1 IGP-Newsletter Dezember Institut für Gesellschaftspolitik Inhaltsverzeichnis Aktuelles aus dem IGP Lehrveranstaltungen Wintersemester / Weitere Termine Topthema: Rural Water Governance Aktuelles aus dem IGP Von Mai bis August war Julia Ismar zu einem Forschungsaufenthalt im Südsudan. In Zusammenarbeit mit der Catholic University of South Sudan hat sie eine Fallstudie im Bereich Wassermanagement durchgeführt. Mehr dazu steht im Top-ema. Julia Ismar ist Ende September aus dem IGP ausgeschieden. Sie arbeitet nun an einem neuen Forschungsprojekt im Sudan. Ende des Jahres wird auch Nadine Reis das IGP verlassen, um ein Postdoc-Studium an einem noch nicht endgültig feststehendem Ort zu beginnen. Sie hat die vergangenen beiden Jahre wesentlich zum Gelingen der Studie Den Hunger bekämpfen. Unsere gemeinsame Verantwortung für das Menschenrecht auf Nahrung der Sachverständigengruppe Weltwirtschaft und Sozialethik im Rahmen der Wissenschaftlichen Arbeitsgruppe für weltkirchliche Aufgaben der Deutschen Bischofskonferenz beigetragen. Am./. September nahm Michael Hainz an der Jahrestagung der Sektion Religionssoziologie der Polnischen Gesellschaft für Soziologie teil und hielt ein Referat über die wechselseitigen Beziehungen zwischen wirtschaftlicher Entwicklung und Religiosität in Polen. Er ist dabei, über diese Fragestellung ein empirisches Forschungsprojekt vorzubereiten. Im November besuchte Barbara Schellhammer erneut Nairobi in Kenia. Die ersten Tage unterstützte sie die Entwicklung einer African Renaissance University der Africa Alliance of YMCAs (CVJM). Sie traf dabei auch mit Helmut Danner zusammen, der in Nairobi lebt und das lesenswerte Buch Das Ende der Arroganz. Afrika und der Westen ihre Unterschiede verstehen (Frankfurt/M.: Brandes & Apsel, ) schrieb. Die folgenden Tage führte sie Gespräche mit den Leitern zentraler jesuitischer Einrichtungen, u.a. des Hekima College, des Institute of Peace Studies and International Relations, des Jesuit Hakimani Center und des African Jesuit Aids Network und des Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) Afrika, um über mögliche Kooperationen und gemeinsame Projekte nachzudenken. Michael Reder wurde von der Deutschen Kommission Justitia et Pax berufen, die Kommission in der Arbeitsgruppe für ökologische Fragen der Kommission für gesellschaftliche und soziale Fragen (K) der Deutschen Bischofskonferenz zu vertreten. Ziel dieser Berufung ist es, eine kohärentere Verknüpfung zwischen Umweltschutz, Förderung von Entwicklung und Einsatz für Frieden zu gewährleisten. Michael Reder veranstaltet als Inhaber des Lehrstuhls für praktische Philosophie mit Schwerpunkt Völkerverständigung im November und Dezember in Zusammenarbeit mit der Eugen Biser Stiftung eine interreligiöse Dialogreihe zum ema A Common Word Between Us and You. Die erste Veranstaltung war dem ema Liebe im Koran und im Christentum gewidmet. Prominenter Gast war H.R.H. Price Ghazi bin Muhammad Bin Talal aus Jordanien. Ein zweiter Dialogabend beschäftigte sich mit der Frage Wie über Gott sprechen?. Gelingendes Zusammenleben von Christen und Muslimen war der dritte Abend überschrieben. Institut für Gesellschaftspolitik Kaulbachstraße a München Tel.: + ()- (Geschäftsführer) Fax.: + ()-
2 Institut für Gesellschaftspolitik Teilnehmer war u.a. Aiman Mazyek (Vorsitzender des Zentralrats der Muslime in Deutschland. In der letzten Veranstaltung am. Dezember, Uhr, in der Aula der Hochschule für Philosophie geht es schließlich um Die Zukunft des Common Word : Optionen für ein Gespräch von Juden, Muslimen und Christen. Teilnehmer werden Prof. Dr. Walter Homolka (Rektor des Abraham Geiger Kollegs, Berlin), Prof. Dr. Mouhanad Khorchide (Professor für Islamische Religionspädagogik, Münster) und Dr. Andreas Renz (Fachbereich Dialog der Religionen der Erzdiözese München-Freising) sein. Am. November fand der. Runde Tisch Bayern: Sozial- und Umweltstandards bei Unternehmen im Bayerischen Staatsministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung, Familie und Frauen in München statt. Der Runde Tisch ist Teil des Projektes Globalisierung von Sozial- und Umweltstandards, das vom Eine Welt Netzwerk Bayern e.v. in Kooperation mit dem IGP und der Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaften in München durchgeführt wird. Teilnehmer waren u.a. Staatssekretär Markus Sackmann MdL und Michael Windfuhr, Stellvertretender Direktor des Deutschen Instituts für Menschenrechte in Berlin. Das IGP war vertreten durch Michael Reder. Lehrveranstaltungen Wintersemester / Mitglieder des Instituts bieten im Wintersemester / an der Hochschule für Philosophie eine Vielfalt interessanter Lehrveranstaltungen an: Die Spannweite reicht von eher klassisch philosophischen emen (Immanuel Kant; Kritische eorie) über sozialethische Fragestellungen (Unternehmensethik, Soziallehre der Kirche) hin zu aktuellen globalen Herausforderungen (Interkulturelle Philosophie, Pentekostalismus und Evangelikalismus) und zu einem Seminar zu Kommunikation und Mediation für Führungskräfte. Darüber hinaus sind Lehrende des Instituts maßgeblich an Modulen der neuen Studiengänge konsekutiver Master, weiterbildender Master Ethik und des in den letzteren integrierten Zertikatskurses Ethik in globaler Perspektive beteiligt. Einzelheiten dazu ndet man unter <http://www.hfph.mwn.de/igp/lehr>. Weitere Termine Vortrag von Michael Reder am. Januar um. Uhr zum ema Klimawandel und Gerechtigkeit - Auf dem Weg zu einer ethisch begründeten Klima- und Entwicklungspolitik im Oskar von Miller Forum. Die Deutsche Bischofskonferenz wird vom. bis. April in Rom eine internationale Konferenz zum ema Evangelikale Pngstkirchen Charismatiker. Neue religiöse Bewegungen als Herausforderung für die katholische Kirche veranstalten. Die inhaltliche Durchführung liegt bei der Wissenschaftlichen Arbeitsgruppe für weltkirchliche Aufgaben und ihrem Vorsitzenden Johannes Müller. Die Schirmherrschaft hat Kardinal Kurt Koch übernommen, der seit Präsident des Päpstlichen Rates für die Förderung der Einheit der Christen ist. Ziel der Konferenz sind konkrete Handlungsorientierungen und pastorale Strategien für jene Ortskirchen, die vom Phänomen der Neuen religiösen Bewegungen besonders betroen sind. Das erste Heft von AmosInternational wird ein emenheft Bevölkerungswachstum als globale Herausforderung sein. Es wird von Johannes Müller herausgegeben. Institut für Gesellschaftspolitik Kaulbachstraße a München Tel.: + ()- (Geschäftsführer) Fax.: + ()-
3 Rural water governance in an emergent state Between social contract, equity, and sustainability Julia Ismar Eighteen months after the euphoric celebrations of the independence of Africa s youngest state on 9 July 2011, a sober assessment reveals a fragile nation faced with a flood of challenges. Decades of civil war and violence have brought forth a state struggling with severe deficits in infrastructure, development and good practices of governance. Among the many challenges, the question of how to provide the nation with an adequate supply of water for the well-being and the livelihoods of its people will prove crucial for the development of the newborn state. South Sudan is starting from scratch concerning water management in terms of policy, capacity, and infrastructure. These elements have been suffering from decades of neglect during the civil war, compromising coherent approaches to water management in the face of emergency relief and small scale interventions. Today, a plethora of national, inter- and multilateral actors is engaged in discussing, constructing, evaluating the way the water sector and its pertaining institutions and infrastructure is/will be taking shape. Behind the technical and financial challenges, however, a broader discussion as to how to prioritize the use of water, the interests and rights of the people, economic interests and environmental sustainability has yet to be settled. The water sector served as the key hole through which to look at state-society relations in the new state, inspired by questions of equity, sustainability and justice. To provide the link to the theoretical discussion on water management and water ethics (see the preliminary results are grouped according to the main principles of the concept of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM): equity, economic efficiency, and environmental sustainability.
4 'Historically water resources development in Southern Sudan has often been carried out without due consideration of needs and priorities of different stakeholders. Travelling through South Sudan after the first rains have started leaves one amazed by the lush vegetation, the intense colour of the wide, uninhabited fields. Indeed, it was this rich pasture and fertile lands of the South that inspired the 'Breadbasket' strategy, that created havoc in Sudan's agricultural sector in the 1970ies: vast, scarcely populated land, cut across by many (seasonal) rivers, regaled with two rainy seasons. In many regions in South Sudan, the notion of water is shaped by the conception of abundance, rather than scarcity. The rich resource base, of which only the oil is currently being exploited, includes wide swathes of prime agricultural land and bountiful water resources. In the face of unstable oil production, the current government is promoting the use of the agricultural assets as a main pillar of their strategy for national growth. Nevertheless, reliable supply of safe water for drinking, hygiene and productive use (agriculture, cattle raising etc.) is still lacking in many areas, and considered as one of the main hindrances to development. The reasons why the vision of the Government of South Sudan (GOSS) to provide water as a lever for peace has not yet moved from rhetoric to reality are manifold. Who is taking the lead? If this is what the policy paper says, this is probably what we want to do (State government official) The Local Government Act of 2009 captures water supply and management of local water resources as part of concurrent powers shared between different levels of government. South Sudan consists of ten States, each governed by a state governor and a state council of ministers. The states are subdivided into payams, bomas, and villages. Each level is to be represented by its own representative body. In reality, the lower levels lack proper representation and there is little agreement on who is ultimately responsible for the provision of water and the maintenance of the pertaining infrastructure. Also, there is little exchange of information, and even less so of funds, between the different levels. Given the early stage of institutional development in the new nation, international donors, agencies and NGOs are dedicating large amounts of their time and resources to support the emergent structures. However, over time the relations between the various development partners created a separate network of information exchange and collaboration that only marginally involves state structures. While potentially more efficient in the short term, this system deprives the government of the slight chance to enhance its own strength. In terms of state-society relations, this system undermines the role of the state as service provider, and conveys a weak image - if any image at all - to the population. Government partners have expressed a wish to develop strategic communication tools to assist with engaging in dialogue with the public, to gain their trust and foster mutual accountability. As one government representative at a workshop on rural water in Juba said: out of our own weakness, we do not check for registration or competency of the NGOs, but only wait for benefits. Communities are reported to ask: what is government? We get no services from them, why are they there? The very concept of taxes, or generally contributing to services to an instance other than the tribe is unknown, hence NGOs that provide services for free have come to gain a popular standing on the local level. Concerning water for agriculture, which is to take on a strong role in the generation of alternative economic revenues, coordination is even more difficult as it spans across two
5 ministries (MWRI and the Ministry of Agriculture MAF) and is addressed by a different cluster of development projects. The section on economic efficiency looks at this question more closely. Equity Until the surge in humanitarian assistance throughout the Sudan, communities relied on hand dug wells, rivers and ponds, and made use of the water resources as they had done for generations. There was no government in the sense that services were provided and resources were allocated. During the civil war, international assistance provided wells to meet the needs of the growing number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) and remote communities. The same was true for the areas controlled by the central government in Khartoum. Several areas that were covered by the research in fact claimed that drinking water was more easily available during the conflict, as humanitarian assistance was stronger, and people were not expected to contribute financially. Today, the provision of drinking water is still predominantly handled by NGOs with the distant vision to hand operation and maintenance over to the private sector. The government, in that case the Ministry for Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI), is to coordinate this process, in conjunction with state and county governments. The actual distribution of projects is determined by donor regulations and also the geographical distribution of projects, which in turn highly depend on accessibility of the communities.
6 At lower levels of governance, the political economy of water supply is of a different nature: Locations where wells are drilled, depend on an influential community representative who knows the system and the various channels of information and distribution of funds, on someone who campaigns for the community. Local officials made use of NGOs and their services to strengthen their own power base, creating pockets of power by offering development partners a base to work from, giving birth to a highly unequal division of services. If water is really to be used as a lever for peace, this lever is currently not pushed by South Sudan, but rather by the international community, and equity, as a prime constituent of sustainable development is not ensured. Economic efficiency At this stage of development, the (economic) inefficiency of the current system of rural water management is rather due to the nature of the international humanitarian system than to a specificity of South Sudan. In the future, it will have to be judged by how far the current development and strategic plans have been implemented. Historically, large scale water management for agricultural production on behalf of Khartoum has been shaped by the very dynamics and considerations that have driven the centreperiphery conflict for decades i.e. extracting resources from the South/the periphery for the benefit of regions closer to the centre of power in Khartoum. This mainly pertained to the Nile waters and the fertile soils that were to provide food for the entire region. The abandoned site of the unfinished Jonglei Canal, which was envisaged to reduce evaporation in the vast Sudd wetlands and hence increase the flow of water to the North has become a symbol of this policy. Due to the pending negotiations between Khartoum and Juba, the rights of the South to the Nile waters have yet to be negotiated, preventing any proactive planning on the use of the river for agricultural production. South Sudan is traditionally relying on rain-fed agriculture, making use of the two rainy seasons for subsistence farming. However, the high levels of food insecurity and even higher percentage of (costly) imported food consumed in urban areas underlines the wish of the government to expand on agricultural production. Rice, sesame, vegetables, fruit trees, and cotton have been identified as potential income generating crops. The agricultural sector is the life vain of the country, irrigated agriculture being paramount for South Sudan in the eyes of the Ministry for Water Resources and Irrigation. As the state lacks the resources to initiate and implement these projects, the hope is on outside funding. But financial support has rather been given to smallholders or to emergency food provision on behalf of the development community. Only now donors are looking into the feasibility of large-scale farming. The discussion on outside commercial investors has produced heated debate and instigated fears that the limited sovereignty and institutional weakness might allow international investors to buy/lease wide swathes of prime agricultural land without giving due considerations to the rights of the people concerned. In the end, this trend has failed to materialize until now, given the unclear legal framework, political instability and the lack of supporting infrastructure. Whether this is a blessing or a curse has to be seen, but it does mean that much needed investment in water management infrastructure has been delayed again, depriving the nation of a potential source of much needed income.
7 Environmental Sustainability Water management at this point has taken an extractive nature, corresponding to past practices under external control. The tapping of groundwater resources for the provision of water for the daily needs of the population is taking place in the absence of reliable information on the resource base: how much water is available? How are groundwater tables affected by the humanitarian activities? While human rights based approaches to water management shed light on the important fact that many areas are indeed still underserved, the fact that many of the wells have run dry emphasises the importance of sustainable planning. Again, contributing to the knowledge base is apparently not a donor favorite, and has been reported as a bottleneck for funding in different countries. The only reliable information on groundwater reserves is several decades old, and funding has repeatedly been cut for further resource mapping projects. Monitoring and data collection is only moving slowly, much slower than the allocation of water for new humanitarian projects. Focusing on extracting water for humanitarian projects while neglecting the water management dimension and the quality and quantity of the resource base is likely to create problems in the future and limit the future capacity of the government to sustainably manage its resources. Given the lack of reliable data, the impact of climate change is hard to assess, but information from surrounding areas suggest that the region will become dryer in the future. There is reported anecdotal evidence that farmers have voiced concerns about decreasing, unreliable and more erratic rainfalls, which will gravely affect rain-fed production in the future. Given the threat of decreasing water supply, an integrated, coherent, and well planned approach to water management is ever more important. Conclusion This brief overview of the many challenges of the water sector in efficiently, equitably and sustainably serving the people of South Sudan is not meant as an accusation of the national and international players involved. Rather, it shows the different considerations of the actors and the unsustainable practices that have emerged as a result. Each point links back to foundational debates in resource allocation, and there is no easy solution at hand. The notion of boreholes as a 'political gift' to the administration on behalf of the international community has to be turned into that of a token of responsibility to secure the water needs of the pertaining community. And no matter how big the challenge of creating a good knowledge base of the water resources might be given the many different interests and players involved, this is the only opportunity to take ownership of this natural blessing and really using it sustainably for the benefit of the people of South Sudan. Even with little internal and donor funding, the focus has to move from quick, unsustainable solutions towards better and more coordinated planning, taking the different sources of water into account. The full report on the field work is available here: