Cascading effects and interorganisational crisis management of critical infrastructure operators

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1 Cascading effects and interorganisational crisis management of critical infrastructure operators Technische Universität Berlin Thomas Becker Institute for Geodesy and Geoinformation berlin.de Marie Bartels Center for Technology and Society berlin.de

2 starting situation Starting with small spatial extent Single event Multiple events Multiple effects to citizens Loss of water, power, heat Possible by strong linkage of utility infrastructures It is not a disaster in any case it is crisis situation But what does this mean to the citizens and especially to the utility providers? Becker T., Bartels, M., - Cascading effects and interorganisational crisis management

3 starting situation New threats to and higher complexity of critical infrastructures Privatization/Unbundling of infrastructure networks Federalism, principle of subsidiarity no centralised disaster management agency Not one crisis unit but several ones will have to cooperate no routine in handling disasters Becker T., Bartels, M., - Cascading effects and interorganisational crisis management

4 objectives BMBF-Program: Research for civil safety Part: Protection against failure of supply infrastructures Approach: facing the cascading problem from two opposed sides forcing a common understanding by developing a joint model for all utilities of urban space Surveys and interviews in order to identify the communication structures and the interdependencies between utility systems Becker T., Bartels, M., - Cascading effects and interorganisational crisis management

5 Background There are linkages between networks- we know that very well already. The first task was to clarify: Is this linkage actually high enough to pose a problem to crisis management? Are there cascading effects? Does a disruption in one infrastructure actually affect the neighbouring networks? Typical example: Electricity. Someone cuts off a power line and 6 hours later the power supply of Berlin fails. That effect would be very difficult to handle as in Berlin drinking water has to be pumped. Therefore the availability of electricity is essential to us. So firstly these linkages were to be made visible. Jens Feddern, chief engineer and head of crisis management team of Berliner Wasserbetriebe Becker T., Bartels, M., - Cascading effects and interorganisational crisis management

6 System analysis How do cascading effects technically evolve? Where are interdependencies and therefore potential for mutual disruption? How does interorganisational communication contribute to the coping or escalating of intersectoral cascades? What information has to be passed on from whom to whom in order to keep the overall system running? What makes a disruption difficult to handle? What cases have taken place in the past? How did they evolve and how were they managed? Becker T., Bartels, M., - Cascading effects and interorganisational crisis management

7 Relations between nodes Becker T., Bartels, M., - Cascading effects and interorganisational crisis management

8 Qualitative description of nodes and relations Medienbeziehung NBB Gas Leitungsnetz VEW Kraftwerke DSO Strom Leitungsnetz Externe Beziehung Art des Mediums: Gas Planmäßig/im Störungsfall/im Krisenfall Die Mehrzahl der Berliner Kraftwerke verwendet Gas als Brennstoff. Dieses beziehen sie aus dem Leitungsnetz der NBB. Insgesamt machen die Berliner Kraftwerke x% des Absatzes an Gas aus. ( ) Individuelle Aspekte: Übergabepunkte zu den Gaskraftwerken sind große Kundenstationen, die historisch bedingt teilweise von NBB bzw. VEW betrieben werden. Das HKW Mitte wird unter anderem über die Spreetrasse versorgt. Einige HKW hängen nur an einer Übernahmestation. Dies sind: ( ) Gekoppelte Kommunikationsbeziehungen: Die NBB Leitwarte erhält Daten aus den Kundenanlagen der Kraftwerke. ( ) Redundanzen: Die meisten Kraftwerke können übergangsweise auch mit Öl feuern, dies ist jedoch mit höheren Kosten verbunden. Technik: Berlin verfügt über sieben große Umspannwerke, die jeweils in ein eigenes Versorgungsgebiete einspeisen. Ab der 110kV Ebene gehören alle Anlagen zum DSO Leitungsnetz. Innerhalb dieses Netzes wird der Strom in ca. 100 Umspannwerken, von 110kV auf 10kV abgespannt wird. Von der Mittelspannungsebene wird der Strom durch ca Netzstationen auf 400V abgespannt und in die einzelnen Haushalte verteilt. Das Netz verfügt zur Sicherheit über redundante Leitungen oder kann von mehreren Seiten versorgt werden. Die Umspannwerke verfügen über Sicherheitstechnik, die Umschaltungen vornehmen, wenn in einem vorgelagerten Kabel ein Fehler auftritt. Störpotential innerhalb des Systemelements: Mit abnehmender Spannungsebene nimmt zugleich die Zahl der Redundanzen ab. Somit steigt die Wahrscheinlichkeit von räumlich eng begrenzten Stromausfällen. Das Verteilungsnetz ist darauf angewiesen, dass der Übertragungsnetzbetreiber eine konstante Frequenz von 50Hz liefert. Ist dies nicht mehr gewährleistet, kann es zu Beeinträchtigungen der Stromqualität kommen. Durch Wasseraustritt z.b. bedingt durch Rohrbrüche kann es zu Unterspülungen der Stromleitungen kommen. Die dabei auftretenden mechanischen Beanspruchung können zu einer Schädigung des Leitungsnetzes führen. Becker T., Bartels, M., - Cascading effects and interorganisational crisis management

9 Crisis management exercise Becker T., Bartels, M., - Cascading effects and interorganisational crisis management

10 Cascading effects: Challenges to crisis managers Spatial cascade Time cascade Escalating cascade Cascade because of suboptimal resource allocation Cascade because of overview loss Most problems not due to a lack of knowledge but because of the false assumption to understand the other systems or its specialised language Becker T., Bartels, M., - Cascading effects and interorganisational crisis management

11 From observation and analysis to data model UtilityADE 1. Identification of network objects 2. reduction onto essential / similar functional objects 3. Comparison with other existing models 4. Development of a model based on CityGML 5. Derivation of an ESRI database model

12 Simplifying complex network structures Every utility network consist of 3 main functions: Distribution, maintenance, protection objects (pipes, canals, cables, manholes, ducts, etc.) citygml:track citygml:track citygml:road Pipe Long-Distance Heat Pipe - Gas Pipe coolingenergy Pipe - WasteWater Pipe - FreshWater

13 Exemplary realisation within SIMKAS 3D Total of objects, thereof 524 interdependencies between networks

14 Exemplary realisation within SIMKAS 3D Let s have a closer look on details

15 Standardized exchange of affected urban features internal SIMKAS-View extern

16 Conclusions and recommendations Analysis of critical infrastructures requires a common representation of involved utility networks 3D-topographic modeling 3D-topological and functional modeling different hierarchies required feature hierarchy; Network hierarchy; Multi-utility structure representation of interdependencies links different networks to each other integration of networks into 3D city model (CityGML UtilityNetwork ADE) Any technical tool can only be beneficial when it is integrated into a social/organisational context Learn and teach about mutual interdependencies and neighbouring networks Establish reporting channels (early notification) Develop a common language (criticality, relevance of information to others) Becker T., Bartels, M., - Cascading effects and interorganisational crisis management

17 Becker T., Bartels, M., - Cascading effects and interorganisational crisis management

18 Background Spatial region Head Responsible authority senate departments districts Fire department police Berlin s definition of disaster: Disasters are major loss events leading to a present danger to the life or health of a large number of people, for the environment or for any other important legal interests and cannot be managed adequately by the respective authorities not by their own efforts and resources. They differ from other damaging events by the extent of their impact. Loss events that exceed the threshold of disaster, have not occurred in Berlin but can not be excluded. (http://www.berlin.de/sen/inneres/katastrophenschutz/gefahrenabwehr/katastrophen/index.html#behoerden) Everything smaller than that - is not a disaster!! Becker T., Bartels, M., - Cascading effects and interorganisational crisis management

19 Common understanding of disaster Disaster synonyms used by practitioners and experts have included calamity and catastrophe. Similar words are emergency and crises A disaster is a sudden, calamitous event that causes serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic and/or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own level of resources. UN/ISDR (United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction An unforeseen and often sudden event that causes great damage, destruction and human suffering. Though often caused by nature, disasters can have human origins. (EM-DAT, International Emergency Disasters Data Base) Even thought there is not a common worldwide definition of disaster, there are some characteristics common to most definitions: Sudden, abrupt or unpredictable?? Causing human, material, economic or environmental losses Exceeding the ability of the affected community to cope with them (Acc. To Agricultural insurance schemes, chapter 5, Becker T., Bartels, M., - Cascading effects and interorganisational crisis management

20 Background SA COP ability to master the current crisis situation Becker T., Bartels, M., - Cascading effects and interorganisational crisis management

21 Simplifying complex network structures Every utility network consist of 3 main functions: 2. protection elements (cable protection package, ductwork, etc.) Without any relevance for the network itself, but for some importance for network security ductwork cable Protection package

22 Simplifying complex network structures Every utility network consist of 3 main functions: 3. functional objects (man-holes, station, etc.) Needed for linkage, maintenance, and observation of commodity resp. of transport elements citygml:building citygml:building citygml:building 2/ ventilation 1/ Spring 3/ Filtration complexfunctionaleleme nt 4/ Storage ComplexFunctionalElem ent 5/ pump station drinking water treatment plant

23 Simplifying complex network structures citygml:building citygml:building citygml:building TechDevic e StorageDevice WaterTank ControllerDevice (Valve) TechDevice (Pump)

24 Modeling of distribution elements

25 The main functions of devices «codelist» TechDeviceClass +unknown = gml::codetype +Pump = gml::codetype +Generator = gml::codetype +Turbine = gml::codetype consistof 1 0..* «feature» core::_cityobject «feature» _NetworkFeature +function[0..1] «Geometry» gml::multisurface «Geometry» gml::solid «feature» AnyDevice «feature» TechDevice +class : TechDeviceClass +class : AnyDeviceClass «codelist» AnyDeviceClass «feature» _Device +unknown = gml::codetype +Flange = gml::codetype +coupling = gml::codetype +adapter = gml::codetype «feature» MeasurementDevice +class : MeasurementDeviceClass «feature» ControllerDevice +class : ControllerDeviceClass «feature» StorageDevice +class : StorageDeviceClass «codelist» MeasurementDeviceClass +unknown = gml::codetype +Switch = gml::codetype +Valve = gml::codetype +SlideValve = gml::codetype «codelist» ControllerDeviceClass +unknown = gml::codetype +Switch = gml::codetype +Valve = gml::codetype +SlideValve = gml::codetype «codelist» StorageDeviceClass +unknown = gml::codetype +StorageBasin = gml::codetype +Tank = gml::codetype +Battery = gml::codetype

26 different type of commodity

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