Brasiliens Markt für erneuerbare Energien wächst/energy Generation Using Renewable Resources Gains Force in Brazil

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1 MARKT Biomasse Solares Bauen Solarstrom Solarwärme Brasiliens Markt für erneuerbare Energien wächst/energy Generation Using Renewable Resources Gains Force in Brazil Was machen die Weltmeister? Pünktlich zur Fußballweltmeisterschaft richten wir unseren Blick Richtung Zuckerhut und fragen, was der amtierende Weltmeister in der Energieversorgung so drauf hat. Die Fachautorin Juliana Radler, die in Brasilien seit Jahren zu umweltpolitischen Themen arbeitet, stellt exklusiv für die SONNENENERGIE die neuen Initiativen vor und sprach dafür mit zahlreichen Energieexperten ihres Heimatlandes. Eine deutschsprachige Zusammenfassung des englischen Artikels finden Sie auf Seite 59. Von Juliana Radler Brazil is vulnerable to being almost totally dependable on hydroelectric power plants. There was an electricity shortage in 2002 when the whole country had to cut down its consumption of electricity due to lack of rain. Picture: Caro/Hoffmann 54 SONNENENERGIE JULI 06

2 Solarwärme Solarstrom Solares Bauen Biomasse MARKT Among all countries Brazil is the most important one considering the usage potential of renewable energy. We have a huge coast area where wind energy could be produced easily and also a lot of solar radiation, besides these we have an enormous potential to produce biomass energy. It is important to have however, a conjunction of all renewable sources as they are incredibly complementary, points out Hamilton Moss de Souza, the coordinator to the Reference Center for Solar and Wind Energy (CRESESB), based in Rio de Janeiro. Picture: Juliana Radler Due to the necessity to reduce fossil fuel burning and thus the emissions of greenhouse gases, Brazil puts itself as one of the main countries with an enormous potential to generate energy using renewable sources. Among all countries Brazil is the most important one considering the usage potential of renewable energy. We have a huge coast area where wind energy could be produced easily and also a lot of solar radiation, besides these we have an enormous potential to produce biomass energy. It is important to have however, a conjunction of all renewable sources as they are incredibly complementary, points out Hamilton Moss de Souza, the coordinator to the Reference Center for Solar and Wind Energy (CRESESB), based in Rio de Janeiro. To stimulate the segment the Brazilian government has launched a program to encourage electric light production using renewable sources, the PROINFA. Normally energy produced by alternative sources are used by specific factories in Brazil. However, this program expects to generate 3300 MW which will be bought and incorporated to the National Integrated Electric System SIN. This means that the energy produced will be used by the whole population. One third of the total amount (3300MW) of the energy produced will come from wind farms, the other third will come from small central hydroelectric power plants (PCHs) and the final third from biomass projects. The energy produced by these units will then be bought by Eletrobrás, the national electricity estate company. Beside the environmental matter, which has been stimulated as a result of the Kyoto Protocol coming into force on February, 2005, there is in Brazil a real necessity to provide electric light for communities living in remote areas. As a result, the use of renewable sources is expanding. According to the Ministry for Mining and Energy, there are around 12 million Brazilians without electric light. This corresponds to around 7 per cent of the country's population. In a program created in 2004 Electric light for all, the current government aims to reduce that number to zero by There is a huge electricity gap in the country that must be dealt with and resolved by investing in infrastructure projects. Often these people are too far from the electric distribution system. Due to that we went on to work with renewable energy. We had to keep it simple by generating and delivering the energy all in the same place. By using solar modules Photovoltaics (PV), an old problem could be resolved converting sunlight directly into electricity says Fábio Rosa, an engineer who founded the Institute for the Development of Alternative Energy (Ideaas), which in 1997 was created to strive for electric light in rural areas through the use of renewable energy. According to Mr. Rosa to have a service which is based in only one source, like the Brazilian, contributes to making that system vulnerable. The energy used in Brazil depends mainly on large hydro-electrics. There was an electricity shortage in 2002 when the whole country had to cut down its consumption of electricity due to lack of rain. This caused a huge crisis affecting the economy of the country directly. Solar energy became then even more import for Brazil. Solar energy, in some rural areas, is the only possible solution and at a lower cost than building extension wiring from the distribution net. In urban areas it has advantages because of the energetic efficiency since it can be used not only to generate energy but also to heat water. The latter would reduce the electric shower consumption problem. SONNENENERGIE JULI 06 55

3 MARKT Biomasse Solares Bauen Solarstrom Solarwärme Like in many other countries there is a real necessity in Brazil to provide electric light for communities living in remote areas. As a result, the use of renewable sources is expanding. According to the Ministry for Mining and Energy, there are around 12 million Brazilians without electric light. This corresponds to around 7 per cent of the country's population. In a program created in 2004 Electric light for all, the current government aims to reduce that number to zero by Picture: Gesellschaft für technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) According to the Sociedade do Sol, a NGO that works with the dissemination of the use of low cost solar heating, around 36 million people in Brazil use electric shower. This technology as it is used today, at peak time energy consumption (from 6pm to 9pm) uses up something like 6 GW (Gigawatt). In other words, electric shower consumption responds for 10 % of the whole energy used in Brazil. Sociedade do Sol believes that it is possible to diminish electric shower huge energy consumption by using energy produced by solar heating instead. To illustrate this if Brazilians stopped to use electric shower we could save 6 GW of energy per year which correspond approximately to US$ 9 billion. MICRO-PURG 150 SOLAR- Microblasen-Luftabscheider garantiert permanente automatische Entlüftung von SOLAR-, Heiz- u. Kühlkreisläufen. Voss Entlüftungs-Armaturen GmbH Tulpenweg 2 D Itzehoe Tel.: Fax: ALFA MIX Vorschaltgerät für die Waschmaschine ALFA MIX ermöglicht die Einspeisung von Warmwasser aus Solaranlagen und anderen umweltfreundlichen Heizsystemen in die Waschmaschine. Ein 4-Personenhaushalt kann dabei mehr als 300kWh Strom im Jahr einsparen. Umweltschonende Technik OLFS & RINGEN Richtweg Kirchtimke Tel / Fax -93 For Mr. Rosa, solar energy in Brazil has reached a maturity stage, where we have reliable equipments and good knowledge to do their maintenance. The collectors that we use have 3-day autonomy, which means 3 days receiving no light whatsoever. Even in a cloudy day it can still be charged as what ensures energy production is luminosity, says the specialist. However, the biggest obstacle for the dissemination of solar energy (both for heating and electricity generation) is still the high cost of the initial implantation and the lack of loan programs with low interest that would stimulate the sector. High interest gets on the way and frustrates the development and the propagation of renewable energy in Brazil. The advancing of thermal solar energy in Brazil is fundamentaly only a question of cost, says Hamilton Moss from Cresesb. For Martin Green, from the New South Wales University, Australia, the problem of high cost will only be overcome with time since the industry still needs to develop as a whole not only in Brazil but generally in the whole world. Mr. Green believes that with maturity of this market, solar energy will be able to 56 SONNENENERGIE JULI 06

4 SolarWorld. And EveryDay is a SunDay. intersolar Freiburg, , Halle 4 Stand Willkommen auf der Sonnenseite! Sauberer Strom, sichere Zukunft: Setzen Sie heute auf die Energieversorgung für die nächsten Generationen. Gewonnen mit einer Solarstromanlage von SolarWorld. So wird jeder Tag ein Sonn(en)tag.

5 MARKT Biomasse Solares Bauen Solarstrom Solarwärme Only 28.6 MW wind energy are installed in 11 projects at present in Brazil. This represents 0.03 % of the total energy generation capacity in the country. With the PROINFA project there will be a significant leap in the Brazilian installed capacity of wind energy. This is because of 53 new projects which have been selected in nine different states totalizing 1.4 GW of installed potency. This volume is superior than 1.1 GW initially expected. So far, 145 different wind energy business ventures have been granted by the government, adding up to 6.6 GW of energy potency. Picture: Mucuripe Windfarm, Brazil achieve the same platform of usage as fossil fuels (petroleum, coal and natural gas). If we use the photovoltaic model at large scale, we can stimulate the industry and therefore we will be able to obtain lower prices, says Mr. Green. According to him, the development of a cheaper electricity production through solar energy that combines optical and glass fiber in a material known as thin film can bring down costs and prices for solar. In Mr. Green opinion solar energy will respond for 1 % of the whole world energy produced in 2020, 10 % in 2030, and 25 % in Potencial According to the Swera Project (The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment), financed by the United Nations Environment Program, the most appropriated areas to explore solar energy in Brazil are the states of Bahia, Pernambuco, and Piauí, along with the South, South East and Central regions, in this order. On a cloudy day with no sun light at all, the incidence of solar radiation in Rio de Janeiro is 3.6 kwh per square meter per day and in the state of Ceará it is 4.5kWh. In Germany, where this type of energy is most used, the daily incidence is only about 1.0 kwh per square meter, says Stefan Krauter, the Latin America president for the Renewable Energy World Board. According to him, the solar energy generation capacity in one year is 14 thousand times bigger than the world energy consume in the same period. Talking now about wind energy there is in Brazil, at present, only 28.6 MW (megawatts) installed in 11 projects which represents 0.03 % of the total energy generation capacity in the country. With the PROINFA project there will be a significant leap in the Brazilian installed capacity of wind energy. This is because of 53 new projects which have been selected in nine different states totalizing 1.4 GW of installed potency. This volume is superior than 1.1 GW initially expected. So far, 145 different wind energy business ventures have been granted by the government, adding up to 6.6 GW of energy potency. The biggest of these projects will be the Wind Farm based in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in the South of Brazil which will have a investment of US$ 240 million and the capacity to generate 150 MW of electricity. This will be the largest project in Brazil and the second in the world. The program has

6 Solarwärme Solarstrom Solares Bauen Biomasse MARKT been financed by the National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES) from Brazil and it is also part of the PROINFA. One of the positive points in investing in wind energy, according to specialists, is its contribution for the diversification of the Brazilian energetic model. This adds a new renewable source of energy without any risk of having a energy shortage due to lack of rain. Brazil is vulnerable to being almost totally dependable on hydroelectric power plants. Apart from this, wind farms do not emit greenhouse gases thus it could create an enormous market for carbon credit in Brazil. In relation to Biomass, according to the School of Pharmaceutical Science of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil is one of the world s largest producers of alcohol from biomass at low cost and is responsible for more than 1 million direct jobs. In 1973, the Brazilian Program of Alcohol (Proalcool) stimulated the creation of a bioethanol industry that has led to large economic, social, and scientific improvements. In the year 1984, 94.5 % of Brazil's cars used bioethanol as fuel. In 2003/2004, million tonnes of sugarcane produced 24.2 million tonnes of sugar and 14.4 billion litres of ethanol for an average 4.3 million cars using ethanol. DAS MULTITALENT IN DER SOLARTECHNIK MULTISOL - das Multitalent! Verbindet alle starken Leistungen die ein Solar-Modul braucht! MULTISOL hat einen extrem stabilen Alurahmen, durch das geringe Modulgewicht eine leichte Montage und weniger Dachbelastung. Eine neue patentierte Anschlußtechnik garantiert dauerhaft dichte und sichere elektrische Verbindungen. Verwendet werden Hochleistungssolarzellen von weltweit führenden Hersteller. MULTISOL bietet 2 Jahre Funktions- und 20 Jahre Leistungsgarantie, hat eine umweltfreundliche Modulproduktion und ist ein recyclingfähiges Produkt mit Rückgaberecht. MULTISOL-Made in Germany Since its inception, cumulative investment in Proalcool totals US$ 11 billion, and Brazil has saved US$ 27 billion in oil imports. The ethanol production industry from sugarcane generates 152 times more jobs than would have been the case if the same amount of fuel was produced from petroleum, and the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous for environmental reasons. In 2003, one of the biggest Brazilian ethanol industries started consuming 50 % of the residual sugarcane bagasse to produce electrical energy (60 MW), a new alternative use of bioenergy for the Brazilian market. Other technologies for commercial uses of bagasse are in development, such as in the production of natural fibers, sweeteners (glucose and xylitol), singlecell proteins, lactic acid, microbial enzymes, and many other products based on fermentations (submerged and semisolid). Furthermore, studies aimed at the increase in the biosynthesis of sucrose and, consequently, ethanol productivity are being conducted to understand the genetics of sugarcane. SCHEUTEN SOLAR TECHNOLOGY GMBH Postfach D Gelsenkirchen Tel: +49 (0) Fax: +49 (0) Besucheradresse: Scheuten-Solar-Straße 2 D Gelsenkirchen SONNENENERGIE JULI 06 59

7 MARKT Biomasse Solares Bauen Solarstrom Solarwärme According to Martin Green from the New South Wales University, Australia, the development of a cheaper electricity production through solar energy that combines optical and glass fiber in a material known as thin film can bring down costs and prices for solar. In Mr. Green opinion solar energy will respond for 1 % of the whole world energy produced in 2020, 10 % in 2030, and 25 % in Picture: CEPEL (Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Elétrica Center of Research in Eletric Energy, Rio de Janeiro) Ihr Partner beim Bauen mit der Sonne. Solar-Luft-Systeme Solarkollektoren Photovoltaik Solar-Fassaden Solar-Projekte... GRAMMER SOLAR GmbH Oskar-von-Miller-Str. 8 D Amberg Telefon / Telefax / Although, at present, there remain technical obstacles to the economic use of some ethanol industry residues, several research projects have been carried out and useful data generated. Efficient utilization of ethanol industry residues has created new opportunities for new value-added products, especially in Brazil, where they are produced in high quantities. The main objective of PROINFA is to diversify the Brazilian energetic model. Created in April 2002, by a law numbered , PROINFA aims to achieve a production of 3.3 GW from alternative renewable sources. With this amount, Brazil will double its production by using sources such as wind, biomass and small central hydroelectrics that at the moment correspond to 3.8 % of the total produced and which until the end of this year, could reach 5.9 %. The PROINFA counts on the National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES) to support financially such projects. It has created a program to support investments in renewable energy. The program offered by the bank expects to finance up to 70 % of the total investments living out only, assets and services which might come from abroad as much as the land for premises building. The investors will have to guarantee 30 % of the project with their own capital. The financing conditions will have long term interest rate (called TJLP in Brazil) plus 2 % of basic spread and up to 1.5 % of risk spread per year. The first installment will only be due six months after the operation starts. Also there will be a ten year period to pay off the loans and there will be no interest charged during the plant building. Eletrobrás, the national electricity estate company, will buy the energy produced by these new plants throught long terms contracts (called PPAs). This will guarantee to the entrepreneur a minimum revenue of 70 % of its contracted energy during the financing period and also an integral protection concerning short term market exposition risks. Contracts will have a 20-year duration and will involve select projects which will have to start operating by December SONNENENERGIE JULI 06

8 Solarwärme Solarstrom Solares Bauen Biomasse MARKT The PROINFA program implementation estimates to create 150 thousand direct and indirect jobs during the construction and operation of these new businesses. The private sector expected investments are around US$ 4.3 billion. One of the PROINFA law requirements is that 60 % of the total cost of the project will come from national capital. Brazil withholds the knowledge to produce machines for the small hydro-electric power stations (PDHs) and also for the biomass power plants and is progressing in wind technology. There are already two equipment factories installed in Brazil, one in the South and the other in the North East of the country. KOMPLEXE KONSTRUKTIONEN The regionalization criteria anticipated by the PROINFA law N establishes to undertake a limit of 20 % per state of the total energy generated there by wind and biomass sources and a 15 % limit by the small hydroelectrics power stations (PDHs). This will allow all states with vocation to generate energy by using renewable sources to take part in the program. The objective of this policy is to avoid a possible centralization of projects happening in only a few states. In relation to electricity supplying, PROINFA intends to be a complementary instrument to the energy produced by hydro-electrics which are responsible for 80 % of the energy produced in the country. This is because the rain period is the opposite to the period when wind is most blown. The same will happen with biomass in the South and South East regions where the harvest time for crops favorable for electric energy generation (sugar cane and rice for example) occurs also at the opposite time to the rainy season. SOLAR HORIZONTE INTELLIGENTE GEBÄUDEHÜLLEN According to the Balanço Energético Nacional (a national study which analysis the world energy scenery) whereas the general world average for energy produced from renewable sources is 14 % and in developed countries only 6 %, in Brazil this number goes up to 41 %. This is mainly due to the use of hydro-electrics. With the PROINFA project the use of renewable sources to produce energy in Brazil will reduce the emission of carbon dioxide by 2.5 million tons. Surely there will be an increase for the Brazilian Carbon Credit market as stated in the Kyoto Protocol. Another goal of the project is to allow a larger insertion of the small energy producer, diversifying the number of agents in the sector. BAU JANUAR INTERNATIONALE FACHMESSE FÜR BAUSTOFFE, BAUSYSTEME, BAUERNEUERUNG NEUE MESSE MÜNCHEN Die Zukunft des Bauens Info und Anmeldung unter: Hotline: (+49 89)

9 MARKT Biomasse Solares Bauen Solarstrom Solarwärme To stimulate the segment the Brazilian government has launched a program to encourage electric light production using renewable sources, the PROINFA. Normally energy produced by alternative sources are used by specific factories in Brazil. However, this program expects to generate 3300 MW which will be bought and incorporated to the National Integrated Electric System SIN. This means that the energy produced will be used by the whole population. Picture: CEPEL (Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Elétrica Center of Research in Eletric Energy, Rio de Janeiro) The electricity exclusion map in Brazil reveals that families without access to electricity are mostly in areas with the lowest Human Development Index and also in low income families. This indicates that the lack of electricity is connected to a low Human Development Index (HDI). Around 90 % of these families earns less than 3 minimum wages per month, which correspond to about US$ 500 in total; 80 % of the families are in rural areas. Therefore, the Brazilian government aims to use electricity as a vehicle of social and economic development for such communities, contributing in this way for poverty reduction and for an increase in families income. With electricity people will have easier access to health care services, education (and that would also allows digital inclusion), water supply and sanitation. With the Luz para Todos Program (Electric light for all), the federal government intends to antecipate in 7 years the universalization of electricity in the country, allowing 100 % of the Brazilian homes to have electric light by the end of According to the current legal legislation, the electricity companies have to guarantee that electricity reaches every home in Brazil until December About the author Juliana Radler is a freelancer journalist based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. She has been writing about environmental matters since 2000 for important newspapers and news agency in Brazil, such as Gazeta Mercantil, Jornal do Brasil and Agência Carta Maior. Now, Juliana Radler works also with social and environmental documentaries for an NGO called Sumaúma Documentários. 62 SONNENENERGIE JULI 06

10 Solarwärme Solarstrom Solares Bauen Biomasse MARKT Erneuerbare Energien in Brasilien Zusammenfassung Vor dem Hintergrund steigender CO 2 - Emissionen und des enormen Kaufkraftverlustes durch den Import fossiler Energien will Brasilien den Anteil erneuerbarer Energien drastisch vergrößern. Der aktuelle Energiemix am Zuckerhut sieht wie folgt aus: Wasserkraft: 75,7 % Stromimporte: 8,8 % Erdgas: 4,5 % Erneuerbare Energien (Wind- Bio- und Solarenergie): 3,8 % Erdöl: 2,8 % Kernenergie: 2,7 % Steinkohle: 1,7 % Quelle: Ministry for Mining and Energy (MME), Brasilien, Stand Mai 2006 Der geplante Ausbau von erneuerbaren Energien soll auch Brasiliens jetzige Abhängigkeit von der Wasserkraft aufheben. Längere Trockenzeiten führten in der Vergangenheit zu zahlreichen Stromausfällen. Gleichzeitig haben etwa 12 Millionen Brasilianer überhaupt keinen Zugang zur Elektrizität dies entspricht immerhin 7 % der gesamten Bevölkerung. Programme zur ländlichen Elektrifizierung versuchen vor allem durch den Einsatz von Solarenergie dieses Problem zu beseitigen. Mit der Nutzung solarer Wärme will man die im Land immer noch stark verbreiteten elektrischen Boiler verdrängen. Die elektrische Warmwasserbereitung benötigt insgesamt 6 GW Leistung und verbraucht damit allein 10 % der installierten Stromkapazität des Landes. Der Anteil der Windenergie in Brasilien ist zum jetzigen Zeitpunkt immer noch verschwindend gering: Nur 28,6 MW (in insg. 11 Windparks) bedeuten einen Anteil von 0,03 % der am Netz befindlichen Leistung. Im Rahmen des sog. PROINFA-Programmes sollen weitere 1,4 GW an das Netz gehen. In der Planung befinden sich 145 verschiedene Windenergieprojekte, die ein Potenzial von weiteren 6,6 GW haben. PROINFA, das auf ein Gesetz aus dem Jahre 2002 zurückgeht, versucht mit staatlicher Subventionierung und zinsgünstigen Krediten den Anteil erneuerbarer Energien von jetzt 3,8 auf 5,9 % anzuheben. Im Bereich Bioenergie gibt es bereits zählbare Erfolge: durch Bio-Ethanol aus Zuckerrohr konnte Brasilien seine Ölimporte reduzieren und 27 Milliarden US-Dollar sparen. Besuchen Sie uns auf der Intersolar: Halle 4, Stand solarstrom ja bitte! Weil die Technik einfach genial ist. Photovoltaik ist eine ausgereifte Spitzentechnik, die sich unter extremen Bedingungen bewährt hat. So werden unsere PV-Module seit Jahrzehnten im Weltall zur Stromversorgung von Satelliten verwendet. Auf Leuchttürmen installiert, trotzen sie Sturm und Salzwasser. PV-Anlagen sind zudem ökonomisch und ökologisch sinnvoll. Bereits nach wenigen Jahren Betrieb hat ein Photovoltaik-Modul so viel Strom erzeugt, wie zu seiner Herstellung benötigt wurde und das völlig ohne CO 2 -Emission. Nutzen Sie den Pioniergeist und die Innovationskraft von Sharp Solar. Nicht ohne Grund sind wir der weltweit führende Solarzellenhersteller mit einer Produktionskapazität von 500 Megawatt im Jahr Mehr Informationen erhalten Sie unter energie ist unsere natur. sharp solar

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