Access to higher education: Social impact of admission systems in comparative perspective

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1 Presentation at World Conference of Compararive Education Societies WCCES XIV, Istanbul, Access to higher education: Social impact of admission systems in comparative perspective Lorenz Lassnigg, Martin Unger, Stefan Vogtenhuber (;

2 Agenda Research question & previous findings Anticipation systems Methodology Matching-concepts, indicators, country practices, Austrian case Findings no clear measure, missing aspects, no clear effects, complexity Discussion technocratic & professional-political elements of anticipation systems

3 Agenda Research question & previous findings Anticipation systems Methodology Matching-concepts, indicators, country practices, Austrian case Findings and conclusions no clear measure, missing aspects, no clear effects, complexity Further research technocratic & professional-political elements of anticipation systems

4 Research questions, purpose Can we expect, that new selection procedures at universities -- in addition to the prevailing system of entitlements based on school completion requirements ( Matura -examination) -- might increase social selectivity? Are there different effects on social selectivity from different selection/admission procedures? Purpose: The present Austrian system of so called open access is under hot discussion, and the Rectors Conference wanted to initiate a debate about admission procedures and the development of alternatives (commissioned project)

5 Background University (Bologna) Weak H.E. Dual Voc training (2-4 yrs) Prep Special schools General secondary school (4 years) Strong VET APPR + FT-School Lower - upper Level Early Tracking Age Primary school (4 years) 100% of age group Elementary education

6 Previous findings No comparative studies found about the social impact of different selection/admission systems (this aspect more or less neglected; comparative research looks at broader characteristics of systems - the educational pipeline - only) Some research on country level available, however, not very conclusive because of differing perspectives and differing variables Selection/admission systems are complex, build up from a set of differently combined elements

7 Framework of admission system Investitionen Admission Zugangsregelungen Politik Procedures Prozessmerkmale Inter- ventionen ventions Bildungspipeline Systemischer Kontext Erträge

8 Framework of admission system Investitionen Admission Zugangsregelungen Politik Procedures Prozessmerkmale Inter- ventionen ventions Educational Bildungs- pipeline Systemischer Kontext Erträge

9 Framework of admission system Investitionen Investment Admission Zugangsregelungen Politik Procedures Prozessmerkmale Inter- ventionen ventions Educational Bildungs- pipeline Systemischer Kontext Erträge Returns

10 Framework of admission system Investitionen Investment Admission Zugangsregelungen Politics, Politik policy Procedures Prozessmerkmale Inter- ventionen ventions Educational Bildungs- pipeline Systemischer Kontext Erträge Returns

11 Framework of admission system Investitionen Investment Admission Zugangsregelungen Politics, Politik policy Procedures Prozessmerkmale Inter- ventionen ventions Educational Bildungs- pipeline Systemic context Systemischer Kontext Erträge Returns

12 Agenda Research question & previous findings Anticipation systems Methodology Matching-concepts, indicators, country practices, Austrian case Findings and conclusions no clear measure, missing aspects, no clear effects, complexity Further research technocratic & professional-political elements of anticipation systems

13 Methodology Comparative approach Literature review, different kinds of studies: - broad comparative studies - studies about small selections of countries - single countries Case studies of five countries/systems in addition to Austria, selected on the purpose of - variety of systems and - availablity of research: Australia, Finland, Germany, Sweden, United Kingdom

14 AFFORDABILITY LEISTBARKEIT Measurement 0 ACCESS ZUGANG NL FI S 5 IR F D B A 10 CD I 15 UK US AU Data-Source: Usher/Cervenan 2005

15 % students fathers univ.degree % Väter mit Unversitätsabschluss 55 Measurement 50 B US F D NL 35 IR 30 CD 25 A S AU UK FI 20 I R 2 = 0,5912 Universitätsabschlüsse unter 45-64j. Männern % univ.degree. men population Data-Source: Usher/Cervenan 2005

16 Agenda Research question & previous findings Anticipation systems Methodology Matching-concepts, indicators, country practices, Austrian case Findings no clear measure, missing aspects, no clear effects, complexity Conclusions technocratic & professional-political elements of anticipation systems

17 PIPELINE + selectivity - tracked (A, G) Framework of admission system INVESTMENT HE + fees - no fees (S, FIN) - part.fees (G, A) - grants/loans (most) - variable fees (U.K., Investitionen Investment AU) - loans (AU) - social: low Educational Bildungs- (FIN, S) med. (A), pipeline high (G, AU, U.K.) + second chance - S, AU, U.K. + low (A, G, U.K.) high (AU, FIN, S) + support - overall support (A, G) ADMISSION-PROCEDURES Zugangsregelungen Admission + Pipeline -criteria (Grades, Exam) - sufficient (A, S, G) - minimum Prozessmerkmale (AU, U.K., FIN) Procedures - central (S, A) - mixed (G) Inter- ventionen ventions AU, - institutional (U.K., FIN) + Central/institutional admiss. SYSTEMIC CONTEXT + elite / mass system - elite (A, G) - intermed. (FIN, S) - mass (AU, U.K.) Systemic context Systemischer Kontext Politics, Politik policy ACCESSIBILITY + high (FIN, U.K., AU) + low (S, G, A) ACCESS-POLICY + U.K.: widening access - multiple measures Erträge Returns + AU: Loans + target gr. + S: support measures for adults + gender difference Sci/Te - high (A) - medium (D, FIN) - low (AU, S, U.K.)

18 Stylized traits of analysed systems Austria: open access (right to study, based on Matriculation exam); selection by institutions in few univ-studies, in all polytechnics (fees stop-go-policy; overall support, means-tested grants) Germany: Some NC-studies; in several studies selection procedures; shift to institutional mechanisms (no overall fees; overall support; 50%loan) Finland: Matriculation examination; very selective autonomous institutional selection process at universities; less selective polytechnics (no fees) Sweden: Central admission system; mixed mechanisms: secondary school grades or tests in adult education/second chance for pupils (no fees) United Kingdom: Selection by institutions; some minimal criteria (Alevels) + widening access programme (variable fees; grants & loans) Australia: Selection by institutions (HE-rank.sc.); min.criteria (variable fees; loans)

19 Staat Zugangssystem Studiengebühren und -förderungen Deutschland - Sekundarschulabschluss (Abitur) - 6 bundesweite NC-Fächer (WS 05/06), weitere regionale und institutionelle Zulassungsbeschränkungen für viele Fächer (versch. Aufnahmeverfahren) - Shift von bundesweiten zu institutionellen Zulassungs-verfahren (Studienplatzbewirtschaftung) Finnland Schweden Vereinigtes Königreich/. England Australien - "Matriculation Examination": spezielle Prüfung, die zwei Mal jährlich an Sekundarschulen abgehalten wird -Zugangsbeschränkungen in allen Studienrichtungen (Studienplatzbewirtschaftung) -unterschiedliche institutionelle Auswahlkriterien (Noten, Aufnahmetests) - Sekundarabschluss, Abschluss Erwachsenenbildung oder Berufserfahrung - Zentrales Auswahlsystem, Mischung aus Schulnoten, externem Studierfähigkeitstest, Berufserfahrung bei Erw. - Institutionen dürfen bei der Auswahl geringfügig mitbestimmen - Institutionen legen ihre Aufnahmekriterien eigenständig fest - Minimalvoraussetzungen (je nach Prestige der Institution unterschiedlich) müssen erfüllt sein (v.a. GCE/VCE-A Levels) - Institutionen legen ihre Aufnahmekriterien eigenständig fest (meist aufgrund des individuellen "Higher Education Ranking"-Score basiert auf Schulnoten) - Minimalvoraussetzungen müssen erfüllt sein (Sekundarabschluss) - Keine allgemeinen Studiengebühren (WS 05/06), Einführung in sechs Bundesländern in Höhe von 500 EUR beschlossen - Bundeseinheitliche Förderung nach sozialen Kriterien (zu 50% als Kredit) n - Keine Studiengebühren - Einheitliche Studienbeihilfen nach sozialen Kriterien - Kredite - Keine Studiengebühren - Einheitliche Studienbeihilfen nach sozialen Kriterien - Kredite - Studiengebühren seit 1998, ab 2006 variabel (max GBP/STJ. in England, max GBP in Wales im STJ 2006/07) - Einheitliche Studienbeihilfen nach sozialen Kriterien - Kredite (seit 1990 einkommensabhängig und rückzahlbar über das Steuersystem) - Reform des Kredit- und Förderwesens Studiengebühren abhängig vom Status (Commonwealth-geförderter Studienplatz oder nicht) -Höhe der Gebühren können seit 2005 von den Institutionen innerhalb eines Limits festgelegt werden - Staatliches Kreditsystem (einkommensabhängig rückzahlbar über das Steuersystem)

20 SYSTEMIC CONTEXT System-shape ST-Gender-Difference PIPELINE System-shape Soc.impact achievem. INVESTMENT HE Level Fees Support Affordability ADMISSION- PROCEDURES pipeline-results centralisation Elite -Systems High-medium Tracked-Systems High-medium Low Part.fees Overall support Medium Sufficient Centralised/mixed Stylized Findings Universal -Systems Medium-low Compreh.Systems Low High No fees Grants+loans High DIFFERING Sufficient / Minimum Central. / Institut. Mass -Systems Low C Compreh.Systems High Low/High Fees Grants-Loans Low Minimum Institutional ACCESSIBILITY LOW Austria Germany LOW / HIGH Finland Sweden HIGH United Kingdom Australia

21 SYSTEMIC CONTEXT System-shape ST-Gender-Difference PIPELINE System-shape Soc.impact achievem. INVESTMENT HE Level Fees Support Affordability ADMISSION- PROCEDURES pipeline-results centralisation 35/36%; 8/14% 3,3/2,5 Tracked-Systems 14/22% Low Part.fees Overall support 6./7. Sufficient Centralised/mixed Stylized Findings 80/73%; 24/23% 1,7/2,1 Compreh.Systems 11/9% High No fees Grants+loans 1./2. DIFFERING Sufficient / Minimum Central. / Institut. 48/68%; 24/25% 1,5/1,7 C Compreh.Systems 19/17% Low/High Fees Grants-Loans 13./11. Minimum Institutional ACCESSIBILITY LOW Austria (13.) Germany (11.) LOW / HIGH Finland (2.) Sweden (9.) HIGH Unit. Kingd. (3.) Australia (6.)

22 Selection/admission systems Critical design factors of admission systems: - Structure of admission system (relation to pipeline, centralisation) - kinds of Tests/Examinations - degree of autonomy of institutions about decision - norm/criterion referencing - ranking mechanisms/criteria - criteria for admission-decision - matching-mechanisms of applicants to institutions

23 Effects for social selectivity Tests vs. examinations: no clear effects, multiple opportunities positive Centralisation: mixed systems positive, transparency and accountability important Criterion referencing positive; the more normreferencing, the more support necessary Local, school level ranking more positive than national ranking Matching mechanisms important (e.g., unfilled places)

24 Agenda Research question & previous findings Anticipation systems Methodology Matching-concepts, indicators, country practices, Austrian case Findings no clear measure, missing aspects, no clear effects, complexity Discussion technocratic & professional-political elements of anticipation systems

25 General points Research basically driven by competing views about social selectivity: (1) Unexpected anomaly vs. (2) expected status reproduction Kind of paradox: Social selectivity always expected to disappear, however, research always confirms its existence Measurement covers very different aspects, and/or uses very different indicators - comparative study, definition of affordability, accessibility - Sweden: Parents in population parents of students - Finland: applicants from former years; accepted - Australia: Target groups compared to benchmarks - U.K.: complex view of access process

26 U.K. Model for widening access Source: HEFCE 2005a, 12.

27 U.K. policy Schools: Schulen: new Entwicklung curriculum einer neuen Konzeption für - Curriculum individualised individualisiert steps - -mix gestuft vocational-academic (4 Stufen) - -portfolio beruflich-akademisch documentation - Portfolio Dokumentation FE colleges: bieten Hochschulprogramme, graduate courses akkreditiert accredited by durch HEIs HEIs - 12% der HE-Angebote, FECs direkt finanziert, weitere indirekt über HEIs Quelle: Johansson et al (2006), General Allgemeine measures Maßnahmen - Monitoring durch Indikatoren - Monitoring at institution level auf Institutionsebene (öffentlich) (public) - Gesetzgebung für Gleichheit - laws und in gegen favour Diskriminierung of equity and against (Sex, discrimination disability, race) (Sex, disabiliy, race) Financing, Finanzierung, Incentives Anreize - Access - Access agreement agreement in case mit of OFFA higher fees bei höheren Gebühren - Financial - Finanzierung means für for widening access (pre-application 20%; post-application 80%) 80%) - Deferred fees - Deferred fees - Grants and loans - Grants and loans Teaching/learning Lehr-Lernprozesse - Higher Education Academy, profess.std., subj.centre network - reward strategies - Centres for Excellence in Teaching and Learning Partnerships Partnerschaften - outreach (Aimhigher) - LLL-Networks for vocational Routes (HEI FEC) - Collaborative provision FE-HE - Foundation degree (partnership employers)

28 Important issues for policies Quantity-quality: Quasi-objectivity by measurement Open access at the end of the pipeline cannot compensate for early selectivity, however, is good for mobilising in favour of status-reproduction Any access regime cannot outrule status reproduction, there must be deliberate policies in favour of the disadvantaged There are more favorable and less favourable traits of access regimes

29 Conclusions Very little comparative knowledge about the social selectivity of admission systems Every system still selective; predicted by hypothesis of status-reproduction If social selectivity is high at the beginning of the pipeline, it cannot be reversed through open admission for upper secondary graduates Rather support programmes at each level of action necessary for reduction of social selectivity than construction of admission system

30 The End Thank you!

31 ANNEX

32 Definitions Access Participation rate Attainment rate Educational equity index Gender parity Affordability Education costs as % of ability to pay (GDP/capita) Total costs as % of ability to pay (GDP/capita) Net costs as % of ability to pay (GDP/capita) Net costs after tax as % of ability to pay (GDP/capita) Out-of-pocket cost as % of ability to pay (GDP/capita) Out-of-pocket cost after tax as % of ability to pay (GDP/capita)

33 Measurement Sweden 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Parents 20% Population 20% 20% 28% 33% 33% 28% Eltern Parents Bevölkerung Population 34% 34% 18% 24% 34% 24% 18% Eltern Parents Studierende of students Bev Stud Stud Bev "senior salaried" mittlere Schicht "working class" Source: Högskoleverket (Swedish National Agency for Higher Education) (2005), 12.

34 Measurement Finland % 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Sek Jg.AbsolventInnen II grad. recent (li.sk.) year Applicants BewerberInnen to (li.sk.) universities % applicants from former yrs. rsc % applicants accepted rsc % "Überhang" BewerberInnen (re.sk.) % aufgenommene Bew. (re.sk.) Source: own picture based on Opetusministeriö 2005

35 Measurement Australia Groups (Ref.) Studierende mit Behinderung (4,0%) Disabled (4,0%) Nicht englischsprachiger Hintergrund (4,1%) Non engl. (4,1%) RuralR (24,3%) Ländliche Gebiete (24,3%) Niedriger sozioökomischer Status (25,0%) Socio-ec. (25,0%) Isolierte Gebiete (4,5%) IsolatedR (4,5%) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 93% 88% 70% 58% 29% Reference fulfilment Source: James et al. 2004, own compilation.

36 Austrian perspectives Selective admission hot potato - European pressure - no open debate Selection procedures at individual universities in place as demonstration projects, will be evaluated Rationality (compehensive solution) vs. political opportunism (selection by individual universities) The hot-potato -effect might lead to a worse solution because of political laissez-faire

37 Material Usher A./ Cervenan A. (2005): Global Higher Education Rankings Toronto, ON: Educational Policy Institute, Internet: her%20education%20rankings%202005%22 Lassnigg L., Unger M., Vogtenhuber S., Erkinger M. (2006): Soziale Aspekte des Hochschulzugangs und Durchlässigkeit des Bildungssystems, IHS-Research report, Vienna: IHS, Internet: Lassnigg, L., Unger, M., Vogtenhuber, S., Erkinger, M. (2007) Soziale Aspekte des Hochschulzuganges und Durchlässigkeit des Bildungssystems. In: Badelt C., Wegscheider, W., Wulz, H., Hg., Hochschulzugang in Österreich. Graz: Leykam,

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