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1 CONSEJO INTERNACIONAL DE NUMISMÁTICA INTERNATIONAL NUMISMATIC COUNCIL CONSEIL INTERNATIONAL DE NUMISMATIQUE INTERNATIONALER NUMISMATISCHER RAT CONSIGLIO INTERNAZIONALE DI NUMISMATICA Compte Rendu 60 / 2013 Publié par le Secrétariat du Conseil

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3 INTERNATIONAL NUMISMATIC COUNCIL CONSEIL INTERNATIONAL DE NUMISMATIQUE

4 TABLE OF CONTENTS / SOMMAIRE COMPOSITION DU BUREAU... 5 STATUTS... 7 CONSTITUTION... 9 THE LAW AND PRACTICE REGARDING COIN FINDS PECUNIA OLET! Romanian legislation on ancient coin finds (Cristian Găzdac) Les trouvailles monétaires et la loi en Suisse (Rahel C. Ackermann Anne-Francine Auberson) LES GRANDS NUMISMATES Barclay Vincent Head ( ) (N. Keith Rutter) Hermann Dannenberg ( ) (Bernd Kluge) COLLECTIONNEURS CÉLÈBRES Rafael Cervera y Royo ( ) (Gloria Mora) HISTOIRE DES COLLECTIONS NUMISMATIQUES ET DES INSTITUTIONS VOUÉES À LA NUMISMATIQUE Das Münzkabinett des Historischen Museums Basel (Michael Matzke) Die Numismatische Sammlung der Deutschen Bundesbank in Frankfurt am Main (Reinhold Walburg) NÉCROLOGIES Brita Malmer ( ) (Kenneth Jonsson) MEETING OF THE COMMITTEE (MESSINA/TAORMINA, MAY 22 TO MAY 24, 2013) COMPTES DU CONSEIL...84 MEMBRES DU CONSEIL Institutions Membres honoraires

5 5 CONSEJO INTERNACIONAL DE NUMISMÁTICA INTERNATIONAL NUMISMATIC COUNCIL CONSEIL INTERNATIONAL DE NUMISMATIQUE INTERNATIONALER NUMISMATISCHER RAT CONSIGLIO INTERNAZIONALE DI NUMISMATICA Committee / Bureau President / Président: Carmen Arnold-Biucchi Harvard Art Museums, Division of Asian and Mediterranean Art, 32 Quincy Street, Cambridge, MA (USA) Tel , fax Vice-Presidents / Vice-présidents: J. Donal Bateson Coin Cabinet, The Hunterian, Glasgow University, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom) Tel , fax Benedikt Zäch Münzkabinett und Antikensammlung der Stadt Winterthur, Villa Bühler, Lindstrasse 8, Postfach, CH-8402 Winterthur (Schweiz / Suisse / Svizzera) Tel , fax Secretary / Secrétaire: Michael Alram Münzkabinett, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Burgring 5, A-1010 Wien (Österreich / Austria) Tel , fax Treasurer / Trésorier: Tuukka Talvio Coin Cabinet, National Museum of Finland, P.O. Box 913, FL Helsinki (Finland) Tel

6 6 MEMBERS Officers / Membres du bureau: Maria Caccamo Caltabiano Cattedra di numismatica greca e romana, Dipartimento di Scienze della Antichità, Università degli Studi di Messina, Polo dell Annunziata, I Messina (Italia / Italy) Tel , fax Sylviane Estiot HISOMA, UMR 5189 CNRS Histoire et Sources des Mondes antiques Maison de l Orient et de la Méditerranée, 7, rue Raulin, F Lyon cédex 07 (France) Tel , Pere Pau Ripollès Departament de Prehistòria i Arqueologia, Universitat de València, Blasco Ibáñez 28, E València (España / Spain) Tel , fax Bernward Ziegaus Archäologische Staatssammlung, Lerchenfeldstrasse 2, D München (Deutschland / Germany) Tel , fax

7 status 7 STATUTS du Conseil international de numismatique (CIN) adoptés le 30 août 2009 à Glasgow Art. 1. Objet. Le Conseil international de numismatique (CIN) a pour mission de promouvoir la numismatique et les sciences qui s y rapportent en facilitant la coopération entre individus et institutions dans le domaine de la numismatique et des sciences qui s y rapportent. Art. 2. Membres. Les organismes suivants peuvent devenir membres du CIN: a. les collections numismatiques publiques, b. les universités, les organisations, institutions et sociétés numismatiques sans caractère commercial (locales, nationales et internationales), c. les Hôtels des monnaies. Les membres sont admis par le Bureau et doivent payer la cotisation annuelle fixée par le Bureau. Tout manquement au paiement entraîne l annulation d adhésion. L adhésion prend effet à partir du paiement de la première cotisation. Art. 3. Membres honoraires. Lors de ses réunions et sur proposition du Bureau, le CIN peut élire des personnalités comme membres honoraires. Les membres honoraires ne paient pas de cotisation annuelle mais ont les mêmes droits que les membres ordinaires. Art. 4. Assemblées. Le CIN doit tenir une assemblée générale lors des congrès internationaux de numismatique qui, en principe, ont lieu tous les six ans. Si aucun congrès international de numismatique n a lieu dans un délai de sept ans après le dernier congrès, une assemblée sera obligatoirement convoquée sur décision du Bureau. Tout membre ordinaire peut désigner un délégué à l assemblée générale. Un délégué ne peut représenter plus de trois membres ordinaires. Les membres qui ne sont pas à jour de cotisation ne peuvent voter. Les membres honoraires ne votent qu en personne. Art. 5. Bureau. Le Bureau du CIN est composé de neuf membres représentant dans la mesure du possible chacune des catégories citées à l article 2. Les membres du Bureau sont élus lors de l assemblée générale. Leur fonction prend fin à l assemblée générale suivante: ils ne peuvent être réélus qu une fois. Le Bureau se réunit au moins une fois par an; il s organise lui-même, c est-à-dire qu il élit son président et répartit les autres charges. En cas de mort ou de démission d un membre, le Bureau a le droit de coopter un remplaçant jusqu à l assemblée générale.

8 8 status Art. 6. Charges. Les charges du Bureau sont la présidence, les deux vice-présidences, le secrétariat, la trésorerie. Les titulaires de ces charges sont élus immédiatement après l élection du Bureau et exercent leur charge selon les vœux du Bureau. Lors du changement de Bureau, le trésorier reste en charge jusqu à la fin de l année civile. Art. 7. Fonctions du Bureau. Les fonctions du Bureau comprennent l admission de nouveaux membres, la préparation et la publication du budget et des comptes, la fixation du montant de la cotisation, la diffusion de l information aux membres (notamment par le Compte rendu annuel et les Newsletters), le patronage de travaux individuels, de publications et de conférences de numismatique, l organisation du Congrès international et toute autre activité relative, selon lui, aux objectifs du CIN. Art. 8. Finances. Les dépenses d administration et de publication sont couvertes par les cotisations annuelles, les dons, les legs, et d éventuelles subventions. Siège. Le siège du CIN se trouve au bureau du président. Art. 9. Art. 10. Modifications des statuts. Toute modification des statuts doit être approuvée à la majorité des deux tiers des votes exprimés à l assemblée générale. Toute proposition de modification doit être signifiée aux membres, par écrit, au moins trois mois avant l assemblée. Art. 11. Dissolution. Le CIN peut être dissout par la majorité des votes exprimés à l assemblée générale.

9 9 Translation CONSTITUTION of the International Numismatic Council (INC) adopted on August 30, 2009 in Glasgow Art. 1. Mission. The mission of the INC is to promote numismatics and related disciplines by facilitating cooperation among individuals and institutions in the field of numismatics and related disciplines. Art. 2. Membership. The following organisations may become members of the INC: a. Public numismatic collections, b. Universities, non-commercial numismatic organisations, institutions and societies (local, national and international), c. Mints. Members shall be admitted by the Committee and shall pay an annual subscription determined by the Committee. Failure to pay the subscription shall terminate membership. Membership will commence from the date of payment of the first annual subscription. Art. 3. Honorary members. The INC can elect individuals as honorary members at its Meetings on proposal of the Committee. Honorary members do not pay the annual subscription but have the same rights as ordinary members. Art. 4. Meetings. The INC must hold a General Meeting at each International Numismatic Congress, which in principle takes place every six years. If there is no International Numismatic Congress within seven years after the last congress, a Meeting must be organised on a different occasion to be fixed by the Committee. Each ordinary member may designate one voting delegate to the General Meeting. A delegate may not represent more than three ordinary members. Members who have not paid their subscription may not vote. Honorary members may vote only in person. Art. 5. Committee. The Committee of the INC consists of nine members if possible including representatives of each of the categories in article 2. The Committee members shall be elected at the General Meeting. Their term ends at the next General Meeting; they can be re-elected only once. The Committee shall meet at least annually. The Committee constitutes itself, i.e. it elects the

10 10 Constitution President and distributes other offices. In the event of death or resignation of a member, the Committee shall have the right to co-opt a replacement until the General Meeting. Art. 6. Officers. The officers of the INC shall be the President, two Vice-Presidents, the Secretary, the Treasurer. These officers shall be elected immediately after the election of the Committee and shall serve at the pleasure of the Committee. When the Committee changes, the Treasurer will remain in office until the end of the calendar year. Art. 7. Duties of the Committee. The duties of the Committee shall include admitting new members; preparing and publishing a budget and fixing the subscription; disseminating information among the membership (particularly through the annual report, in the Compte rendu, and Newsletters); extending patronage to particular projects, publications and conferences, organising the International Numismatic Congress and all other activities consistent, in the opinion of the Committee, with the mission of the INC. Art. 8. Finance. The expenses of administration and publications are covered, by the annual subscriptions, by gifts, by legacies and grants. Seat. The seat of the INC is the office of the President. Art. 9. Art. 10. Changes to the Constitution. The constitution may be changed by a two thirds majority of the votes cast at the General Meeting. Notice of proposed changes must be given to the members in writing at least three months prior to the Meeting. Art. 11. Dissolution. The INC may be dissolved by a majority of two thirds of the votes cast at the General Meeting.

11 11 THE LAW AND PRACTICE REGARDING COIN FINDS Cristian Găzdac PECUNIA OLET! Romanian legislation on ancient coin finds 1 Form and function are a unity, two sides of one coin. In order to enhance function, appropriate form must exist or be created. Ida Pauline Rolf What ancient coinage in Romania represents for world heritage is best described by E. Oberländer-Târnoveanu, On an imaginary numismatic map of the world, Romania, certainly, represents what could be defined at least as a true Eldorado, if not a real Paradise. As it lies at the great European crossroads and at the confluence of some crucial ancient, mediaeval and modern political, economic and monetary structures, the country has yielded a wide range of coin finds rarely encountered on our continent. The coin finds from Romania illustrate true pages and chapters of a virtual numismatic encyclopaedia. 2 For more than 2,000 years the area between the Carpathian Mountains, the Lower Danube and the Black Sea witnessed the use of ancient coins. One may think that the Romanian state is the fortunate owner of a rich national heritage. This is only partially true. The last 20 years witnessed major events that have had a strong impact on the legal status of ownership of ancient coins. The first step was to claim the return of jewellery confiscated by the communist regime. Based on two decrees, no. 210/1960 on the means of payments in foreign currency, precious metals and precious stones; and no. 244/1978 the right to ownership of precious metals and stones, the communist regime confiscated a large quantity of objects considered as belonging to the state and not to individuals (article 16, Decree 244/1978). The two decrees were repealed through O.U.G. (Government Emergency Ordinance) no. 190/2000 and Law no. 158/2004. This has led to a large series of trials in court as the former owners or their legitimate heirs sued the state or the National Bank to return those objects. Only in one case, kilos of gold (coins and 1 This work was carried out within the research projects UEFISCSDI PN-II-ID- PCE and PN-II-RU-TE

12 12 Cristian GĂzdac jewellery) valued at 214,500 euros were returned to the former owner plus compensation as they had spent some time in jail for the crime of owning precious metals during communist times. 3 After the fall of communism in Romania in 1989 the national heritage faced a more dangerous threat the trafficking of national heritage artefacts (ancient coins being an important part of this phenomenon). Furthermore, following the incredible development of metal-detecting techniques and devices, this hobby became almost a national issue because of the impact on the black market of artefacts belonging to the Romanian national heritage, and even became part of organised crime. Therefore, legislation regarding ancient coins has also evolved, adapting to the dangers posed by the smuggling of artefacts. The main law in this matter in Romania at the moment is Law no. 182 of October 25, 2000 regarding the protection of the movable national heritage. As soon as coins are declared part of the national heritage they fall under strict legislation regarding the finding, stealing, trafficking and any other means by which they do not enter the national heritage domain. Article 1, 2 includes in the national heritage repertory the totality of objects identified as such, regardless of ownership rights over them, representing a testimony and an expression of the values, beliefs, knowledge and traditions in continuous evolution; it comprises all the elements resulting from the interaction, in the course of time, between human and natural agents. After a general definition the law provides a more specific picture of what are the categories included in the national heritage: Article 3 1. The movable national cultural heritage includes objects of exceptional historical, archaeological, documentary, ethnological, artistic, scientific and technical, literary, cinematographic, numismatic, philatelic, heraldic, bibliographic, cartographic and epigraphic value, representing material evidence for the evolution of the natural environment and for the relation of humans with it, the potential creativity of mankind and the Romanian contribution to universal civilization. Apart from being part of the national heritage as numismatic material, coins can be regarded as artefacts of the movable national heritage due to additional features. 3

13 PECUNIA OLET! Romanian legislation on ancient coin finds The movable national cultural heritage consists of archaeological and historical-documentary objects, such as: a) products of archaeological exploration and excavations conducted on land and under water, tools, pottery, inscriptions, coins, seals, jewellery, items of clothing or harness, weapons, funerary remains, site materials that represent archaeological samples for specialised analysis, except for construction material; b) items relating to the political, economic, social, military, religious, scientific, artistic, sporting history; e) objects of archival value; f) items and documents of numismatic, philatelic, heraldic value: coins, medals, decorations, badges, registered designs, stamps, flags and banners; g) epigraphic items; The judicial importance of the artefacts considered part of the national heritage is stipulated in Article 4. According to their historical, archaeological, documentary, ethnological, artistic, scientific and technical, literary, cinematographic, numismatic, philatelic, heraldic, bibliographic, cartographic and epigraphic importance, antiquity or rarity, the objects belonging to the movable national heritage fall into: a) the movable national cultural heritage corpus, further referred to as the thesaurus, consisting of cultural items of exceptional value for humanity; b) the movable national cultural heritage basic items, further referred to as basic items, consisting of cultural items of exceptional value for Romania. Unlike the communist legislation, the new law on the national heritage of Romania states that the objects belonging to the national heritage can also be held as private property: Movable cultural objects may be held as public or private property by the state or by territorial-administrative entities or as private property by private bodies or individuals. 4 At the same time, the law already comes with stipulations regarding the safety of objects belonging to the national heritage: 4 Law 182/200, art. 5, 1.

14 14 Cristian GĂzdac Article 7 1. The competent authorities have the obligation to act, according to the legal provisions in force and the international conventions subscribed by Romania, in order to recover any cultural object that was illegally removed or appropriated from museums or collections or illegally held abroad; 2. On the basis of a co-operation agreement, the competent authorities must participate in any joint international operation aiming at prohibiting and deterring illicit activities of import, export and property transfer of cultural objects. At the same time Article 8 states: The public authorities, owners, bearers of other rights, as well as bearers of the administrative right to the objects belonging to the movable national cultural heritage have the obligation to protect them against any deliberate or perfunctory deeds that can lead to their degradation, damage, loss, illegal export or mis-appropriation. 5 In order to avoid any doubt on the provenance of an artefact within the meaning of national heritage Article 45 stipulates: Archaeological, epigraphic, numismatic, paleontological or geological objects, discovered in the context of systematic research for archaeological or geological purposes or within rescue or preventive archaeological research, as well as those accidentally discovered, in consequence of any kind of works, performed on state-owned property, according to article 136 paragraph (3) of the Romanian Constitution, revised, represent public property, in conformity with the legal stipulations. 6 Regarding the procedure to adopt when such artefacts including ancient coins are found the same law stipulates: Individuals having accidentally discovered objects from the category mentioned in article 45, paragraph (1) must deliver them, within 72 hours after the discovery, to the mayor of the territorial-administrative unit that covers the discovery site; the mayor must inform the provincial public office of the Ministry of Culture about the objects discovered, within 72 hours, and must take protective and conservation measures; within 10 days the mayor must hand over the objects thus discovered to the county office for culture and national cultural heritage. 7 At the same time, the law precisely mentions the reward to which the finder is entitled: The finders of an accidental discovery, who hand over the objects 5 Law 182/200, art Law 182/200, art. 45, 1. 7 Law 182/200, art. 48, 1, 2, 3.

15 PECUNIA OLET! ROMANIAN LEGISLATION ON ANCIENT COIN FINDS 15 discovered in compliance with the provisions stipulated under paragraph (1), are entitled to a pecuniary reward equivalent to 30% of the value of the object, calculated at the time the reward is granted; if the archaeological discovery is of exceptional value, a bonus of up to 15 % of the value of the object may be awarded. 8 The value of this artefact/these artefacts is established by certain categories of experts: licenced experts of the county offices for culture and national cultural heritage or by other licenced experts, 9 more precisely: The bodies that do not possess the expert licence issued by the Ministry of Culture and Religious Affairs, but possess the technical expert licence issued by other authorities of the central public administration, may exercise their expertise, in compliance with the present law, only on the basis of prior accreditation issued by the National Commission of Museums and Collections. 10 The best example in this regard is the most recent case (Fall 2013) of a coin hoard discovered in an isolated place by a metal-detectorist. The hoard consists of more than 47,000 Ottoman silver coins (akçe) minted during the reign of Sultan Murad II ( ). The value of these coins was estimated at approximately 500,000 Euros. The finder is going to receive 150,000 Euros plus a 75,000 Euros bonus because of the importance of such a discovery. 11 An entire chapter of this law is dedicated to the artefacts belonging to the national heritage illegally removed from the territory of Romania. 12 The first article points out that the Ministry of Culture is entitled to inquire where the object is, while the next articles and their paragraphs stipulate that this authority can take, practically, any measures in order to recover the object(s) for the national heritage: from compensation to requests for help from other specialized institutions (e.g. police). 13 The infringements are stated in chapter IX and article 59 stipulates: Infringements of the stipulations of the present law imply material, disciplinary, civil or penal penalties Law 182/200, art. 48, 4. 9 Law 182/200, art. 48, Law 182/200, art. 51, Law 182/200, chapter VIII2: The restitution of movable cultural objects illegally removed from Romanian territory. 13 Law 182/200, arts. 5812, 5813, 5814, Law 182/200, art. 59.

16 16 Cristian GĂzdac Article 60, 1 presents in 17 sub-paragraphs letters a r situations considered as offences and the level of fines. 15 The last can be updated by Government decree. 16 Then the next articles of this law present those cases where infringements are punishable with prison. The content of most of these articles applies to ancient coin finds due to their status as artefacts with national heritage value, archaeological objects and special artefacts. Thus, article 65, 1, punishes the production of copies and casts amongst other counterfeiting techniques without the written approval of the bearer of the administrative right or the owner with prison from one year to three years or with a fine. 17 The next article, 66, comes with the further stipulation that the counterfeiting of national heritage artefacts for commercial purposes is punishable with prison from one to five years. 18 In recent decades the trafficking of ancient artefacts (mainly coins) has led in almost all cases either to the damage or destruction of the objects. Once this aspect was demonstrated in court, apart from the accusations of trafficking national heritage the offenders were also charged with the stipulations of article 67, 1 2: Degrading, destroying or damaging a classified movable object, as well as impeding any conservation measures intended to restore such an item are considered to be infractions and shall be punished with prison for two to seven years; (2) Any attempt in this aspect shall also be punished. 19 Still, the main articles regarding the punishment for trafficking cultural goods are articles 69 and 70. Article 69 mentions: Removing an object from the territory of a state without an export certificate represents illegal export and shall be punished with prison from two to seven years. If the action stated in paragraph (1) resulted in the total loss of a classified movable cultural object, the perpetrator(s) shall be punished with prison from three to ten years; any attempt in this aspect shall also be punished. 20 If the trafficking is considered permanent, article 70 states: Any permanent export of classified movable objects, regardless of bearer of the property right shall be punished with prison from three to ten years. Even supplying information that may lead to all the aspects mentioned above is punishable 15 Law 182/200, art. 60, 1, letters a r. 16 Law 182/200, art. 60, Law 182/200, art. 65, Law 182/200, art Law 182/200, art. 65, Law 182/200, art. 69, 1, 3.

17 PECUNIA OLET! Romanian legislation on ancient coin finds 17 with prison from six months to a year. 21 In all these situations the objects and tools are confiscated. As one would expect the activities that lead to removing and/or trafficking cultural goods, metal-detecting, unauthorized excavations, unauthorized conservation and restoration work are punished with prison from two to seven years and the seizure of the artefacts and tools. 22 All these infringements are also included in Government Ordinance 43/2000 and laws 378/2001 and 258/2006 on the protection of archaeological heritage and establishment of archaeological sites as areas of national interest. Owing to their status as archaeological artefacts coin finds also benefit from the stipulations of this ordinance. The law 182/2000 ends with an appendix that specifies which categories of cultural goods are subject to return and/or recovery. Ancient coins fit in more than one category: 1. Archaeological objects older than 100 years, resulting from: archaeological discoveries and excavations, on land or under water; archaeological sites; archaeological collections; 12. Elements resulting from dismembered artistic, historic or religious monuments, older than 100 years; 12b. Collections of historical, paleontological, ethnographic or numismatic interest. 23 This law has been amended by several legislative acts: the Government Emergency Ordinance 16/March 27, 2003 and law 488/2006 but the changes refer to the details and not the basis of the law. Romanian legislation regarding the protection of national heritage was expanded especially after the great increase in the trafficking of cultural goods that occurred in Romania in the 1990s. The following are some cases of hoards of ancient coins smuggled and recovered, partially recovered or still on the list of wanted objects: 21 Law 182/200, art Law 182/200, art Law 182/200, appendix.

18 18 Cristian GĂzdac a) the hoard of 3,000 Koson gold coins stolen in August 1996 from the archaeological site of Dealul Bodii ; b) the hoard of 3,600 Lysimachos gold coins stolen in August 1998 from the archaeological site of Şesu Căprăreţei ; c) the hoard of a snake-shaped golden bracelet and 1000 Lysimachos gold staters stolen in March 1999 from the archaeological site of Muchea Cetăţii ; d) the hoard of 2,300 Koson silver coins stolen in 2004 from the archaeological site of Dealul Bodii A. Lazăr, Recovering the past. On the circumstances of repatriating the Dacian royal treasures stolen from Sarmizegetusa Regia archeological site, in (eds. A. Lazăr, C. Găzdac et al.) Fighting the trafficking in cultural goods recovering the past. [Patrimonium III], Bucharest, 2013, pp

19 19 THE LAW AND PRACTICE REGARDING COIN FINDS Rahel C. Ackermann Anne-Francine Auberson Les trouvailles monétaires et la loi en Suisse L article 724 du Code civil suisse (CC) règle la façon de traiter les antiquités à valeur scientifique, sans propriétaire: celles-ci appartiennent au canton dans lequel elles ont été mises au jour 1. Les inventeurs sont tenus de déclarer leurs découvertes, mais ont droit à une indemnité équitable, qui ne doit pas dépasser la valeur des objets. Le Code civil suisse étant entré en vigueur en 1912, les découvertes antérieures ne sont pas concernées par cette loi. Une partie d entre elles se trouvent donc encore en mains privées ou dans les collections de différents musées. Comme pour n importe quel texte juridique, les termes, choisis avec soin, peuvent être sujets à diverses interprétations qui, dans le cas des trouvailles monétaires également, peuvent être décisives: que signifie la notion de «valeur scientifique»? Qu est-ce qu une «indemnité équitable»? Ce règlement se limite-t-il aux seules découvertes archéologiques, ou aussi aux trouvailles d habitat provenant de bâtiments encore existants? Autre particularité: la Suisse étant un pays organisé en structure fédérale, chacun des 26 cantons et demi-cantons possède ses propres constitution et pouvoirs législatif, exécutif, judiciaire. Concrètement, l application de la Constitution et des lois fédérales est laissée aux autorités cantonales, ce qui signifie qu il existe, au niveau régional, de grandes divergences dans l application de cet article 724 du Code civil. Les instances archéologiques cantonales sont également dotées de moyens très différents: alors que la plupart des cantons bénéficient d un Service archéologique permanent, avec du personnel qualifié, d autres doivent recourir aux Archives de l État, qui font office de bureau pour annoncer les découvertes, mais qui ne disposent d aucun archéologue pour s occuper de la documentation, de la conservation, ou encore du suivi des objets. Les trouvailles monétaires tombent précisément sous le coup des «antiquités» sans propriétaires. Mais à quelle époque doivent-elles remonter pour détenir une «valeur scientifique»? Cette appréciation évolue grandement au fil du temps. En Suisse, c est à partir de la Renaissance que les monnaies antiques jouissent d un fort attrait. Quant aux monnaies médiévales, elles sont perçues comme dignes d intérêt depuis le XIXe siècle, et dès le milieu du XXe environ, même des trésors modernes sont, au moins sommaire- 1 Le droit de propriété du canton est inextinguible.

20 20 Rahel C. Ackermann Anne-Francine Auberson ment, enregistrés avant d être rendus sans conditions à leurs inventeurs. Ce n est qu au cours des dernières décennies que la Science se focalise sur les trouvailles d ensemble et isolées de l époque moderne, et ceci notamment grâce aux efforts du Groupe suisse pour l étude des trouvailles monétaires (GSETM) fondé en 1985, et de l Inventaire des trouvailles monétaires suisses (ITMS) créé en 1992, une entreprise affiliée à l Académie suisse des sciences humaines (ASSH). Depuis que les objets de l époque moderne sont pris en considération, les recherches relatives aux trouvailles monétaires issues de bâtiments se sont multipliées, mais, selon les régions, leur traitement diverge encore plus que pour les découvertes archéologiques. Tandis que, dans certains cantons 2, trouvailles modernes et archéologiques sont traitées sur un pied d égalité, dans d autres, les premières sont laissées aux propriétaires des maisons ou aux ouvriers, ignorées ou à peine documentées même si elles ont été mises au jour dans le cadre de recherches menées de manière officielle par les autorités cantonales. Aujourd hui, nous nous inscrivons dans une «best practice» de la numismatique scientifique, dans le sens où les trouvailles monétaires et les objets dits para-numismatiques tels que, par exemple, les poids monétaires, les jetons de compte, ou encore les marques et médailles religieuses, de toutes époques et même modernes, sont bien documentés (si possible avec l indication précise du lieu et des circonstances de la découverte, la détermination numismatique, le poids et la documentation photographique), même si les autorités cantonales ne font pas valoir leur droit de propriété et que l objet lui-même n est ensuite plus disponible pour la Science. Savoir quels objets seront conservés dans tel ou tel canton dépend tout d abord de l intérêt (ou du désintérêt!) des responsables. En l absence de spécialiste sur place pour se charger des enregistrements de base et examiner ce matériel avec l œil du scientifique, il est possible d appeler à la rescousse, par exemple l Inventaire des trouvailles monétaires suisse. Régulièrement, des trouvailles monétaires considérées comme «peu intéressantes» arrivent à l ITMS. Des informations sur la situation juridique sont alors fournies, les monnaies sont enregistrées et signalées aux autorités 2 Voir par ex., pour le canton de Zoug: A. Boschetti-Maradi S. Doswald B. Moser, Bauforschung und Numismatik Fundmünzen aus Bauuntersuchungen im Kanton Zug, Revue suisse de numismatique 91, 2012, p , pl ; part. p , pl Études modèles: A.-F. Auberson, Fribourg en Nuithonie: faciès monétaire d une petite ville au centre de l Europe, in: N. Holmes (éd.), Proceedings of the XIVth International Numismatic Congress Glasgow 2009, vol. II, Glasgow 2011, p ; A.-F. Auberson, Des monnaies pour raconter Morat, Cahiers d Archéologie Fribourgeoise 10, 2008, p ; B. Zäch R. C. Warburton-Ackermann, Die Münzfunde aus der Winterthurer Altstadt , in: Archäologie im Kanton Zürich (Berichte der Kantonsarchäologie 13), Zürich Egg, 1996, p

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