematika v dopravě 6. Informační technologie 7. Mechanik informačních technologií 8. Mechanik telematických zařízení 9. Digitální technika a mlutimédia 10. Telematika v dopravě zkrácené studium 11. Inteligentní sítě a zařízení 12. Elektromechanik 13. Zařízení sdělovací techniky nástavbové studium 14. Poštovní provoz nástavbové studium Zpracovávané moduly 1. Sdělovací technika 2. Základy elektrotechniky elektrické obvody elektrické měřicí přístroje provoz elektronických zařízení 3. Hardware a software textové procesory tabulkové procesory grafika 4. Datová komunikace 5. Operační systémy 6. Programování, tvorba webových stránek 7. Zabezpečovací technika v dopravě 8. Ekonomika a logistika 9. Poštovní služby 10. Bankovní služby a pojišťovnictví

9 Modules in Curriculum Module nach Schulausbildungsplan 1 Banking and Insurance 2 Logistics 3 Postal and Financial Services 4 Postal Service and Freight Operator 5 Telematics in Transport 6 Information Technology 7 Mechanic of Information Technologies 8 Mechanic of Telematic Equipments 9 Digital Engineering and Multimedia 10 Telematics in Transport Short Courses 11 Intelligent Networks and Equipment 12 Electro-mechanic 13 Telecommunication Engineering Equipments Follow-up Courses 14 Postal Operation Follow-up Courses 1. Bankwesen und Versicherungswesen 2. Logistik 3. Post- und Dienstleistungen 4. Postbetrieb und Posttransport 5. Telematik im Verkehr 6. Informationstechnologien 7. Mechaniker für Informationstechnologien 8. Mechaniker für Telematik-Einrichtungen 9. Digitaltechnik und Multimedien 10. Telematik im Verkehr verkürztes Studium 11. Intelligente Netze und Einrichtungen 12. Elektromechaniker 13. Einrichtungen der Nachrichtentechnik Aufbaustudium 14. Postbetrieb Aufbaustudium Applied Modules Module 1 Telecommunications Engineering 2 Electrical Engineering electric circuit electrical measurment appliances control of electronic appliances 3 Hardware and software text processors spreadsheets graphics 4 Data Communication 5 Operation Systems 6 Programming, creation of web pages 7 Telematics in Traffic 8 Economics and Logistics 9 Postal Services 10 Bank Services and Insurance 1. Nachrichtentechnik 2. Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik elektrische Stromkreise elektrische Messgeräte Betrieb der elektronischen Einrichtunge 3. Hardware und Software Textprozessoren Tabellenprozessoren Grafik 4. Datenkommunikation 5. Betriebssysteme 6. Programmieren, Webseitengestaltung 7. Sicherungstechnik im Verkehr 8. Ökonomie und Logistik 9. Postdienstleistungen 10. Bankwesen und Versicherungswesen

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11 Telephony TELECOMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING 11 Telecommunications Engineering Telecommunications System Telephony Telephony is a kind of technology associated with the electronic transmission of voice, fax, or other information between distant parties using systems historically associated with the telephone, a handheld device with both a speaker or transmitter and a receiver. In the very beginning, telephony concerned only analogue signals in the circuit-switched networks of the telephone companies. Later it referred to a mix of analogue and digital circuits, but still with the telephone industry. With the arrival of computers and the transmittal of digital information over telephone systems and the use of radio to transmit telephone signals, the distinction between telephony and telecommunication has become difficult to make. Telephones were originally connected directly together in pairs. Each user had separate telephones wired to the various places they desired to reach. This became too difficult when people wanted to talk to many other telephones; the result was a telephone exchange. Each telephone could then be linked to other local ones. The exchanges were connected by trunk lines, and eventually distant ones. A trunk is a single transmission channel between two points; each point is either the switching centre or the node. Nowadays, most telephones are plugged into telephone jacks. The jacks are connected by inside wiring to a drop wire which connects the building to a cable. Cables usually bring a large number of drop wires from all over a district access network to one wire centre or telephone exchange. When the user wants to make a telephone call, equipment at the exchange examines the dialled telephone number and connects that telephone line to another in the same wire centre, or to a trunk to a distant exchange. Most of the exchanges in the world are linked to each other and form the public switched telephone network (PSTN). By the end of the 20th century almost all were Stored Programme Control exchanges. After the middle 20th century fax and data became important secondary users of the network created to carry voices, and late in the century parts of the network were upgraded with ISDN and DSL to improve handling of such traffic. Digital telephony uses digital technology in the provision of telephone services and systems. Nearly all telephone calls are provided this way, but sometimes the term is restricted to cases in which the last mile is digital, or where the conversion between digital and analogue signals takes place inside the telephone. Telephony was digitized to cut the cost and improve the quality of voice services, but digital telephony was regarded as useful for new network services (ISDN) to transfer data quickly over telephone lines. IP telephony is a modern form of telephony applying the TCP/IP protocol. VoIP (voice over IP) - a digital telephone service that uses the public Internet and private backbones for call transport. Support for the public switched telephone network (PSTN) is also provided so that VoIP calls can originate and terminate from regular telephones. Computer telephony integration (CTI) enables computers to be informed about and control phone functions such as making and receiving voice, fax, and data calls with telephone directory services and

12 12 TELECOMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING Telephony caller identification. The integration of telephone software and computer systems is a major trend in the evolution of the automated office. Internet telephony represents the use of the Internet rather than the traditional telephone company infrastructure and call rate structure to exchange spoken or other telephone information. Since access to the Internet is available at local phone connection rates, an international or other long-distance call are less expensive than through the traditional call arrangement. On the Internet, three new services are now available: The ability to make a normal voice phone call (whether or not the person called is immediately available; that is, the phone will ring at the location of the person called) through the Internet at the price of a local call. The ability to send fax transmissions at very low cost (at local call prices) through a gateway point on the Internet in major cities. The ability to send voice messages along with text . Exercises 1 Give the meaning of the definitions. 1 Kind of technology associated with transmission of voice 2 Small portable electronic device 3 The technology of sending signals over long distances by telephone 4 A place where telephone calls are connected to allow the speech 5 The system by which you can make long distance telephone call direct 6 An object which connects the telephone set with inside wiring 7 A machine that is used to send printed materials by telephone lines 8 The type of telephony which uses the TCP/IP protocol 2 Explain the difference between the IP telephony and computer telephony integration. 3 Translate the following text into Czech: A telephone system comprises a great amount of terminal devices and a main unit. The terminal device realizes telephone communication by means of a packet-switched network. The main unit accommodates the terminal devices via the packet-switched network. Each of the terminal device comprises an update module, a storing unit, a read module and an access module. Customer premise equipment provides a communication gateway with a network of a service provider and includes a multimedia terminal device for installation on the customer s premises typically at an out-of-the-way location. The multimedia terminal device includes a modem having an embedded media terminal adaptor and an integrated telephone base station, for instance, to provide both Internet connectivity and Voice-over-Internet-Protocol telephone service to the customer premises. A portable cordless telephone handset communicates via wireless communication signals with the telephone base station thereby providing telephone service to the premises. The handset is also capable of transmitting commands to the telephone base station for purposes of providing a user interface for the components of the multimedia terminal device. For example, as a result of a sent command, status or other information can be forwarded to the handset, the modem can be instructed to reboot, a test can be initiated on

13 Transmission Systems TELECOMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING 13 the multimedia terminal device, or a set up operation can be accomplished. The display screen of the handset can be used to provide the customer with the requested information or results. Transmission Systems Many different transmission systems are used in telecommunications technology these days. Transmission on open-wire lines was the earliest method used for telephone traffic, and this method is still used in local networks of many countries. Nowadays, due to the demands on operating reliability, local networks are built up using aerial or underground cabelling. Last three decades of the previous century, satellites became important for long distance communication, especially across the oceans. The satellite operates as an intermediate repeater. Signals are received, amplified and transmitted to the ground station on the receiving side. In terminal repeater stations, located within the ground stations and transit exchanges, speech signals are modulated and combined before transmission. Each separate conversation is shifted to a significantly higher frequency range. This is done by selecting suitable modulation frequencies, which are then transmitted as a group to the receiving side and demodulated by another station and at the end the signals are transmitted to another transit exchange. With conventional signalling, a large number of pieces and many types of signalling equipment are required. With Common Channel Signalling (CCS), the signalling equipment is limited to a relatively low number of messages between the Stored Program Control (SPC) exchanges. CCS enables the transmission of signalling information referring to speech-data channels for more than one Programmable Control Module (PCM) link. One link can be used for signalling many simultaneous transactions and it is called the common channel. Multiple PCM links (for performance reasons 40 at maximum) can be served via one signalling link. The signalling information is digitally coded and transmitted in the form of discrete messages which offers CCS the advantage to use these messages instead of fixed codes. These messages are flexible in size and contents and therefore usable for further applications. CCS makes it possible to transfer signalling information directly from one digital exchange to another without setting up a speech-path. This feature may also be employed for ordinary calls to investigate the status of a called subscriber line, by setting up a speech path through the network. The CCS is determined especially for digital telecommunications networks with SPC exchanges. It fulfils all the requirements of information transmission between the processors of telecommunications networks for long distance control and it is packet oriented which is in accordance with demands for Common Channel Signalling

14 14 TELECOMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING Transmission Systems control and maintenance. The CCS is a reliable way of transmission data in correct order without any loss or duality. It is applicable in both national and international ISDN networks. The CCS enables detection and correction of errors and moreover it uses the function of automatic re-routing to alternative routes in case of malfunction of circuits. Using CCS there are three systems of signalling: final system Associated Mode transit system Non-associated Mode semi-independent system Quasiassociated Mode Apart from the division in the Message Transfer Part and the User Part, the tasks are also divided into so-called levels or layers. The layer concept specifies the following structure: The MTP consists of three layers (1-3) The UP forms the layers above. CCS Functions in the Layer Example Exercises (nadpis 5. úrovně) 1 Read the text, put the missing words into the gaps: Put the following words into the correct form and use them: direction, source, fiber 3, device, core, connector 2, reflections Connectors of the Fiber Optics Interconnection is a critical part of a fibre optic link. The job of a or splice is to provide low-loss coupling of light through a juncture. Low loss is the result of precise alignment of the two being joined. Any misalignment of the two fiber cores increase the loss. Singlemode connectors present an additional consideration: return reflections. When two are separated by an air gap, optical energy will be reflected back toward the source. These termed Fresnel reflection occur at both the glass/air interface as the light leaves the first and the air/glass interface as light enters the second fiber. A flat ferrule end surface can allow an air gap. The light reflects directly back into the fiber, where it can propagate back to the light. What types of connectors can be used? For a premises cabelling application, four are of interest. They are ST-style, SC, FDDI and ESCON connectors. Most connectors are based on a 2.5 mm diameter ferrule, which secures and aligns the fiber. Ferrules are

15 Cables And Materials TELECOMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING 15 typically made of ceramic, polymer or stainless steel. The ST-style connector was the predominant one during the late1980s and 90s. It is, however, being superseded by the SC connectors. One advantage of the SC connector is that several plugs can be joined together to form a multiposition connector. One fiber can carry information in one, while the other fiber can carry information in the other direction. The FDDI conector is a two-channel using two ferrules and a side-latch mechanism. A rigid shroud protects the ferrules from accidental damage, while a floating interface ensures consistent mating without stubbing. 2 Work in pairs. Ask questions about the fibre optic connectors and answer the questions with your partner. 3 What do the following abbreviations mean? Tell about the devices in more detail: PCM CCS PSTN ISUP FDDI MTP UP SPC 4 Learn the text about cables and materials. Cables And Materials The connection between exchanges and telephone sets is done by cables. In the early days, the telephone lines were separate lines that connected pairs of telephones. In other words, each person that had a telephone could talk to one other telephone. People wanted to be able to talk with more than one other household. A central interconnection facility was needed, a place where multiple telephone lines would meet. Telephone lines were needed to connect private telephones with the central interconnection facility. Parallel Wires The first telephone lines were overhead lines, placed on telephone poles or attached to racks on rooftops. The telephone lines were single grounded wires made of iron or steel. The metallic circuit or two-wire circuit was developed which was very important. Later on many telephone wires were contained in one plastic insulating jacket telephone cable. The first type of cables used in telephony were parallel wires. This is the simplest type of transmission line consisting parallel wire of a pair of insulated copper wires running copper conductor side-by-side and covered by a plastic sheath. It is prone to interference and is only used to carry information over small distances such as telephone connections within a building. wire insulator Parallel Wire

16 16 TELECOMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING Cables And Materials Twisted Pair Twisted-pair cable is the type of cabelling that is most commonly used for analogue telephone communication these days. A pair of wires forms a circuit that can transmit data. The pairs are twisted to provide protection against crosstalk, the noise generated by adjacent pairs. When electrical current flows through a wire, it creates a small, circular magnetic field around the wire. When two wires in an electrical circuit are placed close together, their magnetic fields are the exact opposite of each other. Thus, the two magnetic fields cancel each other out. They also cancel out any outside magnetic fields. Twisting the wires can enhance this cancellation effect. They are used for communications over longer distances, for example to connect telephones to their local exchange. In contrast to FTP (foiled twisted pair) and STP (shielded twisted pair) cabelling, UTP (unshielded twisted pair) cable is not surrounded by any shielding. It is the primary wire type for telephone usage. plastic insulating jacket Shielded Twisted Pair shield Unshielded Twisted Pair Since some telephone sets or desktop locations require multiple connections, twisted pair is sometimes installed in two or more pairs, all within a single cable. For some business locations, twisted pair is enclosed in a shield that functions as a ground. This is known as shielded twisted pair (STP). Twisted pair comes with each pair uniquely colour coded when it is packaged in multiple pairs. Different uses such as analogue, digital, and Ethernet require different pair multiples. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable, or coax, is an electrical cable with an inner conductor surrounded by a flexible, tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield. Coaxial cable differs from other shielded cable used for carrying lower frequency signals. Coaxial cable is the kind of copper cable most widely used by the cable TV operators to offer their services to home and business end users. Coaxial cable is sometimes used by telephone companies to run cabelling from their central office to the telephone poles near users. More than ten years ago coaxial cabelling was widely installed for use in business and corporate ethernet deployments and may still occassionally be seen, especially in older plant network setups. Flexible coax has a copper wire core surrounded by copper braid. The core and braid are insulated from each other by a dielectric material such as polyethylene and covered by a PVC sheath. The braid helps to screen the signals from interference. Coax can carry a large number of signals over long distances at frequencies up to MHz. Coaxial cable design choices affect physical size, frequency performance, attenuation, power handling capabilities, flexibility, strength and cost. The inner conductor might be solid or stranded; stranded is more flexible. The insulator surrounding the inner conductor may be solid plastic, a foam plastic, or may be

17 Cables And Materials TELECOMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING 17 air with spacers supporting the inner wire. A common choice is a solid polyethylene (PE) insulator, used in lower-loss cables. Many conventional coaxial cables use braided copper wire forming the shield. This allows the cable to be flexible, but it also means there are gaps in the shield layer, and the inner dimension of the shield varies slightly because the braid cannot be flat. Coaxial cables require an internal structure of an insulating (dielectric) material to maintain the spacing between the center conductor and shield. Most cables have a solid dielectric; others have inner conductor dielectric copper braid (outer conductor) PVC sheath a foam dielectric which contains as much air as possible to reduce the losses. The insulating jacket can be made from many materials. A common choice is PVC, but some applications may require fire-resistant materials. Outdoor applications may require Coaxial Cable the jacket to resist ultraviolet light and oxidation. Optical Fibres Optical fibre can be used as a medium for telecommunication and networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables. It is especially advantageous for long-distance communications, because light propagates through the fibre with little attenuation compared to electrical cables. This allows long distances to be spanned with a relatively small number of repeaters. Optical fibre is made up of the core (carrying the light pulses), the cladding (reflecting the light pulses back into the core) and the cover (protecting the core and cladding from moisture, damage, etc). A fibre optic can carry up to 10 million messages at any time using light pulses. Fibres are used instead of metal wires because signals are transmitted along them with less loss and are also protected against electromagnetic interference. Light is kept in the core of the optical fibre by total internal reflection. Fibres which support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multimode fibres, while those which can only support a single mode are called singlemode fibres. Multimode fibres generally have a larger core diameter, and are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted. Single-mode fibres are used for most communication links longer than 550 meters. cladding core cover jacket Structure of Single-mode Fibre Optic Cable light reflected at core/cladding interface

18 18 TELECOMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING Cables And Materials Exercises (nadpis 5. úrovně) 1 Read the text and complete the suitable words in correct form into the gaps: dispersion, light 2, multimode, bandwitdth, graded, core 2, fiber, property Types of fibres: Signlemode or Multimode? In the simplest optical, the relatively large has uniform optical. Termed a step-index multimode fiber, this fiber supports thousands of modes and offers the highest dispersion and hence the lowest. By varying the optical properties of the, the graded-index multimode fiber reduces and increases bandwidth. Grading makes following longer paths travel slightly faster than light following a shorter path. Put another way, light travelling straight down the core without reflecting travels slowest. The net result is that the does not spread out nearly as much. Nearly all fibers used in networking and data communications have a index. 2 Find the Czech meanings of the following words: flexible material silica copper core stray signal graded-index multimode stepped-index multimode insulator solid dielectric loss of resistance ultraviolet light electric/light pulses cladding light reflection bundle 3 Translate the text into Czech: Numerical aperture (NA) of the fiber defines which light will be propagated and which will not. NA defines the light-gathering ability of the fiber. Imagine a cone coming from the core. Light entering the core from within this cone will be propagated by total internal reflection. Light entering from outside the cone will not be propagated. NA has an important consequence. A large NA makes it easier to inject more light into a fiber, while a small NA tends to give the fiber a higher bandwidth. A large NA allows greater modal dispersion by allowing more modes in which light can travel. A smaller NA reduces dispersion by limiting the number of modes.

19 Basic Types of Telephone Devices TELECOMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING 19 Basic Types of Telephone Devices Basic Types of Analogue Telephone Devices The most fundamental types of analogue telephone devices are represented by electromechanical ones. They are local-battery, central-battery and automatic telephone systems which are used in public and especially private telephone networks and that have to meet the requirements of European standards. The local-battery devices were formerly used in private networks; most of the automatic device types can be found in contemporary home networks and door guard systems. The local-battery system required a simplified circuit with a separate battery at each end of the line for obtaining two-way operation. In such a telephone system each subscriber must have a battery in his house equipment. The operation of the circuit was simple, since speaking into either microphone set up voice currents in both receivers. The transformers isolated the direct current required for the operation of the microphone, and also improved the efficiency by stepping up the voltage and reducing the line current, or more nearly matching the microphone impedance to that of the line. This type of telephones ceased to be used in public telephone networks. The obvious advantage of removing the batteries from the subscribers premises to the central office led to the development of the common-battery system. This system used one large battery to supply microphone current to all subscribers sets. This led to a new difficulty, however, in that the voice currents of all circuits in use flowed through the same battery, and because of its internal impedance there was a possibility that some of these currents found their way into other circuits. This effect is known as cross talk, and it may be avoided by use of a transformer called the repeating coil. Electro-mechanical telephone device is the newest type of telephone devices connected to the automatic system. The operational diagram of the system is depicted on the following scheme: 1 The signalling circuit consists of the a-wire, a non-operated cradle switch (CS), capacitor C1, ringer R, wire b and power source. Function: The automatic exchange after accepting the a-call request of rings the other subscriber. 2 The calling circuit consists of microphone, receiver, resistor, capacitor C2, single-wire transformer and common battery which is a part of the exchange. The microphone is connected with the battery via subscribers circuit by picking up the microtelephone. 3 The dialling circuit is made up of the contacts of a dial (D) and pins of cradle switch linked with automatic telephone exchange via wires. The exchange sends dialling tone once the microtelephone is in the off-hook position which prompts the subscriber to dial the number. The exchange receives the dialling pulses and completes the connection synchronously or asynchronously. 4 Earth-button circuit (EB) is connected to the cradle switch. It can be found in telephone devices connected to a very specific type of branch telephone exchanges. These days you may still see the FLASH button in newer types of telephone sets that preserves the function of the earth button even without the ground wire presence.

20 20 TELECOMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING Telephone Devices (Telephone Sets) Exercises 1 Find the appropriate terms for: 1 A device that provides electricity for radio and phone set etc. 2 The complete path of wires and equipment along which the current flows 3 A tool or piece of equipment made for a particular purpose 4 Electronic system which automatically opens after pressing the button 5 A device which is used for reducing or increasing voltage 6 A device which is used to store an electric charge 7 An electrical equipment used for making sound louder 8 A piece of metal in the form of thin thread used to carry electricity 9 A length of wire that has been made into a round shape 10 The part of telephone which is used for listening and speaking 2 Use some of the words from the previous exercise to complete the sentences: 1 The older types of telephone sets used a separate at each end of the line to obtain two-way connection. 2 Electro-mechanical telephone is the newest type which is connected to the automatic system. 3 You need a and other equipments to form an electric. 4 The standard telephone set has a connected to the base unit by a cord. 5 The automatic telephone devices are used in home networks and which opens the door automatically. 3 Describe the operational diagram of the electro-mechanical telephone device. 4 What is the function of earth-button circuit? What is it replaced by in newer types of telephone sets? Telephone Devices (Telephone Sets) Telephone Sets A telephone system must permit setting up rapidly an exclusive channel from one subscriber to others which are remotely located. It must provide signalling (usually ringing), and when the connection is established, it must enable a two-way conversation to be carried on with privacy and with reasonable naturalness, volume and freedom from unwanted noise. Two important functions of telephone networks are: (1) switching (connection between two users) and (2) transmission (providing adequate communication paths of satisfactory speech quality). These functions are supported by a reliable telephone set, modern telephone exchange and the actual physical connection established via cabelling of adequate quality; all this allows a fast and accurate transmission without ineterference. Every telephone set consists of a telephone receiver where you can find a receiver magnet shaped as a disk. Its magnetic field has been intensified and made more uniform. The next part is formed by

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