Eye-Tracking Evidence for the Reference of German Demonstratives

Größe: px
Ab Seite anzeigen:

Download "Eye-Tracking Evidence for the Reference of German Demonstratives"

Transkript

1 Fachbereich Humanwissenschaften, Institut für Kognitionswissenschaft Eye-Tracking Evidence for the Reference of German Demonstratives Bachelor Thesis August 2010 Sebastian Timmer Supervisors: Prof. Dr. Peter Bosch Prof. Dr. Peter König 1

2 Abstract This study was conducted in order to find out whether it is possible that a referent in discourse topic is accessible to demonstrative pronouns in discourses with two grammatically possible antecedents. This is contrary to what former studies found out. But our hypothesis that this works anyway, is based on an example with only one possible antecedent that is very natural and intuitive in German everyday language use. We tried to convert this example into a discourse with two referents. The experiment was done with eye-tracking and participants had to look at sceneries built with Playmobil while listening to the sentences we wanted to investigate. The results did not support the hypothesis, as in all conditions the referent in focus position was fixated significantly more. 2

3 Contents 1 INTRODUCTION METHODS Stimuli Visual Stimuli Auditory Stimuli Randomization/Balancing Participants Apparatus Procedure Data Analysis Fixations Statistics Regions of Interest RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION REFERENCES ACKNOWLEDGMENT APPENDIX A Visual Stimuli...28 B Auditory Stimuli...32 C Questionnaire and Data Sheet...42 C.1 Subject Questionnaire...42 C.2 Session Data Sheet AFFIRMATION

4 1 Introduction The comprehension of pronominal expressions is a task in everyday language that does not lead to problems to understand to what antecedent the pronoun refers to. Although the mechanism behind that seems to be complex. The linguistic function of pronouns is to substitute a noun phrase in order to avoid the repetition of explicit names. Thus, they are proforms used to refer back to a concept that has been introduced in the discourse before [Almor et al., 2007]. They are anaphoric expressions and therefore coreferential with their antecedent they replace. So the main task is to find the correct antecedent, especially in cases in which there is more than one possible candidate. This process is called the anaphora resolution. The resolution process consists, according to Nicol and Swinney (1999), of three steps. The first step is the denomination of the pronoun triggering the search for an antecedent. Then in a second step all potential antecedents are taken into account until finally in step tree exactly one candidate of the whole set is picked up and all others get discarded. We are only aware of the last step while the other two remain unconscious [Nicol and Swinney, 2002]. Most of the time it does not cause problems to pick the right candidate and it can be easily performed, although we do not pay attention to it. This is the case for the simple example (1) below: Example (1): Ein Mann geht nach hause. Er war bis gerade im Büro. (A man is going home. He was in the office until now.) One of the most important works concerning the topic of reference of anaphoric expressions is Binding Theory [Chomsky, 1981], that deals with syntactic restrictions. Chomsky differentiates between three kinds of anaphoric expressions, which are Anaphors (bound pronouns like himself ), Pronominals (referential pronouns like he ) and R-expressions (like the policeman ). Referential pronouns are not allowed to be bound (c-commanded) by their antecedents. Besides these syntactic restrictions also semantic processes seem to play an important role in making the decision for one or the other referent as antecedent [Caplan and Hildebrandt, 1988]. Discourse Representation Theory (DRT) [Kamp, 1981] and the Centering Theory [Grosz et al., 1995] are semantic approaches to this topic. Kamp s idea is that the resolution of a pronoun goes beyond sentence boundaries. Here every sentence has to be integrated stepwise into a discourse representation structure in which the right antecedent can be 4

5 possibly found. The theory of Grosz et al. deals with the saliency of referents to explain restrictions that may occur. Further, it seems that pragmatic information have to be taken into account dealing with the topic of pronoun resolution [Bosch et al., 2007], additionally to the ones mentioned above. In German there are two types of pronouns that can refer to given proper nouns. These are personal pronouns (PPros) like er, sie, es on the one hand and demonstrative pronouns (DPros) like der, die, das on the other hand. In a discourse with only one suitable referent both pronoun types can refer to that antecedent like in the Example (2). Example (2) Ein Mann geht nach hause. Er/Der war bis gerade im Büro. (A man is going home. He PPro/DPro was in the office until now.) But Bosch et al. found evidence for a grammatical distinction of personal and demonstrative pronouns [Bosch et al., 2007]. Personal pronouns have a preference for the noun phrase of the preceding sentence in subject position, while demonstrative pronouns tend to prefer the noun phrase in non-subject position. The theory get supported by the works of F. Krause (2007) and M. Meyer (2007). In the example (3) below this is shown, in which er would substitute the noun phrase der Polizist and der would point to dem Autofahrer. Unless the world knowledge pushes the interpretation of a pronoun into the one or the other direction the PPro and the DPro behave this way. Example (3) Der Polizist redet mit dem Autofahrer. [Er/Der] regt sich fürchterlich auf. (The policeman talks to the car driver. He PPro/DPro is very angry.) Similar observations were made for pronouns in Italian [Carminati, 2002], Finnish [Kaiser and Trueswell, 2005] and Dutch [Kaiser and Trueswell, 2007]. What concerns this study is the fact that demonstrative pronouns prefer non-subject antecedents [Bosch and Umbach, 2007]. This is the noun phrase in focus position. As it is often noted, opposing to the open proposition, which is generally taken to be old information, already in the discourse model or at least known or inferable, the focus is taken to be new information [Chomsky, 1971], [Prince, 1978], [Wilson and Sperber 1979], [Horn, 1981], [Delahunty, 1982] and [Gundel, 1985]. In focus the referent is not only in short-term 5

6 memory, but is also at the current center of attention [Gundel, Hedberg and Zacharski, 1993]. Although demonstrative pronouns generally reject subject antecedents, they may also accept them, at least in non-competition situations, like in the Examples (4) and (5) of Bosch and Umbach (2007). Example (4) Woher ich k das weiß? Peter i hat es mir k gesagt. Der i war gerade hier. (How do I know? Peter i told me. He i (DPro) has just been here.) Example (5) Woher Maria k das weiß? Peter i hat es ihr k gesagt. Der i war gerade hier. (How does Maria k know? Peter i told her k. He i (DPro) has just been here.) Thus, the grammatical role of an antecedent may be a fair corpus generalization, but is definitely not the relevant parameter. Subjects typically refer to discourse topics and DPros normally avoid referents in discourse topic [Bosch and Umbach, 2007]. Topic and focus are categories of information structure, which is a discourse property that is not always directly reflected in the syntax and the semantics of sentences. Hans-Martin Gärtner came up with the following Example (6): Example (6) Gestern habe ich Karl k getroffen. Er k arbeitet jetzt bei IBM. Den k sollten wir mal einladen. (Yesterday I met Karl k. He k works for IBM now. We should invite him k (DPro) some time.) Karl in this example is a clear case of discourse topic: repeated previous reference, last reference by an unstressed anaphoric PPro. But still it is accessible to the DPro. In German it is even more natural to use the DPro in this case. The aim of this study now is to find out whether this example also works for sentences with more than one possible referent. What are the special aspects that make up this example? First of all the predicate in the third sentence here must be a characterizing one because 6

7 otherwise, as in Example (7), it does not work. Example (7) Gestern habe ich Karl k getroffen. Er k arbeitet jetzt bei IBM. Der k hatte letzte Woche einen Autounfall. (Yesterday I met Karl k. He k works for IBM now. He k (DPro) had a car accident last week.) It seems that a familiarity to the person in discourse topic supports the intensity of the effect. While the other referent in focus serves more like an attribute to the one in subject position. Therefore we introduce our first referent (R1) with a name (e.g. Klempner Friedrich ) to minimize the distance to the participant. The second referent (R2) gets introduced with an indefinite article (e.g. einen befreundeten Bauern ). So one can say we try to put the focus onto the first referent. We expected a higher response to R1 on the one hand with the focusing DPro (Den) in object position and on the other hand by recalling a lead-in sentence in the characterizing predicate sentence (i.e. the one starting with the DPro). Thus we combined these aspects to four conditions (see part for a detailed example), where we expected more or less attention onto the first referent (R1). Thus condition a) should have the highest fixation rate for the referent in discourse topic. The method of eye-tracking was used in this study to check how participants understand the given sentences, as eye movements are intuitive and unconscious. As Cooper (1974) found out that people tend to direct their eye movements to those referents mentioned during an auditory presented discourse. This psycholinguistic procedure is known as the visual world paradigm which Tanenhaus et al. (1996) elaborated. Thus participants automatically fixate the referent they intuitively think is the one meant. Further, eye-tracking allows real-time measurement. 7

8 2 Methods 2.1 Stimuli Visual Stimuli The visual stimuli were made up of 20 pseudo-natural photographs of scenes built with Playmobil (Brandstätter Group, Zirndorf, Germany) figures and objects. The Playmobil figurines used were clearly identifiable by their appearance with respect to the auditory stimuli. Because of their neutral appearance participants were not influenced by mimic or other aspects of human photographs. All scenes contained three human characters. Two of them were male (referents R1 and R2) and mentioned in the auditory stimulus as they were relevant for the experiment. The third person was female and more or less visible in the picture, just serving as a distracter. Other objects and animals that matched the given scene were included to support the pseudo-natural appearance of the scene, to make the scenes more interesting and also as distracters. The two referents, R1 and R2, were equally visible. As an example see Figure 1. Figure 1: Example Image The 20 pictures were taken using a Sony Cybershot DSC V1 5.0 Megapixels (Sony Corp., Tokyo, Japan) digital photo-camera. The distance was kept constant by approximately 121 cm to the horizon from an angle of approximately 20. An InterFit Tungsten 3200 Studio Lamp 8

9 (Paterson Photographic Ltd., Tipton, United Kingdom) with 500 watt was used for lightening. The pictures were used with their native resolution, but cropped to 2560x1600 pixels to match the 30 inch Apple Cinema HD Display (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA) used during the experiment. Thus each image contained a bar on the left and right of the pictures with the same gray color the screen showed during the fixation point phase (see also part 2.5 Procedure). The modification of the pictures was performed with freeware GIMP (The GNU Image Manipulation Program) gimp Auditory Stimuli For each visual stimulus four short stories in German (i.e. four experimental conditions for each picture) were recorded with a Shure Beta 58A (Shure Incorporated, Niles, IL, USA) microphone and the Logic Audio 5 (Emagic Soft-und Hardware GmbH, Rellingen, Germany) recording system, read out with a neutral masculine voice of a native German speaker. Participants listened to the auditory stimuli via a Logitech 2.1 system (Z3 Style 2.1, Logitech, Switzerland) always at the same moderate volume level. The two speakers were positioned left and right to the screen and the bass speaker on the floor under the desk of the screen. The stories consisted of four sentence beginning with an introduction sentence with two conditions (starting after 1000 ms after the stimulus onset). Either it contained a statement (i) that was picked up later in the critical sentence and was expected to support reference to R1 or a statement (ii) that described the scene in general. Example: (i) Im ganzen Dorf bekannt. (ii) Alle Reparaturen. Then the second sentence introduced the first referent R1 in a familiar way, such as he was known before. It was the same for all conditions (starting at 3062 ms after the stimulus onset). Example: Klempner Friedrich (R1) ist absolut zuverlässig. The third sentence recalled R1 referentially with a PPro and introduced the second referent R2 with an indefinite article (starting at 6000 ms after the stimulus onset). 9

10 Example: Er (R1) repariert für einen befreundeten Bauern (R2) seit Jahren alle Geräte. The fourth sentence started with the critical condition of the reference for one of the two referents, either with the DPro in object position (accusative) Den (iii) or with the DPro in subject position (nominative) Der (iv) (starting at ms after the stimulus onset). Example: (iii) Den (R1/R2) kennt hier im Dorf wirklich jeder. (iv) Der (R1/R2) ist hier im Dorf bei allen bekannt. The fourth sentence started with a PPro that should strengthen the reference of the third sentence, while the statement had no preference for one of the referents (starting at ms after the stimulus onset). Example: Er (R1/R2) ist überall beliebt. Thus the four different auditory stimuli for one scene consist of a combination of the conditions (i) or (ii) and (iii) or (iv), namely condition a) with (i) and (iii), condition b) with (ii) and (iii), condition c) with (i) and (iv), and condition d) with (ii) and (iv). Example: Condition a) (i) Im ganzen Dorf bekannt. Klempner Friedrich (R1) ist absolut zuverlässig. Er (R1) repariert für einen befreundeten Bauern (R2) seit Jahren alle Geräte. (iii) Den (R1/R2) kennt hier im Dorf wirklich jeder. Er (R1/R2) ist überall beliebt. Condition b) (ii) Alle Reparaturen. Klempner Friedrich (R1) ist absolut zuverlässig. Er (R1) repariert für einen befreundeten Bauern (R2) seit Jahren alle Geräte. (iii) Den (R1/R2) kennt hier im Dorf wirklich jeder. Er (R1/R2) ist überall beliebt. 10

11 Condition c) (i) Im ganzen Dorf bekannt. Klempner Friedrich (R1) ist absolut zuverlässig. Er (R1) repariert für einen befreundeten Bauern (R2) seit Jahren alle Geräte. (iv) Der (R1/R2) ist hier im Dorf bei allen bekannt. Er (R1/R2) ist überall beliebt. Condition d) (ii) Alle Reparaturen. Klempner Friedrich (R1) ist absolut zuverlässig. Er (R1) repariert für einen befreundeten Bauern (R2) seit Jahren alle Geräte. (iv) Der (R1/R2) ist hier im Dorf bei allen bekannt. Er (R1/R2) ist überall beliebt. 2.2 Randomization/Balancing Additionally 40 filler stimuli were included. Thus, in sum the participants were presented 60 scenes of which only 1/3 were relevant for the experiment. The fillers always stayed the same. The photographs and recorded sentences were similar to the experiment scenes but did not necessarily contain all the conditions (e.g. two male persons and one female person). Each participant saw each photograph only for one time, but all four conditions were spread over the 20 trials. The conditions were balanced (i.e. five times each condition), such that over all participants all combinations of photographs and conditions appeared in the same amount. The order of the 60 stimuli was complete random and different for every participant. Although always a group of five participants were presented the same stimuli. This whole randomization was computed with MatLab R2008a (MathWorks Inc.). The experiment sessions were conducted at different time points throughout the day. 2.3 Participants 20 native speakers of German (11 female; 9 male) participated in the experiment. All participants were between 20 and 29 years old (mean age: 23.3 years) and had normal or corrected-to-normal vision, except for one subject having red/green deficiency. Most of them were undergraduate and graduate students. There were two workers and one housewife. All of them had at least abitur. The participants took part in the experiment voluntarily and were either paid 5 or earned 1 Versuchpersonenstunde. 11

12 2.4 Apparatus This experiment was performed with the head mounted EyeLink II eye-tracking system (SR Research Ltd. Mississuaga, Ontario, Canada) with a sampling rate of 250 Hz (see Figure 2 below). adjustable headband head-tracking camera eye cameras Figure 2: The EyeLink II eye-tracking system The system includes three cameras of which two film the movement of the eyes and one keeps reference to the screen, such that it can cope with participants natural movements of the head. EyeLink II identifies the pupils of the eye by object recognition and deduces the gaze location from the position of the pupil. The eye-tracker was controlled by a Pentium 4 PC (Dell Inc., Round Rock, TX, USA). An IntelMac (Apple Computers, Cupertino, CA, USA) was used to control the stimulus presentation sequence and to trigger the eye-tracker on each trial. 2.5 Procedure First the participants had to fill out a short questionnaire about general information like some personal data and their visionary ability. The experiment was conducted in a darkened room. The participants were seated in front of the monitor with a distance of 80 cm. The eye-tracker was mounted on the participants head and some general explanations about the eye-tracking method were given, in case it was not already familiar. The eye-tracker and the eye cameras were adjusted manually on the participants heads. In advance to the actual experiment the participant s pupils were calibrated by a nine-point calibration and validation procedure. The participants were instructed to fixate a small grey point in the centre of a ca. 1 cm diameter black circle (i.e. the fixation point) as long as it stayed in one position. During calibration and 12

13 validation the fixation point appeared at random positions on the screen. Fixations on target points were collected by calibration to map raw eye data to either gaze position or HREF data. During the validation target positions were displayed to the participants. Then the difference between the computed fixation position and the fixation position for the target obtained during calibration was measured. This error reflects the gaze accuracy of the calibration (EyeLink II User Manual, 2005). Calibration and validation were proceeded until the mean error for at least one eye was less than or equal to 0.4. Then the eye with the smaller error was used for the experimental measures and the following analysis. The experiment started with a lead in text written on the screen that gave all necessary information for the experiment. The participants were instructed to listen to the recorded sentences carefully and to observe the pictures on the screen according to what they were presented auditory. All instructions were also given verbally by the experimenter (always with the same words and not giving more information than given by the on-screen instructions). Before the first scene and between the other scenes the fixation point appeared and the participants had to fixate it. For every trial at first the image appeared and then the auditory stimulus started 1 second after the visual stimulus onset. The pictures lasted for another 2 more seconds after the auditory stimulus offset. One whole trial was ca. 15 seconds. After all 60 trials (the 20 experimental stimuli and the 40 fillers randomly) had been run through the participants got paid and clarified about the aim of the experiment. Finally another questionnaire concerning the conduction of the experiment was filled out by the experimenter. 2.6 Data Analysis Fixations Fixation locations and times were calculated online by the eye-tracker, where only the data from the better eye (i.e. the one with the lower error rate according to the calibration and validation process) was recorded and later used for the analysis. The fixations were defined as the inverse to a saccade. A saccade is defined in the way that the velocity of an eye movement had to exceed an acceleration threshold of 8000 /sec 2, a velocity threshold of 30 /sec and a deflection threshold of 0.1. Thus the fixation of the eye had to move at least 0.1 from its previous position to be counted as a saccade. 13

14 2.6.2 Statistics Fixations/saccades were measured every 33 milliseconds and therefore summed up to 450 time slots, corresponding to the milliseconds of a whole stimulus. Since the fixation rates during the first three sentences should not be different for the two referents in the four different conditions, the statistical analysis was performed for the time span from to milliseconds. For the ANOVA, we tested whether the data is normally distributed, we conducted a twosided rank sum test of the null hypothesis that data in the vectors x and y are independent samples from identical continuous distributions with equal medians, against the alternative that they do not have equal medians. This rank sum test was done in MatLab and is equivalent to a Mann-Whitney U-test. The significance level was set to = Regions of Interest In order to define the regions of interest within the picture (i.e. the two referents R1 and R2 and the region beyond interest) all images were manipulated again with the gimp freeware. For each image one referent (R1) was covered with one plain color (black) and the other referent (R2) with another plain color (dark red). The covering was performed by hand while the outer borders of the Playmobil figurines were extended a little and free spaces (e.g. between legs) were filled, such that an obvious fixation on a referent could be counted this way although it was not actually placed directly on the figurine itself. The whole background including all other objects was painted white. But the grey bars to the left and right were not changed as they exceeded the pictures and thus were of no interest. An example of this picture modification can be seen in Figure 3. Because of this modification MatLab was able to select the fixations on the regions of interest by recognizing the hexadecimal color notation used in HTML (i.e. black = , dark red = and white = ffffff). Fixations on a specific region were equal to matching with fixations on that specific colored area. 14

15 Figure 3: Regions of interest; R1 = black and R2 = dark red (compare Figure 1) 3 Results We conducted a within participants repeated measures ANOVA (see Figure 4 below) as, 2 (targets: Referent1 vs. Referent2) x 4 (conditions: Condition a), Condition b), Condition c), and Condition d)). The results show that the factor targets was significant, F(1, 19) = 19.62, p <.01. No other significant interaction was found, i.e., all Fs < 1, and all ps >.05. ANOVA Source Sum Sq. d.f. Mean Sq. F Prob>F target condition target*condition Error Total Figure 4: ANOVA By looking at the timecourses for the last 5000 milliseconds (Figures 5-8) one can see that in all conditions the second referent (R2) gets more fixations and is therefore preferred. The participants understood both DPros ( Den and Der ) significantly more to be referring to the second referent. This is supported by the fact that also the PPro ( Er ) led to significant more fixations onto R2. 15

16 Den kennt hier im Dorf wirklich jeder. Er ist überall beliebt. Figure 5: Condition a) for R1 and R2 Den kennt hier im Dorf wirklich jeder. Er ist überall beliebt. Figure 6: Condition b) for R1 and R2 16

17 Der ist hier im Dorf bei allen bekannt. Er ist überall beliebt. Figure 7: Condition c) for R1 and R2 Der ist hier im Dorf bei allen bekannt. Er ist überall beliebt. Figure 8: Condition d) for R1 and R2 The graphs for R2 (Figures 5-8) rise and have a local maximum about 300 milliseconds after the onset of the DPros. These local maxima have values between 20% and 25% for the conditions a), b) and c). But in condition d) there is a peak of ca. 40%. There are also local maxima for R2 after about 300 millisecond of the onset of the PPro of about 20% to 30% in 17

18 all conditions. As the ANOVA already showed, there were no significant differences between the four conditions summed over the last 5000 milliseconds (see also Figures 9 and 10). a)/b) Den kennt hier im Dorf wirklich jeder. Er ist überall beliebt. c)/d) Der ist hier im Dorf bei allen bekannt. Er ist überall beliebt. Figure 9: R1 in all conditions a)/b) Den kennt hier im Dorf wirklich jeder. Er ist überall beliebt. c)/d) Der ist hier im Dorf bei allen bekannt. Er ist überall beliebt. Figure 10: R2 in all conditions 18

19 The table (Figure 11) and the box-plot (Figure 12) below show the mean differences of the fixations onto both referents in each of the four conditions. In all conditions R2 gets significantly more fixations than R1. The mean values are: Condition Referent1 Referent 2 Cond. a) Cond. b) Cond. c) Cond. d) Figure 11: Mean fixation rates for R1 and R2 Timecourse from milliseconds summed over all images and all participants Mean fixation rate values Condition a) Condition b) Condition c) Condition d) Referent1 Referent2 Figure 12: Mean fixation rates for R1 and R2 To get an overview over the difference between the two referents over the entire timecourses, these are shown below in the Figures One can see that R1 only gets significant higher fixation rates when he is mentioned in the second sentence after the onset of the naming at 3062 milliseconds until R2 is mentioned at ca milliseconds. 19

20 Im [...] Dorf bekannt. Klmp Friedr ist [...] zuverlässig. Er repar für einen befr Bauern [...] alle Geräte. Den kennt [...] jeder. Er ist [...] beliebt. Figure 13: condition a) for R1 and R2 Alle Reparaturen. Klmp Friedr ist [...] zuverlässig. Er repar für einen befr Bauern [...] alle Geräte. Den kennt [...] jeder. Er ist [...] beliebt. Figure 14: condition b) for R1 and R2 20

21 Im [...] Dorf bekannt. Klmp Friedr ist [...] zuverlässig. Er repar für einen befr Bauern [...] alle Geräte. Der ist [...] bekannt. Er ist [...] beliebt. Figure 15: condition c) for R1 and R2 Alle Reparaturen. Klmp Friedr ist [...] zuverlässig. Er repar für einen befr Bauern [...] alle Geräte. Der ist [...] bekannt. Er ist [...] beliebt. Figure 16: condition d) for R1 and R2 21

22 The fixation rates for each referent behave similarly in the different conditions over the entire timecourse. There are no significant differences within each referent (see Figure 17 for R1 and Figure 18 for R2). Im [...] Dorf bekannt. Klmp Friedr ist [...] zuverlässig. Er repar für einen befr Bauern [...] alle Geräte. Den kennt [...] jeder. Er ist [...] beliebt. Alle Reparaturen. Klmp Friedr ist [...] zuverlässig. Er repar für einen befr Bauern [...] alle Geräte. Den kennt [...] jeder. Er ist [...] beliebt. Im [...] Dorf bekannt. Klmp Friedr ist [...] zuverlässig. Er repar für einen befr Bauern [...] alle Geräte. Der ist [...] bekannt. Er ist [...] beliebt. Alle Reparaturen. Klmp Friedr ist [...] zuverlässig. Er repar für einen befr Bauern [...] alle Geräte. Der ist [...] bekannt. Er ist [...] beliebt. Figure 17: R1 in all conditions 22

23 Im [...] Dorf bekannt. Klmp Friedr ist [...] zuverlässig. Er repar für einen befr Bauern [...] alle Geräte. Den kennt [...] jeder. Er ist [...] beliebt. Alle Reparaturen. Klmp Friedr ist [...] zuverlässig. Er repar für einen befr Bauern [...] alle Geräte. Den kennt [...] jeder. Er ist [...] beliebt. Im [...] Dorf bekannt. Klmp Friedr ist [...] zuverlässig. Er repar für einen befr Bauern [...] alle Geräte. Der ist [...] bekannt. Er ist [...] beliebt. Alle Reparaturen. Klmp Friedr ist [...] zuverlässig. Er repar für einen befr Bauern [...] alle Geräte. Der ist [...] bekannt. Er ist [...] beliebt. Figure 18: R2 in all conditions 4 Discussion The purpose of this study was to find out whether it is possible to use a demonstrative pronoun (DPro) in German to refer back to the first mentioned referent in a discourse where two ambiguous referents are mentioned. The ambiguity in this case means that both referents are possible antecedents for the pronoun (i.e. two male referents in this study). This was to be investigated with the method of eye-tracking to check on the basis of participants eye movements what antecedent they intuitively and unconsciously would fixate in such a situation. Our hypothesis was that there is a way that the DPro can refer back to the first mentioned referent under certain circumstances. Although in general this hypothesis is contrary to studies that have been conducted before, as they show that the DPro prefers the second referent, that is in focus position, while the first referent, that is the case of discourse topic, gets picked up again more likely with the personal pronoun (PPro). The results of this study do not support our hypothesis. In all sentence combinations (i.e. all 23

24 four conditions) that we observed, and in that we expected to get more or less reference to the first mentioned referent by the DPro, the means of the participants fixations were onto the second mentioned referent (see Figures 5-8). These preference for referent 2 was significant in all conditions, F(1, 19) = 19.62, p <.01; while there were no significant observable differences between the conditions (see Figures 9 and 10), all Fs < 1, and all ps >.05. Thus, the theory of the inaccessibility of the non-subjective antecedent candidate to the DPro seems stronger than any other factor (at least in this study), that tries to overcome that. 5 Conclusion The hypothesis of this study said that there were cases in German where the DPro would refer to a grammatically possible antecedent in subject position (i.e. in case of discourse topic), in discourses with two ambiguous referents as antecedents. As the results show the German DPro cannot refer back to the referent that is in case of discourse topic. But it is significantly understood to refer to the referent in non-subjective focus position. What led to our hypothesis was the example, in which one referent was intuitively picked up by the DPro in German and in which the language use even requires a DPro or at least prefers it. This example could not be translated into a two referent discourse in this study in the way, that again the discourse topic as antecedent was accessible to the DPro. Thus, further work could go into the direction to find suitable translations of the example into discourses with more than one referent; and maybe other ways to try to access the referent in the position of discourse topic with a DPro. 24

Mitglied der Leibniz-Gemeinschaft

Mitglied der Leibniz-Gemeinschaft Methods of research into dictionary use: online questionnaires Annette Klosa (Institut für Deutsche Sprache, Mannheim) 5. Arbeitstreffen Netzwerk Internetlexikografie, Leiden, 25./26. März 2013 Content

Mehr

Einsatz einer Dokumentenverwaltungslösung zur Optimierung der unternehmensübergreifenden Kommunikation

Einsatz einer Dokumentenverwaltungslösung zur Optimierung der unternehmensübergreifenden Kommunikation Einsatz einer Dokumentenverwaltungslösung zur Optimierung der unternehmensübergreifenden Kommunikation Eine Betrachtung im Kontext der Ausgliederung von Chrysler Daniel Rheinbay Abstract Betriebliche Informationssysteme

Mehr

Weiterbildungskolleg der Stadt Bielefeld Abendrealschule Fachbereich Englisch Frachtstraße 8 33602 Bielefeld

Weiterbildungskolleg der Stadt Bielefeld Abendrealschule Fachbereich Englisch Frachtstraße 8 33602 Bielefeld Weiterbildungskolleg der Stadt Bielefeld Abendrealschule Fachbereich Englisch Frachtstraße 8 33602 Bielefeld Requirements for Entering the First Term in English, Exercises to Prepare Yourself / Anforderungen

Mehr

SELF-STUDY DIARY (or Lerntagebuch) GER102

SELF-STUDY DIARY (or Lerntagebuch) GER102 SELF-STUDY DIARY (or Lerntagebuch) GER102 This diary has several aims: To show evidence of your independent work by using an electronic Portfolio (i.e. the Mahara e-portfolio) To motivate you to work regularly

Mehr

After sales product list After Sales Geräteliste

After sales product list After Sales Geräteliste GMC-I Service GmbH Thomas-Mann-Str. 20 90471 Nürnberg e-mail:service@gossenmetrawatt.com After sales product list After Sales Geräteliste Ladies and Gentlemen, (deutsche Übersetzung am Ende des Schreibens)

Mehr

ONLINE LICENCE GENERATOR

ONLINE LICENCE GENERATOR Index Introduction... 2 Change language of the User Interface... 3 Menubar... 4 Sold Software... 5 Explanations of the choices:... 5 Call of a licence:... 7 Last query step... 9 Call multiple licenses:...

Mehr

There are 10 weeks this summer vacation the weeks beginning: June 23, June 30, July 7, July 14, July 21, Jul 28, Aug 4, Aug 11, Aug 18, Aug 25

There are 10 weeks this summer vacation the weeks beginning: June 23, June 30, July 7, July 14, July 21, Jul 28, Aug 4, Aug 11, Aug 18, Aug 25 Name: AP Deutsch Sommerpaket 2014 The AP German exam is designed to test your language proficiency your ability to use the German language to speak, listen, read and write. All the grammar concepts and

Mehr

2 German sentence: write your English translation before looking at p. 3

2 German sentence: write your English translation before looking at p. 3 page Edward Martin, Institut für Anglistik, Universität Koblenz-Landau, Campus Koblenz 2 German sentence: write your English translation before looking at p. 3 3 German sentence analysed in colour coding;

Mehr

Role Play I: Ms Minor Role Card. Ms Minor, accountant at BIGBOSS Inc.

Role Play I: Ms Minor Role Card. Ms Minor, accountant at BIGBOSS Inc. Role Play I: Ms Minor Role Card Conversation between Ms Boss, CEO of BIGBOSS Inc. and Ms Minor, accountant at BIGBOSS Inc. Ms Boss: Guten Morgen, Frau Minor! Guten Morgen, Herr Boss! Frau Minor, bald steht

Mehr

Context-adaptation based on Ontologies and Spreading Activation

Context-adaptation based on Ontologies and Spreading Activation -1- Context-adaptation based on Ontologies and Spreading Activation ABIS 2007, Halle, 24.09.07 {hussein,westheide,ziegler}@interactivesystems.info -2- Context Adaptation in Spreadr Pubs near my location

Mehr

Harry gefangen in der Zeit Begleitmaterialien

Harry gefangen in der Zeit Begleitmaterialien Episode 069 - Please take a number Focus: job hunting, dealing with official agencies, posing questions politely, vocabulary for job searches and unemployment Grammar: indirect interrogative sentences

Mehr

Prediction Market, 28th July 2012 Information and Instructions. Prognosemärkte Lehrstuhl für Betriebswirtschaftslehre insbes.

Prediction Market, 28th July 2012 Information and Instructions. Prognosemärkte Lehrstuhl für Betriebswirtschaftslehre insbes. Prediction Market, 28th July 2012 Information and Instructions S. 1 Welcome, and thanks for your participation Sensational prices are waiting for you 1000 Euro in amazon vouchers: The winner has the chance

Mehr

ANNA: OK. It's definitely the bloke who was smiling at me in the cafe, with the little silver violin.

ANNA: OK. It's definitely the bloke who was smiling at me in the cafe, with the little silver violin. Episode 05 Haven't We Met Before? Anna takes the music box to the clockmaker for repairs. But it's more than just a job for Paul Winkler. He tells Anna he knows her from way back. But how can this be?

Mehr

Notice: All mentioned inventors have to sign the Report of Invention (see page 3)!!!

Notice: All mentioned inventors have to sign the Report of Invention (see page 3)!!! REPORT OF INVENTION Please send a copy to An die Abteilung Technologietransfer der Universität/Hochschule An die Technologie-Lizenz-Büro (TLB) der Baden-Württembergischen Hochschulen GmbH Ettlinger Straße

Mehr

Rough copy for the art project >hardware/software< of the imbenge-dreamhouse artist Nele Ströbel.

Rough copy for the art project >hardware/software< of the imbenge-dreamhouse artist Nele Ströbel. Rough copy for the art project >hardware/software< of the imbenge-dreamhouse artist. Title >hardware/software< This art project reflects different aspects of work and its meaning for human kind in our

Mehr

Listening Comprehension: Talking about language learning

Listening Comprehension: Talking about language learning Talking about language learning Two Swiss teenagers, Ralf and Bettina, are both studying English at a language school in Bristo and are talking about language learning. Remember that Swiss German is quite

Mehr

Algorithms for graph visualization

Algorithms for graph visualization Algorithms for graph visualization Project - Orthogonal Grid Layout with Small Area W INTER SEMESTER 2013/2014 Martin No llenburg KIT Universita t des Landes Baden-Wu rttemberg und nationales Forschungszentrum

Mehr

1. General information... 2 2. Login... 2 3. Home... 3 4. Current applications... 3

1. General information... 2 2. Login... 2 3. Home... 3 4. Current applications... 3 User Manual for Marketing Authorisation and Lifecycle Management of Medicines Inhalt: User Manual for Marketing Authorisation and Lifecycle Management of Medicines... 1 1. General information... 2 2. Login...

Mehr

Standardstufe 6: Interkulturelle kommunikative Kompetenz

Standardstufe 6: Interkulturelle kommunikative Kompetenz Lernaufgabe Let s make our school nicer Your task: Let s make our school nicer Imagine the SMV wants to make our school nicer and has asked YOU for your help, because you have learnt a lot about British

Mehr

Accounting course program for master students. Institute of Accounting and Auditing http://www.wiwi.hu-berlin.de/rewe

Accounting course program for master students. Institute of Accounting and Auditing http://www.wiwi.hu-berlin.de/rewe Accounting course program for master students Institute of Accounting and Auditing http://www.wiwi.hu-berlin.de/rewe 2 Accounting requires institutional knowledge... 3...but it pays: Lehman Bros. Inc.,

Mehr

Franke & Bornberg award AachenMünchener private annuity insurance schemes top grades

Franke & Bornberg award AachenMünchener private annuity insurance schemes top grades Franke & Bornberg award private annuity insurance schemes top grades Press Release, December 22, 2009 WUNSCHPOLICE STRATEGIE No. 1 gets best possible grade FFF ( Excellent ) WUNSCHPOLICE conventional annuity

Mehr

STRATEGISCHES BETEILIGUNGSCONTROLLING BEI KOMMUNALEN UNTERNEHMEN DER FFENTLICHE ZWECK ALS RICHTSCHNUR FR EIN ZIELGERICHTETE

STRATEGISCHES BETEILIGUNGSCONTROLLING BEI KOMMUNALEN UNTERNEHMEN DER FFENTLICHE ZWECK ALS RICHTSCHNUR FR EIN ZIELGERICHTETE BETEILIGUNGSCONTROLLING BEI KOMMUNALEN UNTERNEHMEN DER FFENTLICHE ZWECK ALS RICHTSCHNUR FR EIN ZIELGERICHTETE PDF-SBBKUDFZARFEZ41-APOM3 123 Page File Size 5,348 KB 3 Feb, 2002 TABLE OF CONTENT Introduction

Mehr

STRATEGISCHES BETEILIGUNGSCONTROLLING BEI KOMMUNALEN UNTERNEHMEN DER FFENTLICHE ZWECK ALS RICHTSCHNUR FR EIN ZIELGERICHTETE

STRATEGISCHES BETEILIGUNGSCONTROLLING BEI KOMMUNALEN UNTERNEHMEN DER FFENTLICHE ZWECK ALS RICHTSCHNUR FR EIN ZIELGERICHTETE BETEILIGUNGSCONTROLLING BEI KOMMUNALEN UNTERNEHMEN DER FFENTLICHE ZWECK ALS RICHTSCHNUR FR EIN ZIELGERICHTETE PDF-SBBKUDFZARFEZ41-SEOM3 123 Page File Size 5,348 KB 3 Feb, 2002 TABLE OF CONTENT Introduction

Mehr

Exercise (Part XI) Anastasia Mochalova, Lehrstuhl für ABWL und Wirtschaftsinformatik, Kath. Universität Eichstätt-Ingolstadt 1

Exercise (Part XI) Anastasia Mochalova, Lehrstuhl für ABWL und Wirtschaftsinformatik, Kath. Universität Eichstätt-Ingolstadt 1 Exercise (Part XI) Notes: The exercise is based on Microsoft Dynamics CRM Online. For all screenshots: Copyright Microsoft Corporation. The sign ## is you personal number to be used in all exercises. All

Mehr

Level 1 German, 2015

Level 1 German, 2015 90886 908860 1SUPERVISOR S Level 1 German, 2015 90886 Demonstrate understanding of a variety of German texts on areas of most immediate relevance 2.00 p.m. Thursday 26 November 2015 Credits: Five Achievement

Mehr

Thema: Sonnenuhren (7.Jahrgangsstufe)

Thema: Sonnenuhren (7.Jahrgangsstufe) Thema: Sonnenuhren (7.Jahrgangsstufe) Im Rahmen des Physikunterrichts haben die Schüler der Klasse 7b mit dem Bau einfacher Sonnenuhren beschäftigt. Die Motivation lieferte eine Seite im Physikbuch. Grundidee

Mehr

Selbstlernmodul bearbeitet von: begonnen: Inhaltsverzeichnis:

Selbstlernmodul bearbeitet von: begonnen: Inhaltsverzeichnis: bearbeitet von: begonnen: Fach: Englisch Thema: The Future Deckblatt des Moduls 1 ''You will have to pay some money soon. That makes 4, please.'' ''Oh!'' Inhaltsverzeichnis: Inhalt bearbeitet am 2 Lerntagebuch

Mehr

Was ist das? Wer an einem sonnigen Tag die runden Lichtflecken unter einem Baum einmal entdeckt hat, findet sie immer und überall wieder.

Was ist das? Wer an einem sonnigen Tag die runden Lichtflecken unter einem Baum einmal entdeckt hat, findet sie immer und überall wieder. Was ist das? Wer an einem sonnigen Tag die runden Lichtflecken unter einem Baum einmal entdeckt hat, findet sie immer und überall wieder. Was hat es mit dem Phänomen auf sich? Der Light Walk verführt zum

Mehr

DIE NEUORGANISATION IM BEREICH DES SGB II AUSWIRKUNGEN AUF DIE ZUSAMMENARBEIT VON BUND LNDERN UND KOMMUNEN

DIE NEUORGANISATION IM BEREICH DES SGB II AUSWIRKUNGEN AUF DIE ZUSAMMENARBEIT VON BUND LNDERN UND KOMMUNEN DIE NEUORGANISATION IM BEREICH DES SGB II AUSWIRKUNGEN AUF DIE ZUSAMMENARBEIT VON BUND LNDERN UND KOMMUNEN WWOM537-PDFDNIBDSIAADZVBLUK 106 Page File Size 4,077 KB 16 Feb, 2002 COPYRIGHT 2002, ALL RIGHT

Mehr

Exercise (Part II) Anastasia Mochalova, Lehrstuhl für ABWL und Wirtschaftsinformatik, Kath. Universität Eichstätt-Ingolstadt 1

Exercise (Part II) Anastasia Mochalova, Lehrstuhl für ABWL und Wirtschaftsinformatik, Kath. Universität Eichstätt-Ingolstadt 1 Exercise (Part II) Notes: The exercise is based on Microsoft Dynamics CRM Online. For all screenshots: Copyright Microsoft Corporation. The sign ## is you personal number to be used in all exercises. All

Mehr

J RG IMMENDORFF STANDORT F R KRITIK MALEREI UND INSPIRATION ERSCHEINT ZUR AUSSTELLUNG IM MUSEUM LU

J RG IMMENDORFF STANDORT F R KRITIK MALEREI UND INSPIRATION ERSCHEINT ZUR AUSSTELLUNG IM MUSEUM LU J RG IMMENDORFF STANDORT F R KRITIK MALEREI UND INSPIRATION ERSCHEINT ZUR AUSSTELLUNG IM MUSEUM LU 8 Feb, 2016 JRISFRKMUIEZAIMLAPOM-PDF33-0 File 4,455 KB 96 Page If you want to possess a one-stop search

Mehr

+ROLGD\V 1LYHDX$ )HUWLJNHLW+ UYHUVWHKHQ

+ROLGD\V 1LYHDX$ )HUWLJNHLW+ UYHUVWHKHQ +ROLGD\V )HUWLJNHLW+ UYHUVWHKHQ 1LYHDX$ Wenn langsam und deutlich gesprochen wird, kann ich kurze Texte und Gespräche aus bekannten Themengebieten verstehen, auch wenn ich nicht alle Wörter kenne. 'HVNULSWRU

Mehr

English grammar BLOCK F:

English grammar BLOCK F: Grammatik der englischen Sprache UNIT 24 2. Klasse Seite 1 von 13 English grammar BLOCK F: UNIT 21 Say it more politely Kennzeichen der Modalverben May and can Adverbs of manner Irregular adverbs Synonyms

Mehr

Informeller Brief Schreiben

Informeller Brief Schreiben preliminary note Every letter is something special and unique. It's difficult to give strict rules how to write a letter. Nevertheless, there are guidelines how to start and finish a letter. Like in English

Mehr

On a Sunday Morning summary

On a Sunday Morning summary On a Sunday Morning summary Connect the English sentences and their German translation Verbinde die englischen Sätze mit ihrer deutschen Übersetzung The hedgehog was standing at the door of his house He

Mehr

German translation: school and work

German translation: school and work A. Starter Match the words by writing the letters in the grid below. 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 = 6 = 7 = 8 = 9 = 10 = 11 = 12 = English German 1. easy a. verdienen 2. to work b. Verkäufer 3. patient c. Tierarzt

Mehr

Pilot area B: Zeeland (B + NL) Pilot area C: Terschelling and Northern Fryslan (NL) Pilot area D: Borkum (D)

Pilot area B: Zeeland (B + NL) Pilot area C: Terschelling and Northern Fryslan (NL) Pilot area D: Borkum (D) Pilot area A: Belgische Middenkust, (B) Pilot area B: Zeeland (B + NL) Pilot area C: Terschelling and Northern Fryslan (NL) Pilot area D: Borkum (D) Pilot area E: Schleswig and Sdr. Jylland (D + DK) Pilot

Mehr

Inequality Utilitarian and Capabilities Perspectives (and what they may imply for public health)

Inequality Utilitarian and Capabilities Perspectives (and what they may imply for public health) Inequality Utilitarian and Capabilities Perspectives (and what they may imply for public health) 1 Utilitarian Perspectives on Inequality 2 Inequalities matter most in terms of their impact onthelivesthatpeopleseektoliveandthethings,

Mehr

p^db=`oj===pìééçêíáåñçêã~íáçå=

p^db=`oj===pìééçêíáåñçêã~íáçå= p^db=`oj===pìééçêíáåñçêã~íáçå= Error: "Could not connect to the SQL Server Instance" or "Failed to open a connection to the database." When you attempt to launch ACT! by Sage or ACT by Sage Premium for

Mehr

Ingenics Project Portal

Ingenics Project Portal Version: 00; Status: E Seite: 1/6 This document is drawn to show the functions of the project portal developed by Ingenics AG. To use the portal enter the following URL in your Browser: https://projectportal.ingenics.de

Mehr

AS Path-Prepending in the Internet And Its Impact on Routing Decisions

AS Path-Prepending in the Internet And Its Impact on Routing Decisions (SEP) Its Impact on Routing Decisions Zhi Qi ytqz@mytum.de Advisor: Wolfgang Mühlbauer Lehrstuhl für Netzwerkarchitekturen Background Motivation BGP -> core routing protocol BGP relies on policy routing

Mehr

The English Tenses Die englischen Zeitformen

The English Tenses Die englischen Zeitformen The English Tenses Die englischen Zeitformen Simple Present (Präsens einfache Gegenwart) Handlungen in der Gegenwart die sich regelmäßig wiederholen oder einmalig geschehen I go you go he goes she goes

Mehr

Geometrie und Bedeutung: Kap 5

Geometrie und Bedeutung: Kap 5 : Kap 5 21. November 2011 Übersicht Der Begriff des Vektors Ähnlichkeits Distanzfunktionen für Vektoren Skalarprodukt Eukidische Distanz im R n What are vectors I Domininic: Maryl: Dollar Po Euro Yen 6

Mehr

Workshop Quality Assurance Forum 2014

Workshop Quality Assurance Forum 2014 Workshop Quality Assurance Forum 2014 How do connotations of to learn and to teach influence learning and teaching? Andrea Trink Head of Quality Management Fachhochschule Burgenland - University of Applied

Mehr

Tuesday 10 May 2011 Afternoon Time: 30 minutes plus 5 minutes reading time

Tuesday 10 May 2011 Afternoon Time: 30 minutes plus 5 minutes reading time Write your name here Surname Other names Edexcel IGCSE German Paper 1: Listening Centre Number Candidate Number Tuesday 10 May 2011 Afternoon Time: 30 minutes plus 5 minutes reading time You do not need

Mehr

DOWNLOAD. Englisch in Bewegung. Spiele für den Englischunterricht. Britta Buschmann. Downloadauszug aus dem Originaltitel:

DOWNLOAD. Englisch in Bewegung. Spiele für den Englischunterricht. Britta Buschmann. Downloadauszug aus dem Originaltitel: DOWNLOAD Britta Buschmann Englisch in Bewegung Spiele für den Englischunterricht auszug aus dem Originaltitel: Freeze Hör-/ und Sehverstehen Folgende Bewegungen werden eingeführt: run: auf der Stelle rennen

Mehr

HIR Method & Tools for Fit Gap analysis

HIR Method & Tools for Fit Gap analysis HIR Method & Tools for Fit Gap analysis Based on a Powermax APML example 1 Base for all: The Processes HIR-Method for Template Checks, Fit Gap-Analysis, Change-, Quality- & Risk- Management etc. Main processes

Mehr

NEWSLETTER. FileDirector Version 2.5 Novelties. Filing system designer. Filing system in WinClient

NEWSLETTER. FileDirector Version 2.5 Novelties. Filing system designer. Filing system in WinClient Filing system designer FileDirector Version 2.5 Novelties FileDirector offers an easy way to design the filing system in WinClient. The filing system provides an Explorer-like structure in WinClient. The

Mehr

Unterrichtsmaterialien in digitaler und in gedruckter Form. Auszug aus:

Unterrichtsmaterialien in digitaler und in gedruckter Form. Auszug aus: Unterrichtsmaterialien in digitaler und in gedruckter Form Auszug aus: Comparison - Nie mehr Probleme mit Steigerungs- und Vergleichsformen im Englischen! Das komplette Material finden Sie hier: Download

Mehr

USBASIC SAFETY IN NUMBERS

USBASIC SAFETY IN NUMBERS USBASIC SAFETY IN NUMBERS #1.Current Normalisation Ropes Courses and Ropes Course Elements can conform to one or more of the following European Norms: -EN 362 Carabiner Norm -EN 795B Connector Norm -EN

Mehr

Extended Ordered Paired Comparison Models An Application to the Data from Bundesliga Season 2013/14

Extended Ordered Paired Comparison Models An Application to the Data from Bundesliga Season 2013/14 Etended Ordered Paired Comparison Models An Application to the Data from Bundesliga Season 2013/14 Gerhard Tutz & Gunther Schauberger Ludwig-Maimilians-Universität München Akademiestraße 1, 80799 München

Mehr

Extract of the Annotations used for Econ 5080 at the University of Utah, with study questions, akmk.pdf.

Extract of the Annotations used for Econ 5080 at the University of Utah, with study questions, akmk.pdf. 1 The zip archives available at http://www.econ.utah.edu/ ~ ehrbar/l2co.zip or http: //marx.econ.utah.edu/das-kapital/ec5080.zip compiled August 26, 2010 have the following content. (they differ in their

Mehr

German Geography Cookie Unit Haley Crittenden Gordon German Teacher Lee High School & Key Middle School (adapted from Angelika Becker)

German Geography Cookie Unit Haley Crittenden Gordon German Teacher Lee High School & Key Middle School (adapted from Angelika Becker) German Geography Cookie Unit Haley Crittenden Gordon German Teacher Lee High School & Key Middle School (adapted from Angelika Becker) Goal Students will learn about the physical geography of Germany,

Mehr

Cameraserver mini. commissioning. Ihre Vision ist unsere Aufgabe

Cameraserver mini. commissioning. Ihre Vision ist unsere Aufgabe Cameraserver mini commissioning Page 1 Cameraserver - commissioning Contents 1. Plug IN... 3 2. Turn ON... 3 3. Network configuration... 4 4. Client-Installation... 6 4.1 Desktop Client... 6 4.2 Silverlight

Mehr

KURZANLEITUNG. Firmware-Upgrade: Wie geht das eigentlich?

KURZANLEITUNG. Firmware-Upgrade: Wie geht das eigentlich? KURZANLEITUNG Firmware-Upgrade: Wie geht das eigentlich? Die Firmware ist eine Software, die auf der IP-Kamera installiert ist und alle Funktionen des Gerätes steuert. Nach dem Firmware-Update stehen Ihnen

Mehr

Patentrelevante Aspekte der GPLv2/LGPLv2

Patentrelevante Aspekte der GPLv2/LGPLv2 Patentrelevante Aspekte der GPLv2/LGPLv2 von RA Dr. Till Jaeger OSADL Seminar on Software Patents and Open Source Licensing, Berlin, 6./7. November 2008 Agenda 1. Regelungen der GPLv2 zu Patenten 2. Implizite

Mehr

How-To-Do. Hardware Configuration of the CC03 via SIMATIC Manager from Siemens

How-To-Do. Hardware Configuration of the CC03 via SIMATIC Manager from Siemens How-To-Do Hardware Configuration of the CC03 via SIMATIC Manager from Siemens Content Hardware Configuration of the CC03 via SIMATIC Manager from Siemens... 1 1 General... 2 1.1 Information... 2 1.2 Reference...

Mehr

How to develop and improve the functioning of the audit committee The Auditor s View

How to develop and improve the functioning of the audit committee The Auditor s View How to develop and improve the functioning of the audit committee The Auditor s View May 22, 2013 Helmut Kerschbaumer KPMG Austria Audit Committees in Austria Introduced in 2008, applied since 2009 Audit

Mehr

CABLE TESTER. Manual DN-14003

CABLE TESTER. Manual DN-14003 CABLE TESTER Manual DN-14003 Note: Please read and learn safety instructions before use or maintain the equipment This cable tester can t test any electrified product. 9V reduplicated battery is used in

Mehr

ENGLISCH EINSTUFUNGSTEST 1 A1-A2 SPRACHNIVEAU

ENGLISCH EINSTUFUNGSTEST 1 A1-A2 SPRACHNIVEAU ENGLISCH EINSTUFUNGSTEST 1 A1-A2 SPRACHNIVEAU Liebe Kundin, lieber Kunde Wir freuen uns, dass Sie sich für einen Englischkurs im Präsenzunterricht interessieren. Dieser Einstufungstest soll Ihnen dabei

Mehr

An Introduction to Monetary Theory. Rudolf Peto

An Introduction to Monetary Theory. Rudolf Peto An Introduction to Monetary Theory Rudolf Peto 0 Copyright 2013 by Prof. Rudolf Peto, Bielefeld (Germany), www.peto-online.net 1 2 Preface This book is mainly a translation of the theoretical part of my

Mehr

MASTER THESIS GRADING PROTOCOL FH BFI WIEN

MASTER THESIS GRADING PROTOCOL FH BFI WIEN MASTER THESIS GRADING PROTOCOL FH BFI WIEN Student s name: Examiner s name: Thesis title: The electronic plagiarism check has shown the following percentage of matching content (value in %. Note: About

Mehr

II. Matching. What answers listed below would be logical answers for the following There may be more than one answer for each:

II. Matching. What answers listed below would be logical answers for the following There may be more than one answer for each: KET German I Kapitel 6 Study Sheet Name: I. Listening A. Students should decide if answer given to a question is appropriate is appropriate. Expressions from chapter 6 are used (see dialogues in chapter.)

Mehr

WAS IST DER KOMPARATIV: = The comparative

WAS IST DER KOMPARATIV: = The comparative DER KOMPATATIV VON ADJEKTIVEN UND ADVERBEN WAS IST DER KOMPARATIV: = The comparative Der Komparativ vergleicht zwei Sachen (durch ein Adjektiv oder ein Adverb) The comparative is exactly what it sounds

Mehr

Klausur Verteilte Systeme

Klausur Verteilte Systeme Klausur Verteilte Systeme SS 2005 by Prof. Walter Kriha Klausur Verteilte Systeme: SS 2005 by Prof. Walter Kriha Note Bitte ausfüllen (Fill in please): Vorname: Nachname: Matrikelnummer: Studiengang: Table

Mehr

Falko. Error annotations in Falko 2.x. Marc Reznicek & Cedric Krummes

Falko. Error annotations in Falko 2.x. Marc Reznicek & Cedric Krummes Falko Error annotations in Falko 2.x Marc Reznicek & Cedric Krummes Symposium What s Hard in German? Structural Difficulties, Research Approaches and Pedagogic Solutions Bangor University Monday and Tuesday,

Mehr

WP2. Communication and Dissemination. Wirtschafts- und Wissenschaftsförderung im Freistaat Thüringen

WP2. Communication and Dissemination. Wirtschafts- und Wissenschaftsförderung im Freistaat Thüringen WP2 Communication and Dissemination Europa Programm Center Im Freistaat Thüringen In Trägerschaft des TIAW e. V. 1 GOALS for WP2: Knowledge information about CHAMPIONS and its content Direct communication

Mehr

-Which word (lines 47-52) does tell us that Renia s host brother is a pleasant person?

-Which word (lines 47-52) does tell us that Renia s host brother is a pleasant person? Reading tasks passend zu: Open World 1 Unit 4 (student s book) Through a telescope (p. 26/27): -Renia s exchange trip: richtig falsch unkar? richtig falsch unklar: Renia hat sprachliche Verständnisprobleme.

Mehr

SOEP-IS 2013 BIOBRTHM: Birth Biography of Male Respondents*

SOEP-IS 2013 BIOBRTHM: Birth Biography of Male Respondents* SOEP-IS 2013 BIOBRTHM: Birth Biography of Male Respondents* SOEP-IS Group 2015-07-10 DIW/SOEP, Berlin *This file is part of a collection, which is released with doi:10.5684/soep.is.2013 Inhaltsverzeichnis

Mehr

eurex rundschreiben 094/10

eurex rundschreiben 094/10 eurex rundschreiben 094/10 Datum: Frankfurt, 21. Mai 2010 Empfänger: Alle Handelsteilnehmer der Eurex Deutschland und Eurex Zürich sowie Vendoren Autorisiert von: Jürg Spillmann Weitere Informationen zur

Mehr

Häufigkeit des Vorlesens innerhalb einer Woche

Häufigkeit des Vorlesens innerhalb einer Woche Anteil der Eltern Anteil der Eltern Anteil der Eltern 6. Anhang Auswertung Umfrage Eltern England/Deutschland Tabelle 1: Frage 2 Wie oft lesen Sie Ihrem Kind unter der Woche vor? Häufigkeit des Vorlesens

Mehr

https://portal.microsoftonline.com

https://portal.microsoftonline.com Sie haben nun Office über Office365 bezogen. Ihr Account wird in Kürze in dem Office365 Portal angelegt. Anschließend können Sie, wie unten beschrieben, die Software beziehen. Congratulations, you have

Mehr

ELBA2 ILIAS TOOLS AS SINGLE APPLICATIONS

ELBA2 ILIAS TOOLS AS SINGLE APPLICATIONS ELBA2 ILIAS TOOLS AS SINGLE APPLICATIONS An AAA/Switch cooperative project run by LET, ETH Zurich, and ilub, University of Bern Martin Studer, ilub, University of Bern Julia Kehl, LET, ETH Zurich 1 Contents

Mehr

Corporate Digital Learning, How to Get It Right. Learning Café

Corporate Digital Learning, How to Get It Right. Learning Café 0 Corporate Digital Learning, How to Get It Right Learning Café Online Educa Berlin, 3 December 2015 Key Questions 1 1. 1. What is the unique proposition of digital learning? 2. 2. What is the right digital

Mehr

MATLAB driver for Spectrum boards

MATLAB driver for Spectrum boards MATLAB driver for Spectrum boards User Manual deutsch/english SPECTRUM SYSTEMENTWICKLUNG MICROELECTRONIC GMBH AHRENSFELDER WEG 13-17 22927 GROSSHANSDORF GERMANY TEL.: +49 (0)4102-6956-0 FAX: +49 (0)4102-6956-66

Mehr

The process runs automatically and the user is guided through it. Data acquisition and the evaluation are done automatically.

The process runs automatically and the user is guided through it. Data acquisition and the evaluation are done automatically. Q-App: UserCal Advanced Benutzerdefinierte Kalibrierroutine mit Auswertung über HTML (Q-Web) User defined calibration routine with evaluation over HTML (Q-Web) Beschreibung Der Workflow hat 2 Ebenen eine

Mehr

Trial and error in the Eurozone and the influence to currencies and interest rates.

Trial and error in the Eurozone and the influence to currencies and interest rates. Jürgen Meyer Trial and error in the Eurozone and the influence to currencies and interest rates. Sept. 24th, 2012 EURUSD long term chart We re in the 8year cycle south still. Target is set at 1,0220 in

Mehr

ReadMe zur Installation der BRICKware for Windows, Version 6.1.2. ReadMe on Installing BRICKware for Windows, Version 6.1.2

ReadMe zur Installation der BRICKware for Windows, Version 6.1.2. ReadMe on Installing BRICKware for Windows, Version 6.1.2 ReadMe zur Installation der BRICKware for Windows, Version 6.1.2 Seiten 2-4 ReadMe on Installing BRICKware for Windows, Version 6.1.2 Pages 5/6 BRICKware for Windows ReadMe 1 1 BRICKware for Windows, Version

Mehr

Scrum @FH Biel. Scrum Einführung mit «Electronical Newsletter» FH Biel, 12. Januar 2012. Folie 1 12. Januar 2012. Frank Buchli

Scrum @FH Biel. Scrum Einführung mit «Electronical Newsletter» FH Biel, 12. Januar 2012. Folie 1 12. Januar 2012. Frank Buchli Scrum @FH Biel Scrum Einführung mit «Electronical Newsletter» FH Biel, 12. Januar 2012 Folie 1 12. Januar 2012 Frank Buchli Zu meiner Person Frank Buchli MS in Computer Science, Uni Bern 2003 3 Jahre IT

Mehr

p^db=`oj===pìééçêíáåñçêã~íáçå=

p^db=`oj===pìééçêíáåñçêã~íáçå= p^db=`oj===pìééçêíáåñçêã~íáçå= How to Disable User Account Control (UAC) in Windows Vista You are attempting to install or uninstall ACT! when Windows does not allow you access to needed files or folders.

Mehr

Top Tipp. Ref. 08.05.23 DE. Verwenden externer Dateiinhalte in Disclaimern. (sowie: Verwenden von Images in RTF Disclaimern)

Top Tipp. Ref. 08.05.23 DE. Verwenden externer Dateiinhalte in Disclaimern. (sowie: Verwenden von Images in RTF Disclaimern) in Disclaimern (sowie: Verwenden von Images in RTF Disclaimern) Ref. 08.05.23 DE Exclaimer UK +44 (0) 845 050 2300 DE +49 2421 5919572 sales@exclaimer.de Das Problem Wir möchten in unseren Emails Werbung

Mehr

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education *6407704618* UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education FOREIGN LANGUAGE GERMAN 0677/03 Paper 3 Speaking Role Play Card One 1 March 30 April

Mehr

The poetry of school.

The poetry of school. International Week 2015 The poetry of school. The pedagogy of transfers and transitions at the Lower Austrian University College of Teacher Education(PH NÖ) Andreas Bieringer In M. Bernard s class, school

Mehr

FOR ENGLISCH VERSION PLEASE SCROLL FORWARD SOME PAGES. THANK YOU!

FOR ENGLISCH VERSION PLEASE SCROLL FORWARD SOME PAGES. THANK YOU! FOR ENGLISCH VERSION PLEASE SCROLL FORWARD SOME PAGES. THANK YOU! HELPLINE GAMMA-SCOUT ODER : WIE BEKOMME ICH MEIN GERÄT ZUM LAUFEN? Sie haben sich für ein Strahlungsmessgerät mit PC-Anschluss entschieden.

Mehr

Login data for HAW Mailer, Emil und Helios

Login data for HAW Mailer, Emil und Helios Login data for HAW Mailer, Emil und Helios Es gibt an der HAW Hamburg seit einiger Zeit sehr gute Online Systeme für die Studenten. Jeder Student erhält zu Beginn des Studiums einen Account für alle Online

Mehr

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education GERMAN 0525/03 Paper 3 Speaking Role Play Card One For Examination from 2015 SPECIMEN ROLE PLAY Approx.

Mehr

6KRSSLQJDW&DPGHQ/RFN 1LYHDX$

6KRSSLQJDW&DPGHQ/RFN 1LYHDX$ )HUWLJNHLW+ UYHUVWHKHQ 1LYHDX$ Wenn langsam und deutlich gesprochen wird, kann ich kurze Texte und Gespräche aus bekannten Themengebieten verstehen, auch wenn ich nicht alle Wörter kenne. 'HVNULSWRU Ich

Mehr

Could you help me? I wish you were here already. He said he had no time.

Could you help me? I wish you were here already. He said he had no time. learning target Aim of this section is to learn how to use the Konjunktiv. German Könntest du mir helfen? Ich wünschte, du wärst schon hier. Er sagte, er habe keine Zeit. English Could you help me? I wish

Mehr

ABSTRACT. A large body of empirical research documents that different linguistic forms lead to a

ABSTRACT. A large body of empirical research documents that different linguistic forms lead to a ABSTRACT The present research investigates the impact of gender-fair language on gender equality in the work context. A large body of empirical research documents that different linguistic forms lead to

Mehr

Invitation - Benutzerhandbuch. User Manual. User Manual. I. Deutsch 2. 1. Produktübersicht 2. 1.1. Beschreibung... 2

Invitation - Benutzerhandbuch. User Manual. User Manual. I. Deutsch 2. 1. Produktübersicht 2. 1.1. Beschreibung... 2 Invitation - Inhaltsverzeichnis I. Deutsch 2 1. Produktübersicht 2 1.1. Beschreibung......................................... 2 2. Installation und Konfiguration 2 2.1. Installation...........................................

Mehr

Europe Job Bank Schülerumfrage. Projektpartner. Euro-Schulen Halle

Europe Job Bank Schülerumfrage. Projektpartner. Euro-Schulen Halle Europe Job Bank Schülerumfrage Projektpartner Euro-Schulen Halle Alter: Geschlecht: M W Ausbildung als: F 1 Was war der Hauptgrund für Deine Wahl der Ausbildung / Deine Berufswahl? a. Freunde b. Familie

Mehr

Application Form ABOUT YOU INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR SCHOOL. - Please affix a photo of yourself here (with your name written on the back) -

Application Form ABOUT YOU INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR SCHOOL. - Please affix a photo of yourself here (with your name written on the back) - Application Form ABOUT YOU First name(s): Surname: Date of birth : Gender : M F Address : Street: Postcode / Town: Telephone number: Email: - Please affix a photo of yourself here (with your name written

Mehr

Kapitel 5: 1-A. Yes? Can I help you? Verbs: to receive= bekommen. Kapitel 5: Klamotten kaufen

Kapitel 5: 1-A. Yes? Can I help you? Verbs: to receive= bekommen. Kapitel 5: Klamotten kaufen Kapitel 5: 1-A Bitte? Was bekommen Sie? Haben Sie einen Wunsch? Ich möchte Ich suche Ich brauche Yes? Can I help you? What would you like? May I help you? I would like I m looking for I need die Farbe

Mehr

Lehrstuhl für Allgemeine BWL Strategisches und Internationales Management Prof. Dr. Mike Geppert Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3 07743 Jena

Lehrstuhl für Allgemeine BWL Strategisches und Internationales Management Prof. Dr. Mike Geppert Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3 07743 Jena Lehrstuhl für Allgemeine BWL Strategisches und Internationales Management Prof. Dr. Mike Geppert Carl-Zeiß-Str. 3 07743 Jena http://www.im.uni-jena.de Contents I. Learning Objectives II. III. IV. Recap

Mehr

How to access licensed products from providers who are already operating productively in. General Information... 2. Shibboleth login...

How to access licensed products from providers who are already operating productively in. General Information... 2. Shibboleth login... Shibboleth Tutorial How to access licensed products from providers who are already operating productively in the SWITCHaai federation. General Information... 2 Shibboleth login... 2 Separate registration

Mehr

LITTLE RED RIDING HOOD AND THE WOLF

LITTLE RED RIDING HOOD AND THE WOLF LITTLE RED RIDING HOOD AND THE WOLF Fertigkeit Lesen Relevante(r) Deskriptor(en) Deskriptor 6: Kann einfache literarische Texte (z.b. fiktionale Texte, Lieder und Gedichte) verstehen. (B1) Themenbereich(e)

Mehr

TIn 1: Feedback Laboratories. Lecture 4 Data transfer. Question: What is the IP? Institut für Embedded Systems. Institut für Embedded Systems

TIn 1: Feedback Laboratories. Lecture 4 Data transfer. Question: What is the IP? Institut für Embedded Systems. Institut für Embedded Systems Mitglied der Zürcher Fachhochschule TIn 1: Lecture 4 Data transfer Feedback Laboratories Question: What is the IP? Why do we NEED an IP? Lecture 3: Lernziele Moving data, the why s and wherefores Moving

Mehr

HUMANGENETIK IN DER WELT VON HEUTE: 12 SALZBURGER VORLESUNGEN (GERMAN EDITION) BY FRIEDRICH VOGEL

HUMANGENETIK IN DER WELT VON HEUTE: 12 SALZBURGER VORLESUNGEN (GERMAN EDITION) BY FRIEDRICH VOGEL FRIEDRICH VOGEL READ ONLINE AND DOWNLOAD EBOOK : HUMANGENETIK IN DER WELT VON HEUTE: 12 SALZBURGER VORLESUNGEN (GERMAN EDITION) BY Click button to download this ebook READ ONLINE AND DOWNLOAD HUMANGENETIK

Mehr

Field Librarianship in den USA

Field Librarianship in den USA Field Librarianship in den USA Bestandsaufnahme und Zukunftsperspektiven Vorschau subject librarians field librarians in den USA embedded librarians das amerikanische Hochschulwesen Zukunftsperspektiven

Mehr