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1 PM CH The Swiss Project Management Number 5 Summer 2009 INTERVIEW Markus Stäuble und Dimitrios Fazzone Ist der Erfolg von ICT-Projekten vorhersehbar? Stephanie Teufel und Caroline Kähr The Dual Role Project Manager / Functional Manager: Does It Work? Jarno Marchetto Nothing stays the same: Leadership techniques to empower people during change initiatives Jonathan Gilbert

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3 EDITORIAL Welcome to the 5 th edition of The Swiss Project Management Review By James Greene, PMP Chapter Officer PMI Switzerland Chapter It seems like it was just last month, but in reality, more than three and a half years have passed since the first meeting of the team of volunteers who would eventually publish On a cold winter evening in early 2006, Dr. Claudia Casciaro, PMP, Beat Dietziker, PMP, Rüdiger Geist, PMP and James Greene, PMP, met in a restaurant in Olten to discuss how to turn a simple idea into reality. The premise then, which is still valid today, was: In scientific fields, there is the rule publish or perish. As project managers, we too are expected to constantly pursue professional development, but have fewer opportunities to publish our research results, experiences and knowledge for the benefit of the broader PM community. has been created to provide such a channel for project managers in Switzerland and Europe. We knew that we had a long, hard road ahead of us. We are all volunteers with busy careers and family lives. But we shared a sense of urgency and a vision for In just 9 months December 2006 we had turned our vision into reality, with the release of the 1st edition. The 2 nd edition followed in summer 2007, a 3 rd edition in spring 2008, and the 4 th edition in late As the production of the 4 th edition was completed, Claudia Casciaro asked to step down from the management team to have more time for her family. I would like to take this opportunity to again thank Claudia for her numerous contri- butions to this publication as co-author of The Application of Six Sigma Techniques to Boost the Initiation Phase of a Project in the 1 st edition, as a skilled and critical reviewer of several articles, and especially for the creativity, motivation and drive she brought to the team. At the same time, I would like to welcome two new volunteers: Mr. Andreas R Luginbuehl, PMP and Ms. Corinna E. Groeger, PMP, who both joined the management team at the beginning of 2009 and have greatly contributed to this 5 th edition. will continue to grow and mature in the coming editions. Our goal is to position as a key benefit for PMI Switzerland Chapter members an opportunity for all members to contribute (as an author or co-author of an article), and to learn from the experiences described by their peers. As of June 30, 2009, two out of every three members of the PMI Switzerland Chapter has earned the PMP certification. Contributing to as an author or co-author of an article, or in some other volunteer capacity is a great way to earn professional development units (PDUs) as well as helping to promote professionalism in project management. For a complete list of volunteer opportunities with please contact the editorial team at James Greene, PMP Advertiser Index Microsoft Page 2 GAF Gesellschaft für Ausbildung Page 9 Santis Training AG Page 12 TenStep Central Europe GmbH Page 12 International Institute for Learning Page 15 CS Campana & Schott Page 15 STS Project Management Training Company Page 15 Pro-PMP Page 15 ESI international Page Contents Projekt-Management in der Credit Suisse IT 2009 Andreas Luginbühl im Gespräch mit Markus Stäuble und Dimitrios Fazzone von der CS The Dual Role Project Manager / Functional Manager: Does It Work? by Jarno Marchetto Ist der Erfolg von ICT-Projekten vorhersehbar? von Stephanie Teufel und Caroline Kähr Nothing stays the same: Leadership techniques to empower people during change initiatives by Jonathan Gilbert 3

4 INTERVIEW Andreas Luginbühl im Gespräch mit Markus Stäuble und Dimitrios Fazzone von der CS. Projekt-Management in der Credit Suisse IT 2009 Markus Stäuble, Dimi Fazzone: Welche Bedeutung hat das Projekt Management in der Credit Suisse IT (CS IT)? MS: Projekt Management hat in der CS IT eine grosse Bedeutung und einen hohen Stellenwert: Zahlreiche Aktivitäten in der IT werden in Form von Projekten durchgeführt. Die CS IT nutzt zur Durchführung von Projekten Matrix-Organisationen. Wie viele Projektleiter gibt es in der CS IT Schweiz? DF: Die CS IT hat in der Schweiz über 4000 Mitarbeitende, davon sind rund elf Prozent Projektleiter (das heisst, sie gehören der internen Job-Familie Projektmanagement an). Wie beeinflusst die aktuelle Finanzkrise das Projektmanagement in der CS IT? MS: Etliche Projekte operieren unter erschwerten Bedingungen, mit entsprechender Unsicherheit über die weitere Entwicklung. Die Projektleiter sind sehr stark im Bereich soziale Kompetenz und Soft Skills gefordert, und nicht nur im quasi mechanischen Projektmanagement. Welche Vorgehensmodelle und Projekt Management Methoden werden angewendet? DF: In der CS IT Schweiz werden Eigenentwicklungen eingesetzt wie auch weltweite best practices. So ist die Credit Suisse zum Beispiel als eine der wenigen weltweit nach CMMI ML2 zertifizierten IT Einheiten die ihre Projektmanagementmethodik auf dem PMI PMBOK Guide basiert. Hat sich die Qualität und Erfolgsrate der Projekte in der CS IT durch den Einsatz einer Projektmanagement Methodik signifikant verändert? MS: Die allgemeine Awareness für das Thema Professionelles Projektmanagement ist stark gestiegen, die Ausbildungsanstrengungen für die Zertifizierungen führten im Weiteren zu einer systematischen Basisausbildung der Projektleiter. DF: Die Einführung des neuen Modells und die Zertifizierungsanstrengungen für CMMi Level 2 haben zu einer starken Verbesserung aller gemessenen Indikatoren geführt. Projektmanagement wird nicht nur durch Prozess und Methodik gestärkt, sondern auch durch das Karrieresystem der Fachlaufbahnen (interne Bezeichnung i-drive ) gelebt. Die Anwendung von Operational Excellence (Lean Sigma OE) auf Business Seite bildet eine ideale Ergänzung und führt zu einer Verbesserung auf beiden Seiten der Schnittstellen von Business zur IT. MS: Dieses Bewusstsein im Business führt umgekehrt zu erhöhtem Druck auf den IT Projektleiter, die Methodiken müssen bekannt sein und gewisse Tätigkeiten werden aufwändiger, zusätzlich verstärkt durch das neue Organisationsbild mit neuen Rollen wie dem Key Account Manager (KAM). Karrieremöglichkeiten für Projekt Manager Wie ist das Berufsbild des Projektleiters in der CS, gibt es eine Fachkarriere für Projektleiter? DF: Selbstverständlich, die Fachkarriere in jeder unserer internen Job Family ist in sechs Bänder/Stufen unterteilt, mit Learning Maps, passendem Ausbildungsangebot und Coaching. Das gilt somit auch fürs Projektmanagement eine unserer Job Families. MS: Dieses Modell wurde vor fünf Jahren in der Schweiz aufgebaut und konsequent gelebt, in den letzten zwei Jahren wurde es weltweit in der IT unter dem Namen i-drive ausgerollt. Evaluation und Nomination von Projektleitern geschehen durch das Top Management und Projektmanagement-Experten auf globaler Ebene. Wie wichtig ist es für einen Projektleiter in der IT, Software- Entwicklungserfahrung zu haben? MS: Ohne geht es sehr oft nicht. Der Projektleiter muss in der Lage sein, kritische Fragen stellen zu können, muss die Antworten der Teilprojektleiter und Experten interpretieren können, den Puls des Projektes fühlen. Ein Grundsatz ist: Know your business! DF: Ein Projektleiter muss Erfahrung in verschiedenen Rollen in unterschiedlichen Gebieten haben, unter anderem auch das Geschäft seiner Kunden kennen, und oft ist Erfahrung im globalen Kontext und mit Offshore- und Sourcing-Modellen gefordert. Es gibt natürlich grosse Unterschiede und unterschiedliche Anforderungen, je nach Projekt, Grösse, Modell, Komplexität und Umfeld. Wo rekrutiert die CS IT primär ihre Projektleiter eher als Karrierewechsel und Neuorientierung für interne Mitarbeiter aus Fachrichtungen oder mit Erfahrung vom Markt? MS: Beide Pfade sind wichtig, der Schwerpunkt lag in den letzten zwei Jahren aber auf der Rekrutierung neuer Mitarbeiter von aussen mit Erfahrung im Projektmanagement. Was ist die Bedeutung der internen Ausbildung von jungen Hochschulabsolventen, wie sind die Einstiegschancen, gibt es einen direkten Einstieg ins Projektmanagement? MS: Die CS IT bietet einen sehr guten Einstieg ins Projektmanagement direkt von der Hochschule. Wir haben ein gut 4

5 interview ausgebautes Career-Starter-Programm. Dies beinhaltet klare Vorgehensmodelle, Coaching durch Senior-Projektleiter, und On-the-job Training mit begleitendem Ausbildungsprogramm und Unterstützung bei Zertifizierungen. Die CS IT bietet sehr vielfältige Aufgaben und Projekte und auch globale Perspektiven. Welchen Einfluss hat eine Zertifizierung bei der Rekrutierung von Projektleitern? DF: Eine Zertifizierung im Projektmanagement ist nicht Bedingung, hat aber einen hohen Einfluss und stellt einen wichtigen Benchmark dar. Ausbildung und Zertifizierungen Wie werden in der CS IT Projektleiter ausgebildet und wie bilden sie sich weiter? MS: Wir bieten in der CS IT ein grosses Schulungsangebot an, auf vielen unterschiedlichen Plattformen wie Class-Room- Schulungen, Web-Based-Trainings, Bücherangebot, Onthe-job-Training, Coaching und Mentoring. Wir bieten eine ganzheitliche Projektleiterausbildung. Die Ausbildungsangebote werden jährlich überprüft und angepasst. DF: Die CS IT bietet auch Unterstützung von Zertifizierungen. Die Ausbildung der Mitarbeiter ist Teil der Zielvereinbarung jedes Einzelnen. Ausbildung bleibt natürlich auch ein wichtiges Element der Eigenverantwortung eines jeden Projektleiters. Wie ist die Bedeutung von Projektmanagement-Zertifizierungen? DF: Die Bedeutung ist sehr hoch und für die Fachkarriere relevant. Zertifizierungen werden bei Beförderungen berücksichtigt und spielen ein wichtige Rolle für den Karrierenpfad. Welche Zertifizierungen werden anerkannt bzw. unterstützt? MS: Wir unterstützen die PMI-CAPM- und -PMP-Zertifizierungen, alle IPMA-Zertifizierungen und Prince2. Wie viele zertifizierte Projektleiter gibt es in der CS IT Schweiz? Wie viele davon sind PMI zertifiziert? DF: Aktuell gibt es in der Schweiz 120 IPMA-Zertifizierte (A, B, C) und 25 PMI-PMPs. Ist die neue PMI-Zertifizierung des Program Managers (PgMP) für die CS IT relevant? Wird die CS IT diese Zertifizierung unterstützen? MS: Im Moment ist das nicht vorgesehen, es existieren auch keine Pläne für Aus Sicht der CS IT scheint diese Zertifizierung sehr aufwändig zu sein und wird im aktuellen Umfeld auch 2010 nicht angeboten. Arbeitet die CS IT direkt mit Fachorganisationen im Projektmanagement zusammen? DF: Einerseits gibt es starke persönliche Kontakte und Engagement von Mitarbeitern die Präsidenten beider Projektmanagement-Fachorganisationen sind aktuell in der CS tätig. MS: Die CS ist Gönnermitglied der SPM. Es ist für die CS wichtig, mit Fachorganisationen zusammenzuarbeiten, auch für das Networking, den Erfahrungsaustausch und Kontakte auf dem Arbeitsmarkt. Die CS stellt mehrere Assessoren für IPMA A, B und C beim VZPM. Persönlicher Background Welche Erfahrung haben Sie im Projektmanagement? MS: Wir haben beide mehrere globale Projekte und Programme erfolgreich geleitet, Linien- und Fachaufgaben wahrgenommen und Projektleiter-Pools geführt. Dimitrios Fazzone hat erfolgreich CMMi Level 2 implementiert und ist IPMA-Assessor. Ich selbst bin IPMA-Assessor und SPM-Präsident. Welches ist Ihre wichtigste Erfahrung und persönliche Lesson learned im Projektmanagement? DF: Es ist wichtig, sich einen breiten Horizont anzueignen und praktische Erfahrung in vielen verschiedenen Projekttypen und Rollen zu erarbeiten. MS: Ebenso wichtig ist es, aus Erfahrungen zu lernen, auch negativen. Der Erfolg im Projektmanagement liegt nicht nur in einer fundierten Ausbildung und Umsetzung, sondern auch in der Vernetzung und Unterstützung durch das Senior Management in einem Biographien Markus Stäuble: Nach dem Studium verschiedene Tätigkeiten in IT- und Bankendienstleistungsunternehmen: IBM Schweiz, Service- und Beratungszentrum; Zürcher Kantonalbank. Seit 2002 in der Credit Suisse, in verschiedenen Funktionen als Projekt- und Programmleiter sowie Linienmanager tätig, zudem Subject Matter Expert (SME) für das Projektmanagement in der Schweiz und IPMA-B-zertifiziert. Dimitrios Fazzone: Nach den Studien verschiedene Tätigkeiten in Industrie, IT und Banken. Seit 1998 bei der Credit Suisse, in verschiedenen Funktionen als Projekt- und Programmleiter und Linienmanager tätig, zudem Subject Matter Expert (SME) im Bereich Projektmanagement. PMI-PMP- und IPMA-B-zertifiziert. Interviewer Andreas Luginbühl: Während und nach dem Wirtschaftsinformatik-Studium verschiedene Tätigkeiten als Software-Entwickler, -Architekt, -Projektleiter und -Berater bei: IBM Schweiz, SBG Ubilab, SKA, TakeFive, Olsen&Associates, Zühlke Engineering AG. Seit 2004 bei der Credit Suisse als Projekt- und Programmleiter und Linienmanager tätig, Mitglied des CS IT Schweiz Project Management Expert Team. IPMA- C- und PMI-PMP-zertifiziert. 5

6 The Dual Role Project Manager / Functional Manager The Dual Role Project Manager / Functional Manager: Does It Work? Jarno Marchetto, Dipl. Ing. ETH, PMP Abstract Within a wide range of organizations, a single person may be assigned both roles as project manager and functional manager at the same time. In this article, advantages and disadvantages of this organizational solution are discussed and recommendations about its application are presented. More specifically, the author tries to answer to the question whether this dual role really works. Introduction Project managers (PM) and functional managers (FM) have similar skills and competences, while having two very different profiles. Sometimes there are project managers with previous experience in functional management and vice versa. But what happens when one person takes on both roles at the same time? This is actually a double job that may have advantages but also disadvantages and risks, which are often underestimated. What is meant by the dual role project manager / functional manager (PM/FM)? This particular situation occurs when a project manager assumes the responsibility of leading a functional area or a line team, or when a functional manager receives the task to personally lead one or more projects. With functional managers are meant key individuals who play a management role within an administrative or functional area of the business, such as human resources, finance, accounting, or procurement. They are assigned their own permanent staff to carry out the ongoing work, and they have a clear directive to manage all tasks within their functional area of responsibility (from PMBOK Guide, Fourth Edition, 2008). In this article, the abbreviation PM/FM will be used to describe a person, who has both the roles of project manager and functional manager. Having common skills, in particular in the general management area, can help project managers and functional managers to take over a dual role as PM/FM. Nevertheless, they both have skills and expertise that distinguish them from each other. For this reason, it cannot be assumed that the two roles are easily interchangeable. They actually differ in several respects, primarily in relation to objectives and job focus. While the project manager focuses on his projects, the functional manager (in many organizations also called line manager) has his priorities in the organization, with different simultaneous focuses. If the project manager is responsible for the success of the project ( getting the project done ), the functional manager has mainly operational and/or management objectives (focusing on the day-to-day work ). The two profiles also often differ in the style of leadership. This dichotomy can be an advantage, but may create various conflicts, both between the PM/FM and his stakeholders, but also for the PM/FM himself. In which organizations is it used? Although the dual role model can be found in every type of organization, it is often used in matrix organizations, where in fact the roles of project managers and functional managers should be quite distinct. Taking over a dual role as PM/FM typically occurs at low and middle management level, rarely in the case of top managers and executives. Why is the dual role PM/FM assigned? The PM/FM is assigned a dual role for several reasons. For a functional manager, for example, the main factor may be a need for greater closeness with his staff during a project. For a project manager, on the other hand, may be to better understand the daily business, to become familiar with the organization s processes, to engage in a new challenging experience in the organization, or to increase his visibility and his career prospects. However, often the main reason is actually related to budget and/or FTEs ( Full Time Equivalents ) restrictions in the composition of a team, which lead to the solution of having simply one leader (for both the project and the line). This decision is often supported by the superiors and upper management inability to (intentionally?) correctly estimate the effort required for optimal staff management in the functional manager role as well as the strong workload peaks that may arise in this dual role. They convince the future PM/FM to take this role by relying on his sense of responsibility ( our organization needs your extra contribution ) or minimizing the needed effort ( basically, this is just managing some additional project/staff besides your main responsibilities, referring alternatively to the marginal activity), or attracting the employee by promising a fast professional growth ( with this dual role you will make career moves much faster ). In any case, the dual role assignment as a PM/FM is still a wish and a responsibility of superiors and upper management levels. They offer to their employees to take on the dual role for their own good and for that of the organization. Therefore, it is the management who must carefully evaluate benefits and disadvantages of this organizational solution, as well as the possible alternatives. 6

7 The Dual Role Project Manager / Functional Manager The different points of view of the PM/FM s main stakeholders about his dual role The PM/FM has to meet the expectations of three main stakeholder categories: customers, management, and employees (including both functional team and project team). In general, all stakeholders criticize the fact that the PM/FM is not fully available, neither as a project manager nor as a functional manager. This often makes communication and conflict resolution between the PM/FM and his stakeholders more difficult. Therefore, it is important to obtain the stakeholders approval before assigning someone the dual role of PM/FM, in order to minimize misunderstandings and conflicts. Customers Customers (or clients, or project sponsors) expect that their projects succeed and that project managers are fully dedicated to the assigned projects. From their perspective, the PM/ FM s activities as functional manager are seen primarily as an obstacle to the project success. This weakens the PM/FM s position with his customers in case of conflicts or problems due to his dual role. Management By assigning the dual role as PM/FM, management on one hand expects that projects are a success, and on the other that employees in the line of the functional manager are managed in an optimal way according to the organizational processes and directives. In doing so, they should be aware of putting the PM/FM in a potentially critical function. Nevertheless, they often do not provide an increased support to PM/FM, either because they believe that he should be able to handle this dual role, or because they actually do not have additional resources but still want the project done. Employees They expect the PM/FM to be always available for their own coaching and support and usually have little understanding for his dual role. They can be divided into two main categories according to their relationship with their superior (i.e. the PM/FM). a) Project collaborators under PM/FM s direct responsibility are manageable, because they work closely with the PM/FM on a daily basis. b) Employees, who are in the PM/FM s functional team, but not in his project team, risk to be neglected if the PM/FM focuses on his project management role, since he will not have enough time to adequately support them and their problems, which are often ranked as a second priority. The critical position of the PM/FM towards his stakeholders In summary, the PM/FM is usually in a weak position with his stakeholders, as they have expectations, which he hardly can fully and consistently satisfy. By assuming this dual role, the PM/FM risks to disappoint some stakeholders by trying to meet the expectations of other stakeholders. In some cases, despite the many ways and means used, there are few chances of success. The reasons for this difficulty are due to the advantages and disadvantages described in the following chapters and to the own nature of the dual responsibility. Advantages and disadvantages of the PM/FM dual role PM/FM s time management and workload Proper time management and a balanced workload are the biggest problems the PM/FM has to face. They are also the main reasons for failure in both roles. The functional manager role includes responsibilities such as coaching, staff support, problem solving, which cannot be easily planned and can generate significant peaks in the workload. This represents a serious conflict with the project management activities, especially during the most intensive project phases. Under a strong workload, the PM/FM basically has two alternatives: a) he can give up some activities either in the project manager or in the functional manager role or b) he can bear the workload, which is often exhausting. In both cases, there can be important and sometimes serious consequences on both the work quality and the individual. Moreover, the increased workload is not always actually sustainable by a single person over longer periods of time, may that be for legal and contractual as well as for human limitations. The situation does not improve even with the flexibility and good will of the PM/FM, who accepts working overtime and delaying personal activities and holidays. The only possibility to manage this conflict is to give up some project management and/or functional management responsibilities. However, this approach can become the source of other major problems. As previously described, the PM/FM seldom enjoys the understanding of his stakeholders. They expect him to efficiently and effectively perform in his role whichever may be in focus. Just the fact of assigning a dual role as PM/FM induces management and employees to put on the PM/FM higher expectations as they would on a simple project manager or functional manager. On the other hand, project customers do not reduce their expectations, as they want successful projects and are simply not interested in the dual role problems. Thus, the PM/FM has to work under a great pressure and often without additional support. Project team set-up For the set-up of the project team, the PM/FM s two hats may represent both a benefit as well as a disadvantage. In the assignment of tasks, the PM/FM may have the advantage of choosing the employees with the best suited skills, particularly if he knows them from past work experiences. In addition, employees who are both in the project and line of the PM/FM will benefit from better training plans, professional growth and career development. These aspects may not be so relevant for some project managers, who often just consider their own project goals. Moreover, often project managers in matrix organizations have no control on the choice of their team members, as they are assigned by the functional managers. In this sense, the PM/FM has the advantages of having direct access to his staff and having decision power on the tasks assigned to his collaborators. On the other hand, the dual role may also be a disadvantage when the PM/FM primarily pursues his goals and interests in the project team composition. These goals may not always match with those of his employees or other projects. 7

8 The Dual Role Project Manager / Functional Manager Having a direct responsibility in the resource allocation, he will tend to assign the best employees to his own project. The PM/FM dual power within the organization In functional and weak matrix organizations, the functional manager has much more power and influence than the project manager. The PM/FM can then take advantage of the legitimate power resulting from his role as functional manager for his project management activities. Furthermore, the PM/FM can, through his reward power as a line manager, better influence employees with factors like salary increases and paid education, because he usually has the capability to determine salaries, bonuses and development plans of his staff. The functional manager role by its own nature has closer relationships with the management, which makes it easier to access the organization s finances and, if necessary, to obtain budget increases for projects. Having more types of power than a simple project manager, the PM/FM will have greater influence on his own projects and therefore on their success. More information, easier reporting The functional manager usually receives more detailed information than the project manager. Another advantage of the dual role is that the issue of double (and often redundant) reporting typical of matrix organizations disappears: the employees report to one single person, who represents both the roles of project manager and functional manager. Career issues If the projects to be managed are small, there is a risk that the PM/FM will not find them interesting or challenging enough for his career. This perception may lead him to prefer the functional manager role thereby jeopardizing the projects. In functional organizations, there is also the risk that despite the PM/ FM formally acting as a project manager role, he is actually no more than a facilitator, an inspirational leader or a motivator. In summary, the dual role PM/FM presents both advantages and disadvantages. To exploit benefits and avoid failure, this organizational solution should be adopted only in certain situations and under particular conditions. Recommendations on the application of the dual role PM/FM To be avoided in matrix organizations! There is a basic conflict for PM/FMs having a dual role in a matrix organization. The project manager wants to invest as little as possible in human resources development, i.e. training and coaching. His goal is to successfully carry out his projects, aware that employees will be assigned to other projects later on. The project manager is very focused on his project and not necessarily interested in the employees growth within the organization. On the contrary, it is the functional manager s responsibility to invest in training, coaching and professional development of his staff. In any case, the PM/FM will fail in one of his two roles or, at best, achieve only mediocre results on both fronts. For this reason, the dual role PM/FM should be avoided in matrix organizations. If there are really no other solutions, e.g. in case of an urgent project without a project manager being immediately available, a functional manager may take it on as a PM/FM in the early phases (initiation and planning), then passing the assignment later on another person. Similarly, a project manager with functional management responsibility should abandon the latter role in any event before starting the execution phase of the project. A dual role ideal for strategic and organizational projects The dual role PM/FM may actually be helpful for strategic, organizational and change management projects, where a strong influence on the stakeholders already at the early stage of the project is needed. Of course, in these cases the management should look into possible conflicts of interest between the roles of project manager and functional manager in advance. If the PM/FM is deeply rooted within the organization as a functional manager, he can immediately take advantage of knowledge and resources previously acquired in this role in the organization. He will also be able to profit from management s confidence and the power that he derives from his own function ( legitimate power ). By contrast, the dual role PM/FM should be avoided in case of technical or specialized projects that require a strong involvement of the project manager in understanding project content and issues. Set up the project and move on The ideal solution is that the PM/FM only follows the initiation phase and (possibly) the planning phase of the project, as long as he is assisted by a Project Management Office (PMO) or by a collaborator with strong project management skills. Subsequently, he should pass on the role to a dedicated project manager and go back to his role as functional manager or alternatively, just lead the project as project manager, delegating to others the functional management responsibilities. In other words, the PM/FM must choose between one of his two functions by the end of the planning phase. Otherwise, the risk that he will fail to perform in at least one of his two roles is very high. The PM/FM in these early project stages should be primarily concerned with the processes of Project Integration Management, Project HR Management and Project Communication Management, which may benefit more from his functional management competencies. Other processes could be more easily delegated to a PMO or to a project support, of course under the supervision of the PM/FM. What about small organizations? Small organizations, which cannot afford a full time functional manager, because of the limited staff or project budget, should opt for a projectized or a composite organization. Those who cannot afford to hire a project manager on a full time, long-term basis may alternatively consider a functional organization, a composite organization or a temporary solution with an external project manager (contractor) or a part time project manager (i.e. who performs fewer hours per week than in a full time job). Conclusions In conclusion, it can be said that: The dual role PM/FM should be avoided in matrix organizations. It can be an advantage for the management of strategic, organizational and change management projects. Instead, it should be avoided for technical and specialized projects. 8

9 The Dual Role Project Manager / Functional Manager The PM/FM has advantages in managing projects through a number of aspects related to his role as a functional manager. Before the execution phase of the project, the PM/FM should leave his dual role and choose a single function either as a project manager or as a functional manager. The greatest risk for this dual role is the workload, which often cannot be planned, and which push the PM/FM either to neglect one of his two functions or to sacrifice work quality, of- ten with serious consequences on projects and collaborators. The main stakeholders often do not properly estimate problems associated with this dual role and its consequences, creating a strong pressure on the PM/FM. Before assigning a dual role as PM/FM, it is important to make sure that future stakeholders deeply understand the issues related to it and accept the related Here below, these considerations are schematically represented in a summary table. Application of the dual role PM/FM Yes No Organizational structure Functional, projectized, composite Matrix Project type Strategic, organizational, change management Technical, specialized Project phases Initiation, planning Execution, closing Role assignment process Inform future stakeholders, get their Management takes initiative acceptance and risk approval without involving future stakeholders Benefits to project success Dual power within the organization, PM/FM s time management more and better information, easier and workload, career reporting between PM/FM and staff issues for the PM/FM Benefits for the organization development Project team set-up in favour of Project team set-up employees development based on personal goals of the PM/FM Table 1: Application of the dual role PM/FM Bibliography Project Management Institute (2008). A Guide To The Project Management Body Of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), Fourth Edition. 9

10 ICT-Projekte Prof. Dr. Stephanie Teufel is professor at the University of Fribourg (Switzerland) and holds the Chair of ICT Management. Furthermore, she s the head of the international institute of management in technology (iimt) that offers executive MBA courses in the ICT and energy sector. Caroline Kähr has a Master s Degree in Management and works as a research assistant at the international institute of management in technology (iimt) where she pursues a PhD in Management. Abstract: Every year, Swiss firms assign a significant share of their investments (up to 20% in 2008) to the information and communication industry (ICT) and its projects. Nevertheless, only a very small part of the projects undertaken can be concluded successfully and according to some sources, failure rate can be as high as 84%. Unfortunately, there is no fool-proof method that helps avoiding such disasters but baring in mind the two models presented in the following article might help to increase the likelihood of ending a project fruitfully. Ist der Erfolg von ICT-Projekten vorhersehbar? Schweizer Unternehmen geben gemäss dem Bundesamt für Statistik durchschnittlich 21% ihrer Investitionen für Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie (ICT) aus, Tendenz steigend. Laut dem Schaffhauser Marktforschungsinstitut MSM Research kann im Jahr 2009 mit einem durchschnittlichen Investitionswachstum von 1.3% gerechnet werden, so dass sich der ICT-Markt Ende 2009 auf rund 16 Milliarden CHF belaufen sollte. Allerdings stehen die ICT-Budgets der Schweizer Firmen durch die angekündigte Rezession unter starkem Druck und alle geplanten Ausgaben werden derzeit zweimal hinterfragt. Dies heisst, dass ICT-Projekte sehr sorgfältig ausgewählt werden müssen und dabei grossen Wert darauf gelegt wird, nur die dringend notwendigen ICT-Projekte zu realisieren. Zudem sollten die ICT-Projekte, deren Realisierung beschlossen wird, möglichst erfolgreich sein. Dies scheint nicht immer einfach zu sein, wie die in der nachstehenden Tabelle erfassten Scheiterungsraten von ICT-Projekten zeigen: Das magische Dreieck Ein Projekt erfolgreich umsetzen bedeutet, die Ziele in allen Bereichen des Projekts zu erreichen. Dies wird normalerweise am Erreichungsgrad der drei Hauptziele Kosten, Qualität (Leistung) und Qualität 1 (Inhalt und Umfang) gemessen. Denn diese drei Hauptziele, welche zusammen das in der folgenden Darstellung abgebildete magische Dreieck (engl. iron triangle) bilden, stellen gewissermassen Richtgrössen dar, welche eine klare Bewertung des Projekts ermöglichen und so Aussagen beispielsweise über den Projektfortschritt oder die Einhaltung des Budgets gemacht werden können. 2 Unternehmen bzw. Organisation Gescheiterte ICT-Projekte Royal Academy of Engineers and BCS 84% Britisches Statistikinstitut 70% KPMG 49% Government of South Australia 50% Tabelle 1 : Scheiterungsrate ICT-Projekte Es gilt also, solche Scheiterungsraten zu vermeiden bzw. zu reduzieren und trotz der hohen Komplexität eines ICT-Projekts dieses erfolgreich zu realisieren. Doch was heisst erfolgreich? Es gibt zu diesem Thema eine grosse Anzahl von verschiedenen Heuristiken, die jedoch relativ projektspezifisch sind. Nachfolgend werden nun zwei Modelle vorgestellt, deren Miteinbezug den Projekterfolg massgeblich beeinflussen oder sogar darüber entscheiden kann: Das magische Dreieck und die zehn kritischen Erfolgsfaktoren. Abbildung 1 : Das magische Dreieck Die im magischen Dreieck als Eckpunkte dargestellten Hauptziele sind stark voneinander abhängig und es entstehen Trade- Off Situationen. Wird entschieden, dass vermehrt ein oder zwei Ziele angesteuert werden sollen, so geschieht dies oft auf Kosten der restlichen Ziele. Es muss dabei vom Projektmanager sorgfältig entschieden werden, welches Ziel bzw. welche Ziele Priorität haben und wo der Hauptakzent gelegt werden soll. Andernfalls kann es so enden, wie ein Verwaltungsratsmit- 10

11 ICT-Projekte glied in einer zum Thema Risikomanagement in IT-Projekten durch geführten Studie meinte: With technocrats, the only three things you can be sure of are: nothing would get finished on time, it would always cost vastly more than predicted and it would never do what it promised to do. (International Federation for Information Processing IFIP) Es gilt also, sich bei der Realisierung eines jeden ICT-Projekts im magischen Dreieck zu bewegen und eine Balance zwischen den drei Hauptzielen zu finden. Doch garantiert dies den Erfolg eines ICT-Projekts? Sicherlich nicht und wenn, dann nur zum Teil. Deswegen wird nachfolgend noch ein weiteres Modell vorgestellt, welches über den Erfolg eines ICT-Projekts mitbestimmen kann. Die zehn kritischen Erfolgsfaktoren Es wird davon ausgegangen, dass die erfolgreiche Realisierung eines Projekts nicht nur von der Einhaltung der drei Hauptziele des magischen Dreiecks abhängt, sondern zusätzlich von zehn kritischen Erfolgsfaktoren massgeblich beeinflusst wird. 3 Es handelt sich bei diesem 10-Faktorenmodell um drei strategische und sieben taktische Faktoren, wobei Erstere der Planungsphase zugeordnet werden können, während Letztere der Ausführungsphase angehören (siehe Abbildung 2). Konkret handelt es sich um die in der folgenden Abbildung dargestellten Faktoren: als besonders komplexe Projekte bezeichnet werden, da sie neben der mit sich bringen, sind auf solche Modelle im Sinne von Begleitinstrumente angewiesen. 4 Die hohe Komplexität eines ICT-Projekts legt es dabei nahe, der Ecke Qualität (Leistung) des magischen Dreiecks besondere Aufmerksamkeit zu schenken. Gleiches gilt für die beiden kritischen Erfolgsfaktoren Zeitplan sowie Kundenakzeptanz. Der Zeitplan, welcher Teil der strategischen Faktoren ist, klärt über alle notwendigen Schritte zur Realisierung des Projekts auf und enthält zusätzlich alle benötigten Ressourcen (Investitionen, Personen etc.). Wie bereits im magischen Dreieck erwähnt, scheint die Einhaltung der zeitlichen Vorgaben bei ICT-Projekten besonders schwer und ist demnach oft verantwortlich für das Scheitern eines solchen Projekts. Ein weiterer Punkt dabei ist die Kundenakzeptanz, welche oft über den endgültigen Projekterfolg oder misserfolg entscheidet. Ein Projekt kann alle Hauptziele und jeden kritischen Erfolgsfaktor erfüllen, doch so lange der Kunde bzw. der Endnutzer das Projekt nicht will, ist es wertlos und gilt demnach als gescheitert. Der Erfolg eines Projekts hängt im Endeffekt von einer Vielzahl von Faktoren ab, welche von Projekt zu Projekt variieren können und oft nur bedingt voraussehbar sind. Es ist jedoch unabdingbar, die Kosten, die Zeit wie auch Qualität eines ICT- Projekts im Griff zu haben. Genau so ist es empfehlenswert, sich bereits in der Planungsphase über die zehn kritischen Erfolgsfaktoren, wie auch deren Relevanz und Einfluss auf das eigene ICT-Projekt, Gedanken zu machen. Man ist sich so nicht nur über mögliche Probleme und Engpässe im Voraus im Klaren, sondern behält auch während des Projekts potentielle Gefahrenquellen im Überblick und erhöht so die Wahrscheinlichkeit, das Projekt erfolgreich zu Abbildung 2 : Die 10 kritischen Erfolgsfaktoren Wie die drei Ziele des magischen Dreiecks, stehen auch die zehn Erfolgsfaktoren in gegenseitiger Abhängigkeit und erfolgen sequentiell, wobei verschiedene Faktoren auch gleichzeitig und während der gesamten Projektdauer erfolgen können. Erfolgsvoraussicht von ICT-Projekten Kann also durch den Einbezug dieser 10 kritischer Erfolgsfaktoren sowie die Beachtung des magischen Dreiecks den Erfolg eines ICT-Projekts sichergestellt bzw. vorausgesehen werden? Die Antwort auf diese Frage lautet leider nein. Doch stellen die beiden Modelle zwei wichtige Unterstützungsmöglichkeiten dar. Denn gerade ICT-Projekte, welche immer wieder 1 Kann auch mit Scope (Anwendungsbereich bzw. Abgrenzung) beschrieben werden. 2 A Balanced Scorecard Approach to Project Management Leadership, James Norrie, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada, Derek H.T. Walker, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia (2004) 3 Critical Success Factors in Effective Project Implementation, Jeffrey K. Pinto, University of Cincinnati and Dennis P. Slevin, University of Pittsburgh 4 Conference of Organizational Communication and Information Systems, Proceedings Academy of Management (2004) 11

12 get the power of project management Projektmanagement - PMO Methodologie - Training - Beratung +41 (56)

13 Leadership Nothing stays the same: Leadership techniques to empower people during change initiatives Jonathan Gilbert PMP, Executive Director of Client Solutions for ESI International Every organisation is affected by change, especially during times of economic volatility. However, project managers tasked with leading change initiatives are all too aware of the alarming failure rates that can occur. The critical missing piece is largely the failure to take into account how change affects an organisation s people. According to a study by PriceWaterhouseCoopers, research shows that nearly 75 percent of all organisational change programmes fail because they don t create the necessary groundswell of support among employees. When organisational leadership employs a three-phase Organisational Change Management Life Cycle methodology and techniques to address the stages of change, change management initiatives stand a much greater chance for success. Before examining the Organisational Change Management Life Cycle, it s important to consider the three organisational elements that both drive and are affected by change: Processes - Business processes, including maps, policies and procedures, and business rules, which are redesigned or realigned for new customers, or provide improved service to existing customers. Technology - Driven by process, technology ensures greater organisational efficiency in implementing change. People - Those responsible for developing and implementing new processes, and specifying and using new technology. These elements are closely linked to the three stages of the Change Management Life Cycle: identify the change, engage the people, and implement the change. From the outset of any change management initiative, people must recognise and buy into the need for change. Leaders must recognise that an organisation cannot successfully adopt change unless its people understand and support the reasons for creating the change. The Change Management Life Cycle Phase I: Identify the Change While it may seem obvious, clearly articulating the proposed change in common, consistent language is the fundamental first step for any change initiative. Leaders need to identify and communicate the need for change so that it is understood and supported by people at all organisational levels. Project leaders should also be aware that there are intellectual, psychological and neurological responses that people have regarding change that can be addressed with the following recommended techniques: Get People s Attention Change distracts and disturbs human beings, so directing their attention in a positive way will help them focus on the proposed change. Introducing the initiative in a setting away from people s daily routines, off-site if possible, will create a shared sense of urgency and ownership in the change. Align Their Disturbances A disturbance is a neurological term for the conflict or gap between a person s current mental map of thinking and the mental map required to operate in a changed state. To align disturbances means to create agreement among the individuals in an organisation so they have a common gap between their current way of thinking and the mental state needed to adopt the change. This will enable them to agree on the direction and organisational response needed for change. An important technique leaders should use to align disturbances is to create a compelling vision of the future state and continually communicate it. The vision should take into consideration the change need at every organisational level, so that the day-to-day work experience of the staff is described along with high-level change goals. Additional people-related issues leaders should be aware of and address when identifying change opportunities include Potential frustration in performing new tasks Clearly defined job responsibilities Job descriptions and metrics appropriate to the new process Understanding of the end-to-end process Organisational culture dynamics that may prevent people from adapting to the changed state. Phase 2: Engage the People The next step in the change management life cycle is to engage people in the planning of the organisation s response to 13

14 Leadership the change. This concept is the antithesis of a top-down rollout strategy in which a change initiative is delivered to the people expected to implement and adopt the change. Giving them the opportunity for intellectual, emotional and psychological reaction to the proposed change enables them to become accustomed to the idea of change and begin thinking in ways that can identify potential trouble spots and contribute to process improvement. It is critical to their personal stake in the proposed change. A technique project leaders can use to facilitate people s adoption of a change is to conduct organisation-wide workshops on appropriate change response. These sessions enable people to participate in the dialogue about how a deliverable should be used in the organisation, and contribute to the emergence of an aligned approach for managing and adapting to the change. Aligning reactions and encouraging involvement in the change response typically moves people s behaviour to addressing the problem and creating a direction to facilitate change. The implementation strategy for change response can then be developed at a high level. The people executing the strategy, as well as those who will be impacted by it, should be included in the strategy development. The strategy needs to be acknowledged by all involved as a flexible plan so that changes can be made once implementation is begun. Phase 3: Implement the Change During the final Implementation phase, change strategies developed in the Identify and Engage phases are translated into actions for achieving the proposed future organisational state. If the first two stages were effectively addressed, people will be well prepared to participate in the development and implementation of new processes and technology, and the implementation should essentially be a monitoring activity for leaders. However, most organisations spend the majority of their time in the implementation phase and don t adequately address their people s role in change. In such instances, successful change adoption rarely occurs. Prototyping is a critical technique to get the change underway incrementally without waiting for a highly detailed, master plan which can potentially stall the change initiative, while allowing flexibility to respond to changing conditions. Prototyping takes into account people s thinking and activities as new processes and technology are deployed. Since their thoughts and actions are used in developing the change response, it further increases people s ownership in the change initiative. Techniques leaders should use during implementation include reiterating the change mission through ongoing communications. s, project milestone commemorations, conversations and other channels should be used to remind people why they are expending their hard work on implementing a change. Organisational leaders should address people-related issues that arise by asking themselves the following questions: Does the individual have the ability or desire to work in the new environment? Are additional skill sets needed to transition to the new job? Are changes to job descriptions needed? Are job grades or pay impacted by this change? Does the change impact short-term productivity and is additional support needed to ensure business success? Lastly, leaders should focus on people s performance and satisfaction by questioning the following areas: Are change-oriented tasks being accomplished as planned? Are energy and enthusiasm present? Does alignment still exist among the people? People First The urgency of circumstances that precipitate change results frequently in the introduction of new processes and technology which are doomed to failure without the input and buy in of an organisation s people. Leadership that recognises the importance of making change a personal commitment for all its people, not just executives and stakeholders, will be more successful at implementing change. Using the Change Management Life Cycle methodology s three phases of Identify, Engage and Implement and related techniques provides organisations with a framework for creating a receptive environment for positive, lasting change. About the Author Jonathan Gilbert, PMP, Executive Director of Client Solutions for ESI International, has more than 30 years of experience as entrepreneur, educator, chief executive officer, construction manager, management consultant, project manager and engineer. He earned his B.S. in Civil Engineering from the University of Maryland at College Park, concentrating in project/ construction management and environmental engineering. For more information, visit This article was first published in Material Handling Wholesaler. ESI International Reprinted with permission. IMPRESSUM Herausgeber: PMI Switzerland Chapter, CH-3000 Bern 13, Chefredaktor: James Greene, PMI Switzerland Chapter Verlag: Frehner Consulting AG, Unternehmensberatung für PR, CH-9014 St.Gallen, Tel. +41 (0) , Produktion und Inseratemarketing: MetroComm AG, Zürcherstrasse 170, CH-9014 St.Gallen, Tel. +41 (0) , Redaktionsleitung: Dr. Stephan Ziegler Geschäftsleitung: Natal Schnetzer Anzeigenleitung: Walter Böni Gestaltung: MetroComm AG. Nachdruck, auch auszugsweise, nur mit schriftlicher Genehmigung des PMI Switzerland Chapters. August 2009 PMI Switzerland Chapter, Wasserwerkgasse 37, CH-3000 Bern 13, 14

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16 Improving Your Organisation Through Continuous Learning 15 % Discount for PMI Members! ESI s Project Management Training Courses in Switzerland Managing Projects Master the fundamentals of project management September 2009 Pfäffikon SZ Seedam Plaza German 22.5 PDUs November 2009 Basel Mercure Hotel Europe English 22.5 PDUs Project Leadership, Management and Communications Build and manage effective project teams October 2009 Basel Mercure Hotel Europe English 22.5 PDUs Scheduling and Cost Control Develop effective measures for scheduling and controlling projects September 2009 Basel Radisson SAS Hotel English 28 PDUs Risk Management Learn how to take a proactive approach to threat and opportunity September 2009 Basel Radisson SAS Hotel English 22.5 PDUs Negotiation Skills for Project Managers Learn how to analyse negotiation styles and turn conflict into an advantage September 2009 Basel Radisson SAS Hotel English 22.5 PDUs Rapid Assessment and Recovery of Troubled Projects Learn how to manage the transition to stability October 2009 Basel Mercure Hotel Europe English 22.5 PDUs Register now! Tel. +49 (0) Web: Besuchen Sie unseren Stand auf dem PM Training Forum des PMI Switzerland Chapter und der spm am 22. Oktober 2009 im Technopark in Zürich! ESI International Tel: +49 (0)69 / Fax: +49 (0)69 / Web:

Prediction Market, 28th July 2012 Information and Instructions. Prognosemärkte Lehrstuhl für Betriebswirtschaftslehre insbes.

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