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1 INDUSTRIE archäologie SHIFT-X Compendium on effective industrial heritage management structures and options for their interregional transfer SÄCHSISCHES INDUSTRIEMUSEUM IWTG/TU BERGAKADEMIE FREIBERG

2 INDUSTRIE archäologie 1

3 INDUSTRIE archäologie Studien zur Erforschung, Dokumentation und Bewahrung von Quellen zur Industriekultur Sächsisches Industriemuseum IWTG/TU Bergakademie Freiberg 2

4 14 SHIFT-X Compendium on effective industrial heritage management structures and options for their interregional transfer edited by Helmuth Albrecht Daniela Walther 3

5 Table of content Foreword of the Editors 7 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION Intention 1.2 Concepts and Methodology Industrial heritage General ways of Re-Use for industrial heritage objects Theoretical Settings SHIFT-X Tandem Support System CHAPTER II: STRONG POLITICAL LEADERSHIP Incipient Description of the Approach 2.2 Examples on effective heritage management structures based on strong political leadership Styrian Iron Route (Austria) European Capital of Culture Essen International Building Exhibition (IBA) Fürst-Pückler-Land CHAPTER III: POWERFUL ECONOMIC PARTNERS Incipient Description of the Approach 3.2 Examples on effective heritage management structures based on powerful economic partners Association for Mining tourism Welzow (Germany) Foundation for Industrial Heritage Preservation and Historical Culture in North Rhine-Westphalia (Stiftung Industriedenkmalpflege und Geschichtskultur) and the National Trust in UK CHAPTER IV: COMMUNITY-LED AND GRASSROOTS DEVELOPMENT Incipient Description of the Approach 4.2 Examples on effective heritage management structures based on grassroots development and participation Stebo (Belgium) Citizens Jury and Heritage champion (UK) 4

6 CHAPTER V: CRITICAL ASSESSMENT AND CONCLUSION Factors of success Strong political leadership Powerful economic partner Community-led or grassroots development 5.2 Lessons learned and Recommendations CRITICAL ASSESSMENT AND CONCLUSION IN NATIONAL LANGUAGES Deutsch Kritische Bewertung und Schlussfolgerungen Erfolgsfaktoren Starke politische Führung Leistungsfähige Wirtschaftspartner Gemeinschaftliche Managementansätze und Graswurzelbewegungen 5.2 Erfahrungen und Empfehlungen Czech Kritické zhodnocení a shrnutí Mechanismy nezbytné pro úspěch Vůdčí role politiky Silný ekonomický partner Komunitně řízený rozvoj 5.2 Shrnutí poznatků a doporučení Polish Krytyczna ocena i podsumowanie Czynniki sukcesu Silne przywództwo polityczne Silny partner gospodarczy Prowadzenie przez społeczność lub budowanie fundamentów 5.2 Nauki i zalecenia REFERENCES 116 Edition Notice 119 5

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8 Foreword of the Editors Industrial Archaeology in its Freiberg interpretation is the science of survey, documentation, interpretation and evaluation as well as of the preservation and the sustainable re-use of the physical remains of the industrial past in the broader context of the history of the industrial society and the cultural, social and economic needs of our society today. Research and education at the Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) of the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg are based on this wider understanding of industrial archaeology. As a part of the Department for Economics at the Freiberg University the IWTG is actively engaged in the research about the harmonisation of the preservation of industrial heritage and the needs of economic development. In 2009 the IWTG organised and hosted the XIV. International Congress of TICCIH (The International Committee for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage) which was devoted to the main topic Industrial Heritage Ecology and Economy. Furthermore, since over ten years the IWTG is working on the World Heritage project Mining Cultural Landscape Erzgebirge/Krušnohorí, a cross border project together with the Czech Republic, which successfully tries to combine the preservation of a large scale historic mining landscape with the further economic and infrastructural development of the region. The key factor in this project is the close cooperation with over 40 municipalities and five counties on both sides of the German-Czech border and the participation of all relevant stakeholders in the preparation of the UNESCO World Heritage nomination. Therefore, the IWTG became one of the two university partners in a project for cultural heritage as a promoter in the economic and social transition of old-industrial regions, called SHIFT-X. Its intention to improve cultural management structures for industrial heritage, to innovate heritage-based products and to change the perception of old-industrial places by exchanging knowledge and information, jointly developing results, accompanying project implementations and disseminating project milestones by collaboration of old-industrial municipalities and regions in Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany and Poland with university partners in Austria and Germany fits perfectly into the research strategy of the IWTG. Therefore it was no question that the scientific results of the project, the publication Compendium of effective industrial heritage structures and options for their interregional transfer should be published in the book series INDUSTRIEarchäologie (Industrial Archaeology) of the IWTG and the Industrial Museum of Saxony. Freiberg, September 2014 Prof. Dr. Helmuth Albrecht Dr. Daniela Walther 7

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10 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Intention 1.2 Concepts and Methodology Industrial heritage General ways of Re-Use for industrial heritage objects Theoretical Settings SHIFT-X Tandem Support System

11 1.1 INTENTION Old-industrial regions have been hot spots of economic development in Central Europe over decades and centuries. They can be characterized by several traits in contrast with other regions in the countries: 1 Above-average density of population, size of centres, provision of infrastructure Above-average existence of industry Early industrialization Regional economy is dominated by certain specific sectors (usually heavy industry or mining) at the end of the production cycle Economy is often dominated by big enterprises District of Zwickau for the economic region Chemnitz-Zwickau with its automotive, textile, engineering and mining history (Germany), Mining tourism association Welzow for the Lusatian region with its mining history (Germany), Styrian iron route association for the region Eisenerz with its steel and mining history (Austria), Micro region Sokolov-East for the Northwestern Bohemian region with its mining, porcelain, engineering and chemical history (Czech), STEBO Competence Center for Community Development for the Limburg region with its mining history (Belgium), City of Bydgoszcz with its engineering, railway and chemical history (Poland). Since the 1990s many of them have lost their significance due to globalization, transition from socialist to market economies as well as other framework conditions. This change is especially hard to overcome by peripherally situated small and medium-sized towns since they normally have only their industrial past to refer to. Old-industrial regions usually have little ability to self-regenerate thus needing development policies. Former industries not only leave behind a material cultural heritage such as industrial monuments but also an immaterial heritage like numerable traditions and philosophies of life related to the former industrial work. These valuable components determine future regional developments and should not be demolished. The Central European project SHIFT-X ( ) is engaged in the field of industrial heritage utilization as a promoter of economic activities. The cultural shift, if understood as re-interpretation of existing values, has to be regarded as a crucial pre-condition for any sustainable new development in structurally disadvantaged regions. SHIFT-X addresses exactly this systemic challenge. For this purpose, six post-industrial cities and regions of Central and Western Europe have come together. These are: 1 Eckart, Karl, Ehrke, Sibylle, Krähe, Harald and Müller-Eckart, Ingrid: Social, economic and cultural aspects in the dynamic changing process of old-industrial regions. p. 5. The regional partners are accompanied by two scientific institutions renowned for their expertise in regional development, heritage preservation and systematic innovation research. Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany), represented by the Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology, University of Graz (Austria), represented by the Institute of Geography and Regional Science, supported by the Institute for Systems Science, Innovation and Sustainability Research. They all jointly develop, test and disseminate approaches on how industrial heritage can be used for fostering sustainable endogenous development, for generating innovation in traditional branches, for reshaping regional identities and for improving regional images in three different work packages: 1. Advanced management structures for cultural heritage in old-industrial regions 2. Creative innovative heritage-based products 3. Using cultural heritage for changing perception of old-industrial regions The compendium at hand is a core output of the project SHIFT-X and focusses on industrial heritage management structures. It aims at giving an overview on good practice management approaches from within and without the project 10

12 partnership. Industrial heritage can play an important role in reviving the economy in old industrial regions by giving impulses for the regional development in order to avoid negative economic circular developments after the closure of former lead industries in old industrial regions (G. Myrdal). Additionally, in this compendium, possible modes of interregional knowledge transfer shall be discussed based on the Theory of intercultural learning and cross cultural borrowing (Van Buskirk and Takeuchi). Since the main target group of the compendium are practitioners in the field of heritage management as well as the scientific community, this theoretical approach was chosen. There are certain trends or highlight projects within the sphere of industrial heritage and industrial culture. The most advantageous projects need to be examined concerning their organization, the involved stakeholders and financing matters. Industrial heritage projects are confronted with the results of globalization, competition and economic pressure. This leads to the necessity to find new ways of managing industrial heritage projects and to look for innovative management concepts as presented in this output at hand. The compilation is mainly based on the information of the SHIFT-X giving regions and good practice examples of the work packages as well as the results of the tandem support offers and meetings. Focus lays on management structures in order to inspire practitioners on deciding how to manage industrial heritage sites. The practical examples within SHIFT-X were classified into three clusters, depending on the main factor of success and accompanied by an additional example from outside the partnership: Strong political leadership Powerful economic partners Community-led and grassroots developments help adapt working ideas and structures to the needs and requirements of new industrial heritage projects and thus, bring inspiration, new impulses and ideas to the SHIFT-X partners and other stakeholders in industrial heritage. However, in practise no such clear clusters are possible. Cooperation and networking of all relevant stakeholders involved in industrial heritage projects are needed in order to utilize its potentials for the economic and regional development. There are complex interdependencies and interferences between the approaches. No one is able to undertake industrial heritage projects all alone. Networking, cooperation and the involvement of all relevant decision makers in the field of industrial heritage, administration, politics, economy and citizenship straight from the beginning seems to be one of the major factors of success in all the presented approaches when realizing and managing industrial heritage projects. 1.2 CONCEPTS AND METHODOLOGY Industrial heritage Industrial sites have different components and aspects to offer for future regional developments. Industry-related buildings, areas and installations itself represent the architecture as well as the history of production. Mines, warehouses, production sites, dumps, brownfields and others are such examples. Furthermore, industry has formed the landscape through slagheaps and the industrial infrastructure that connected the different sites. Next to the industrial sphere, numerous housing estates for workers were established in a garden city style throughout Europe. Also there were commercial areas developed in dependence of the industry. Valuable parts of these areas are to be preserved as industrial cultural heritage. Preservation can be achieved by sensitive re-utilization. Therefore, the output shows a variety of European offers and focusses on peculiarities, chosen instruments and lessons learned. The collection includes the innovative and successful approaches the authors were able to collect. But there is no claim for completeness. It was rather the idea to General ways of Re-Use for industrial heritage objects The English Heritage is a British institution for safeguarding, preservation and maintenance of historical and archaeolog- 11

13 ical places in Great Britain for future generations. It is also involved in managing places and sites in order to keep them accessible for the public. Within its research on the economic re-use of industrial sites, certain generally successful solutions were found: 2 Space for small business, especially the creative industry: Since old- industrial places often are located at the city centres they are attractive for business re-use and co-locations of similar businesses in a creative environment. Normally, the rental prices are acceptable. Employment with all its economic benefits is kept in the cities. Hotel space and residential use: The commercial reuse of industrial heritage objects or the use as resident places mostly depend on the location, the real estate market and the pollution situation as well as the demand for this kind of living and housing. Centre pieces in a larger new-built development: Due to the combination of new buildings or production sites with industrial heritage sites, the industrial history of places can be kept visible and comprehensible. Parts of the former infrastructure might be included in new buildings. The converging of old and new buildings can create interesting architecture and enriches the architecture of cities. Re-use as museum or technical monument in order to present the industrial history of the area. Building preservation trusts (BPT): These organisations are dedicated to rescuing historic buildings. They exist in different forms reaching from the rescue of small and local objects up to trusts for objects at the country or even national level. 3 Often they engage in buildings that are not suitable for commercial solutions and apply for public grants that not necessarily have to involve private commercial partners, e. g. at funding programs of English Heritage, the Heritage Lottery Fund and the Architectural Heritage Fund (AHF). Depending on legal framework con- 2 ( ). 3 ( ). ditions in different countries, this might be an opportunity to keep valuable industrial heritage objects from decline. Temporary uses: This concept allows short-term but popular in-between-uses that can create public interest for an industrial heritage area. This is one part in the process of creating pressure groups and supporters of the industrial heritage. If an income is generated this of course should be used for the maintenance of the object. The re-using of industrial heritage buildings in general, but especially in old-industrialised regions is not without problems. Usually the economic surrounding is not optimal for new economic developments. Also the architectural settings (important fixtures, fittings and internal spaces) and possible environmental issues might affect new uses. But if industrial heritage projects are carried out, an effective management is needed in order to fulfil the expectations and to use the advantages industrial heritage objects can offer Theoretical Settings Within the economic Theory of Regulation and the New Institutional Economics it is stated that economic spheres interact and react to each other within a free market. If there is change in one sphere, the others react appropriate. If there is, for example, a negative development in the industrial production sphere, the situation regarding human resources, know how, employment rate, power etc. responds accordingly. Due to back coupling effects, the intensity in changing processes raises, leading to cumulative processes. Impulses to such negative downward spiral effects can be the breakdown of economic factors such as production, investing, income or demand. 4 Due to the break-down and closure of former key industries, a downward spiral of negative regional development took place in old-industrial regions. The loss of industries led to a rising unemployment and a loss of possible working places. Since economic decline leads to migration processes, there is a loss of knowhow and human resources in the regions which prevents 4 Myrdal, Gunnar: Economic Theory and Underdeveloped Regions. p

14 other industries to re-open business here and start new economic developments. This tends to result in the development of richer and poorer regions. Free market forces alone might strengthen the economic gap between such disparate regions. Mostly, centralized regions with the capital or big and economically strong cities are able to substitute the loss of industries and stay economically stable. Regions situated at the periphery with smaller towns often rely heavily on the industry and are not able to compensate de-industrialisation and thus become poorer. Policy instruments for regional planning and promotion of economic developments are needed in order to revive old-industrial regions. 5 Attempting to stop negative downward spiral developments, industrial heritage and the remains of the former industries can be used as new impulses in order to start regional economic re-development and accompanying other re-development projects (e. g. settlement of new firms, investments in the education system, and implementation of innovations). Re-vitalisation of former industrial places that is sensible of heritage preservation is a kind of economic crisis management and one possible policy instrument for regional development. It also encompasses the needs of the environment for a clean-up and obtains the regional industrial culture. The re-development experiences made in old-industrial regions can also be a model for other regions in similar economic declining processes. The question at hand is how good management concepts can be transferred between regions or even countries with different economic and legal settings. Here the Theory of Acculturation and cross-cultural borrowing as presented by Van Buskirk and Takeuchi 6 can explain how this process can be actively controlled. The knowledge transfer to other projects can only focus at transferring instruments and structures such as conceptual ideas, useful marketing instruments, forms of cooperation and partnership as well as basic management structures as implementation instruments. A simple blueprint adaption of good practice examples cannot be possible since the collected practice examples come from different regions and countries with different financial capability, legal systems and economic as well as Business closure in key sector Further Business closure in key sector Decline of spending power, collapse of infrastructure Region loses qualities for specialized service providers and dependent firms Structural unemployment unused resources, withdrawal of capital and emigration of work force Path of decline Factory is closed down More losses in income Cumulative shrinking process Unemployment Increase of business tax Deterrent of other enterprises More enterprises leave the municipality Decrease of income and demand Closing down of enterprises More unemployment Image of the municipality becomes worse Factory is built More employment Cumulative process of growth More employment Lowering of business tax Attraction of more enterprises More enterprises Increase of income and demand Attraction of capital and enterprises More employment Image of the municipality improves Picture 1: The circle of a declining economic formation due to back coupling effects. Picture 2: Shrinking process and process of growth by cumulative effects according to G. Myrdal. 5 Myrdal, Gunnar: Economic Theory and Underdeveloped Regions. p Van Buskirk, William and Kazuo Takeuchi: Absorbing management technologies. A cross-cultural approach

15 social contexts. Therefore, the root concepts need to be adjusted and creatively adapted to each region in order to fulfil the relevant needs and objectives. Learning from the experiences elsewhere can be beneficial and also cost efficient for developing new industrial heritage projects and management structures. In short the theory states, that there are different steps allowing international and intercultural learning between giving and receiving regions or projects. 7 First of all, the giving industrial heritage project concept (good practice example) needs to be described in detail in order to select relevant factors of success. In this step it is important to examine interdependencies between the economic, social or judicial system. A neutral reflection on the own performance in the borrowing project (receiving region) provides an informative basis for optimizing the active learning processes. The factors of success of the giving project need to be creatively combined with and adapted to the new contexts by analysing, evaluating and conforming in a process of creative assimilation. It is about finding the most useful approach and avoiding made mistakes. It is important that lending and borrowing stakeholders work closely together and that they communicate and share their experiences, their needs and expectations in order to ensure a sensible learning from each other. If the knowledge transfer was successful, the innovation in heritage management is kept and developed further according to the needs and context of the projects as a continuous adapting process. In order to support such close cooperation between stakeholders, the creation of network structures and clusters is useful. Networks can exist within the region or inter-regional, connecting all involved stakeholders and supporters of industrial heritage projects. Michael E. Porter, one of the leading researchers on the matter of clusters and networks, defined clusters as follows: Clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, specialized suppliers, service providers, firms in related industries and as- 7 Van Buskirk, William and Kazuo Takeuchi: Absorbing management technologies. A cross-cultural approach. p. 275ff. sociated institutions ( ) in a particular field that compete but also cooperate. 8 Cluster in the field of industrial heritage projects and museums are regionally or thematically linked. They can exchange specific know-how amongst each other and centralize activities such as the marketing of industrial heritage assets under the same brand in the region. Due to the spatial closeness of regional stakeholders, cooperation and trust can grow by face-to-face-communication and by creating inter- and intra-sectorial networks. Together it is also easier to get access to public goods and subsidies. This can booster the respective performance of each stakeholder. Clusters should not be established artificially but evolve and exist naturally by cooperation amongst the relevant stakeholders. It is also important to avoid involving stakeholders that only look for windfall gain, meaning they join the cluster in order to benefit from its success but are not willing to take their share in working, especially when applying for public funding. Networks play an important role within clusters and define their organisational structure. There are a variety of definitions for networks, so that for the purpose of this compendium it would be best to focus only on the peculiarities of networks. 9 Networks get actively set-up and coordinated as a close integration between all stakeholders. They are characterized by active cooperation beyond the usual maintenance of business contacts. At minimum, there should be at least three independent partners that want to collaborate for a longer time. Written legal contracts are usually the basis for networks, defining the common objectives and details of cooperation. Thus, synergies can be created and used for all stakeholders. For the field of industrial heritage management, stakeholders of a region such as museums or technical monuments can benefit from working together on a project, connecting the museum objects in the region in order to give visitors a broader view on the matter. Also inter-sectorial networks combining museums, administrations and citizens 8 Porter, M. E.: Location, Competition and Economic Development. p Günther, J.: Innovationcooperation in East Germany only a half way success? p

16 bring the aforementioned profits to the stakeholders and are advisable when managing industrial heritage projects. With the internal SHIFT-X tandem support system, the basis for the mentioned analysis of management concepts, knowledge transfer and the creation of networks was made possible. Good management concepts that helped the regional economy and supported the public acceptance of industrial heritage projects can be role models for other regions when their factors of success get transferred to other regions SHIFT-X Tandem Support System Regarding the management structures within the SHIFT-X project partnership, the partner regions are divided in giving regions and receiving regions. The giving regions have developed good practice management approaches in different industrial heritage projects. These are analysed within the SHIFT-X project in order to enable a knowledge transfer into the receiving regions that are looking for new impulses and strategies. Since the regions involved in SHIFT-X share common attributes such as being situated peripherally and characterized by small and medium-sized towns and a loss of the former industries, the needs and expectations of the receiving regions are alike. Within the partnership, the Museums Association Styrian Iron Route has expert knowledge on how to implement industrial heritage projects with strong political support and creating networks and industrial heritage clusters. Within the SHIFT-X tandem support system, it acts a role model for the district of Zwickau, the Mikroregion Sokolov-East, the STEBO Competence Center for Community Development and the City of Bydgoszcz. The Association for Mining tourism is a good practice example concerning the cooperation with a powerful economic partner and supporter. Especially the Styrian Iron Route and the City of Bydgoszcz are confronted with strong economic stakeholders in their regions and knowledge about this kind of network is valuable to them. The Stebo Competence Center for Community Development has generated many strategies on how to involve volunteers in community-led and grassroots developments into industrial heritage projects and how to connect these initiatives with administrative bodies. This knowledge is especially transferred into the Czech micro region Sokolov-East were there are hardly any volunteers and private involvement in industrial heritage projects. For the tandem support it was important that giving and receiving regions interacted very well. The giving regions had to clearly identify the tandem support offers they can make depending on the aims and goals the receiving regions wanted to fulfil by the interregional learning process. This helped to identify the transferred management method. Additionally, it was necessary that receiving regions set up regional expert groups of their own involving all relevant stakeholders for the industrial heritage in their areas. Their function was to adapt and implement the chosen good practice management practice according to their surroundings and clearly identify how the current situation of industrial heritage management was before SHIFT-X and what management structures and project were already planned in a short and long-term perspective. For the implementation, milestones were identified on how to transfer good management practice into the own region and industrial heritage projects. The examples of best practice management from within the SHIFT-X project partnership are each accompanied by an example from outside the partnership, thus showing the variety of approaches and concepts in managing and valorising regional industrial heritage. 15

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18 CHAPTER II STRONG POLITICAL LEADERSHIP 2.1 Incipient Description of the Aproach 2.2 Examples on effective heritage management structures based on strong political leadership Styrian Iron Route (Austria) European Capital of Culture Essen International Building Exhibition (IBA) Fürst-Pückler-Land

19 2.1 INCIPIENT DESCRIPTION OF THE APPROACH To get industrial cultural heritage projects implemented and properly managed, the political will of involved decision makers is needed in order to establish long-term and reliable and living networks. By political support or lobbying, projects can get finances to create intra- or interregional networks and to use existing synergies since different kinds of local or regional stakeholders cooperate with each other. If the political support is above party lines, sustainable network structures can evolve that develop industrial heritage projects on a larger scale over a long time. Political support can influence the administrative decision makers in favour of industrial projects. Involved stakeholders might get easier access to relevant information. If there is a political will, usually ways of implementing projects are found. But in order to create this political lobbying group, the benefits of industrial heritage projects must be clearly communicated. Politicians expect a positive development for the regional economy, a positive shift in the inner and outward regional image and the strengthening of local or regional identity. The given examples will show that with strong political leadership and support, projects on all spatial levels (regional, national, international) are possible. 2.2 EXAMPLES ON EFFECTIVE HERITAGE MANAGE- MENT STRUCTURES BASED ON STRONG POLITICAL LEADERSHIP Styrian Iron Route (Austria) Situated in the very heart of Austria, the Styrian Iron Route offers an exciting journey through time. Over a distance of about 100km the past and future of ore mining and smelting can be experienced. The Erzberg, where ore has been mined for more than 1300 years, remains the centre of the Iron Route to this day and is a landmark. Ore and iron was first mined in the year 712 ac. At the peak (around 1950) 5000 miners were working at the major mine Erzberg next to Eisenerz (nowadays appr. 200). Innumerable Picture 3: Erzberg near Eisenerz. historical sites along the Styrian Iron Route bear witness to the previous production facilities. Until today, on-going mining activities shape this area. Prospects are that the extraction will be economically efficient for at least another 20 years. Apart from the mining itself, industry had a great impact to the whole region, e. g. the steel industry. But as it was common for mining and heavy industry since the 1990s, the significance is declining and there was the need for new strategies in regional planning. Using the connection, spanning past and present, the goal in regional development was to create a collective regional identity Iron Route and thus, form a new identity through conservation and valorisation the remains of former industries. The registered and non-profit association Styrian Iron Route was founded 1986 and comprises 18 municipalities ( inhabitants): Niklasdorf, Proleb, Leoben, St.Peter Freienstein, Gai, Hafning, Trofaiach über Vordernberg, Eisenerz, Radmer, Hieflau, Landl, Weissenbach, Altenmarkt, Gams, Palfau, Wildalpen and Gusswerk. Its aim is to promote the economic and cultural development of all participating stakeholders, especially in regard to the history of ore extraction and processing. This encompasses the conservation and revival of the regions mining heritage. The association presents mining-historical monuments, rich traditions and handcrafts, which show the regions importance for the industrial development within Styria and Austria to a wider audience. 18

20 Since 1996, this association Styrian Iron Route operates its own visitor s centre and an incoming agency, which is licensed to organise and sell travel packages and group tours in the region. It is the key player for regional development in the district of Leoben (Upper Styria). In its statutes, one main goal is defined as the valorisation of the regional cultural heritage. Since 1998, captioned with the key word Myth of Iron and Ore, many new attractions have been developed along the Iron Route. Also, the region offers pristine nature and best conditions for all kinds of sportive activities. All the possibilities merge into one consistent touristic program, allowing for individuality for each visitor and without the usual signs of mass tourism. There are different tourism associations active within the framework of the Iron Route: Adventure Region Erzberg HerzBergLand Palten-Liesing Adventure Valleys Leoben Tourism Association In the last 25 years about 10 million Euros have been raised for the conservation of the mining and industrial heritage. 10 In addition, profound cultural concepts for the city of Eisenerz (eisenerz*art) and for the region Styrian iron route ( Kulturkonzept Eisenstrasse ) have been developed in recent years on the basis of the mining heritage and so far partly implemented. 11 Cultural change has been the major issue. In the internationally well-known ReDesign -process of the city of Eisenerz, the association Styrian Iron route plays a major part as well: The project aims to rebuild the shrinking mining city and uses the potential of centuries-old buildings with deep cultural heritage by giving them a new meaning. The by now traditional festival Culture along the Styrian Iron Route offers another attraction for visitors and residents alike. From folk culture to modern art, high quality events engaging international respected artist invigorate the region during this time of year. Picture 4: Logo of the Museum Association Styrian Iron Route. The association Styrian Iron Route was also responsible for setting up the Museum Association Styrian Iron Route consisting of 13 regional museums and mining monuments dealing with the history of the mining region. The region is proud of its mining and industrial heritage and there is the strong political will to take further advantage of these potentials for valorisation and an image change in the region. The institutionalized Museum Association Styrian Iron Route is a limited liability company, the shareholders being the cities and museums of Leoben, Eisenerz, Trofaiach and Vordernberg as well as the Association Styrian Iron Route, the art museum Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien and the Universalmuseum Joanneum in Graz. It is characterised by a joint marketing network, conjointly developed touristic offers and specialisation. 12 In 2001, there was the first concept for a regional network of museums on the Styrian Iron Route based on an evaluation of all museums, their specialism, unique selling points and their overall work. 13 The museums got convinced of the idea by the opportunity to have a common staff pool as well as access to financial resources. Also the improved common marketing activities were an asset. The master plan was unique and thematically interesting for the region, used and created synergies and could rely on attractive and known leader projects such as MuseumsCenter Leoben or the visitors mine at the Erzberg. Both were already known and secured visitors. 10 Museums Association Styrian Iron Route: Presentation at the SHIFT-X Tandem meeting in Styria February SHIFT-X: National overview on heritage-based PR-campaigns (Output 5.2.1). Good practice examples of PP4 Association of Styrian Iron Route. 12 Museums Association Styrian Iron Route: Presentation at the SHIFT-X Tandem meeting in Styria February GMK: Vermarktungspolitische Überlegungen zum Museumsverbund Eisenstraße. p

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