THE HAND OF HEAVEN, THE BLOWS OF FATE Providence, Fate and Fortune in Schnabel's Insel Felsenburg

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1 THE HAND OF HEAVEN, THE BLOWS OF FATE Providence, Fate and Fortune in Schnabel's Insel Felsenburg Janet E. Bertsch Submitted in partial fuifiliment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Daihousie University Halifàx, Nova Scotia August, 1997 O Copyright by Janet E. Bertsch, 1997

2 7 of Canada du Canada Acquisitions and Acquisitions et Bibliographie Services services bibliographiques 395 Wellington Street 395. rue Wellington OaawaON KIAON4 Ottawa ON K1A ON4 Canada Canada The author has granted a nonexclusive licence allowing the National Lïbrary of Canada to reproduce, loan, distniute or seli copies of this thesis in microform, paper or electronic formats. The author retains ownership of the copyright in this thesis. Neither the thesis nor substantial extracts fiom it may be printed or otherwise reproduced without the author's permission. L'auteur a accordé une licence non exclusive pemettant à la Bibliothèque nationale du Canada de reproduire, prêter, distn'buer ou vendre des copies de cette thèse sous la forme de microfiche/film, de reproduction sur papier ou sur format électronique. L'auteur conserve la propriété du droit d'auteur qui protege cette thèse. Ni la thèse ni des extraits substantiels de celle-ci ne doivent être imprimés ou autrement reproduits sans son autorisation.

3 David and Mdyn Bertsch

4 Table of Contents 1. II. Abstract Transcription of Quotations Acknowledgernents Introduction Fate, Fortune, and "Vorsicht": Dekitions and Opinions A. Fate, Fortune, and "Vorsicht" in the Criticism of the Wunderliche Futa B. Fate, Fortune, and "Vorsicht" in the Text of the Wderiiche Fata Influences: the Picaresque Novel and the Pietistic Autobiograp hy vii... vlll ix 1 4 A The Picaresque Novel B. The Pietistic Autobiography IV. Religion and the Relationship to God in Schnabel's Wunderfiche Fda eeiniger See-Fahrer

5 V. Nature and the Supernaturai: the Felsenburg "Weltbild" A Principles of Order and Utility in the Felsenburg Understandimg of Nature B. Natural and Supematural Events as Comected to the Workings of Providence C. Schnabel's Holistic WorId VI- Conclusion Bib iiograp hy

6 Abstract This thesis is concemed with the depiction of providence, fate and forhme in Johann Gotîfkied Schnabel's Wunderliche F~cr einiger See-Fahrr, more commody known as the I d Felsenbwg. A key aspect of the system of the novel is a deep division between the European world and the paradisical island; commensurate with this, the roles of fate and fortune in the world outside Felsenburg are generally negative, and appear in contrast to the Felsenburgers' understanding of providence as a determinhg and (for the most part) benevolent force. The appearances of both fatdfortune and of providence in the novel display some influence fi-om and follow the patterns of other writing of the tirne, particulady the picaresque novel and the pietistic autobiography. Muenced by the pietistic autobiography, the moment of conversion is a bridge between the outside world of changeable fate and misfortune, the endess episodes of picaresque fiction, and the paradisical island as the realm of providence. The importance of conversion, membership in a blessed comrnunity and Schnabel's description of the island as a second paradise make clear the nature of the island as an "Insel der Seligen," the home of a chosen people, rnuch in accordance with the Old Testament understanding of the relationship between man and providence. This has permutations for the understanding of nature and the supernaturai on the island; omens and drearns are interpreted as direct messages ffom heaven to individuals, emphasizing the strong connections between man, God, and nature. The holistic, unified, and deterministic world of the island appears in opposition to the ftagmented, d ess reality of the outside world.

7 Transcription of Quotations The reproduction of the original text of the WmderIiche Fata einiger See-fahrer is written in Fraktur, with foreign words and proper names in Antiqua 1 have transposed quotations from thîs novel and other sources wrinen in Frakair according to the following principles: B becomes tz 6, 6, or % become ii, O, or ü m" becomes mm 13 remains 13

8 Acknowledgements Thanks to Dr. Friedrich Gaede, Mrs. Gabrielle Warnboldt, and my professors and colleagues at the Daihousie Gennan Department for their help and encouragement. Particular thanks to Dr. Jane Curran, Dr. Datlev Steffen, and Daniel Momson for help in proof-reading.

9 1- Introduction But blind Fortune, der tossing you maliciously about fiom peril to peril has somehow, without thinking what she was doing, landed you here in religious felicity. Let her begone now and fume funously wherever she pieases, let her fhd some other plaything for her cruel hands.... Rest assured you are now safe under the protection of the true Fortune, aii-seeing Providence, whose clear light shines for all the gods that are.' Apuleius' The Golden Ass contains a dual vision of the power which controls the Lives of men. On the one hand, the major therne in the main narrative and in the stories reported by Lucius is the action of "blind Fortune," his own constant motion fiom one situation to the next. On the other hand, at the conclusion of the novel Lucius finds himself delivered into the hands of divine providence, a force which, by means of religious experiences, omens and drearns, serves to assure his fùture security. In Grimmelshausen' s Simplicissimus, fortune and providence are juxt aposed in the same marner as appears in ne Golden Ass; Simplicius, a victim of fortune, travels through the world, fïnally achieving an awareness of the workings of providence on his weil ich aber wohl wubte, dab Gott dem Allrnachtigen mehr als mügiich (dafem es anders sein gottlicher Will w&) mehr Menschen leichtlicher- und wunderbarlicher Weis hieher zu versetzen, ais ich hergebracht worden, gab mir solches oft Ursach, ihme um seine gottliche Vorsehung, und dab er mich so vatterlich vor andem vie Menschen versorgt, ' Lucius Apuleius, The Tran$ormations of Lucius othemise known as The Golden Ass, trans. Robert Graves, (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1985) p

10 und in einen solchen geruhigen fnedsarnen Stand gesetzt hatte, demçitig at dankena2 Likewise, Defoe's Robimon Cmsoe possesses a movement from "ill fate... a secret ovemihg decree that humes us on to be instruments ofour own destruction, even tho' it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes openn3 to a recognition of the workings of divine providence, "when 1 looked about me and considered what particular providences had attended me since my coming into this place, and how God had dedt bountfiiiy with me;... this gave me great hopes that my repentance had been accepted, and that God had yet mercy in store for me'14. SSimilar motifs appear in many other novels. Johann Gottfried Schnabel's Wunderiiche Fata einiger See-Fahrer, like the above- mentioned novels, contains a depiction of the duality5 of blind fate or fortune and providence. The distinguishing feature of this novel is that, as in Robinson Crusoe, providence plays an important role within the story, not appearing merely towards its end as an element of the resolution of conflicts and complications in the plot. An entrance into the realm of providence occurs in the irst pages of the work, and the vagaries of fortune ' Haas Iakob Christoph von Grixumelshausen, Der Abenteuerliche Simplicissmur Teuîsch, (Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam jun., 1986) p ' Daniel Defoe, nie LiJe mdadbeniures cfrobinson Cmsoe. ed. Angus Ross, (Harmondsworth: Penguh Books, 1985) p. 37 Defoe, p Unlike Lipsius in Von Der Bestendigkeit, who views providence as an aii-encompassing force. ordering fate and elevating it h m bbd fortune, Schnabel never achieves a comptete and universal integration of the tbree concepts. Within the island, as a part of the holistic integrdtion of tirne, spaœ and narration present on it, he manages to dispel the accidental world, to some extent orde~g the effects of fortune through the Europeans' recognition of the action of providence in b~ging them to the island as a part of their seemingiy chaotic European existences, but this effort is not entirely successflll. The chaos, disorder. and misfortune of the European world, the vagaries and senselessness of fortune, are focused on to too great an extent in the course of the life stories to permit a recognition of the workings of providence outside of the island. The duality between fortunehengeful fiate and providence never resolves itself into a universal recognition; lxe on the island remains the flight of individuaïs hm the lack of order outside of it.

11 3 and tncks of fate are subsequently outlined only with this foreknowledge. Schnabel's treatment of providence becomes, therefore, a key aspect of the novel. Elements such as the interplay of fate and providence as reflected in literary forms which are infiuences on the text, Schnabel's usage of supernaturai and natural foreshadowing, the biblical and eschatological connections of the description of the island as an earthly paradise, and the impact of Schnabel's depiction of providence on the fom of society on the island are all important for an understandmg of the role of providence in the Wunderkhe Faa.

12 II. Fate, Fortune, and "Vorsicht": Definitions and Opinions A Fate, Fortune, and "Vorsicht" in the Criticism of the Wdrtiche Faa Providence, hte, and fortune are mentioned fiequently in the critickm of the Wderilihe Fata- In general, most critics have identifïed the polarization between Europe as a reaim of Iuck and the island as the realrn of providence, although a few perceive some ambivalence which does not entïrely conform to this system. Bniggeman focuses on Schnabel's depiction of God (and, indeed, the Devil) as transcendent and omnipotent, dismissing the accidents in the life histories as in cornparison to the "damals herrschenden tranzendenten Gottesauffassung-" He writes, 'Was uns Zufd ist, ist ihm [Schnabel] Vorsehung und entzieht sich als Moment nicht etwa seiner individueuen, sondern der dgemein herrschenden Weltanschauung seiner Zeit dem Bereich âsthetischer ~ewertung." ' He views the "Gotte~fiircht'~ and recognition of divine providence in the Wmderliche Fafa, as in Robinson Cmsoe, as an element ofa "neu erwachte[s] religiose[s] ~efihl,"~ part of the increasing self-consciousness of the Bürger. Knopf criticizes Brüggeman for failing to recognize the role of luck in the life histones, and draws attention to the system "Europe- 'bose Welt' - Unordnung - GlückNerhiingnis" opposite "Felsenburg - frommenkedlichen - erkennbare gottliche Ordnung - Vonehung." ' He emphasizes the passivity and the captivity of the pious and Whious, held in the power of fate. Naumann, on the other hand, claims that "ebenso wie bei Grimmelshausen stehen diese [europaischen Lebenslaufe] unter der doppelten ' Fritz BNggemm., Utopie wtd Robinsonude. (Weimar: Alexander Duncker Verlag, 19 14) pp Brüggeman, Utopie und Robinsonade, pp Jan KnopE, Frûhzeit des Bilrgers: Erfahrene und verfeugnete Reafitdt in den Romanen Wickrm, Grimmefshausens, Schnabefs* (Stuttgart, J.B. Metzler, 1978) pp

13 Herrschaft des blinden Schicksals und der gottlichen ~rovidenz"~ and continues 'Womenklatorisch gehen Providenz und Schicksal ineinander über? The signincance of divine providence for related aspects of the novel is frequently dicussed. Bemhard Fischer, in agreement with KnopS outlines the importance of Concordia and Albertus' fiee acceptance of providence and divine law (a divine law which, as Werner Frick, arnong others, has observed, "selbst mit jener bürgerlichen Ethik iibereinstimmt, die die Romanfiguren vertretenn6) for the est ablis hrnent of the "Paradies" in contrast to absolutist, formalist political theory: Ihr theokratisch bestimmtes Leben, das sich in jedem Augenbiick der gottlichen Gerechtigkeit und Vorsehung, dem 'Verhiingris," unterworfen weid und das sich in jedem Augenbiick fkei Gott untenvirft und das eben darin seine Seligkeit findet, ihr Leben steiit den vertragsrechtlichen Formalismus in seiner ganzen moraiischen Haltlosigkeit und Verwo rfenheit blok7 Frick agrees that only divine providence "verleiht... ihnen aiiererst die Moglichkeit ni autonomen und zweckrationalem ~andeln,"~ but also notices a dision in the power of providence, which works directly to settle the island in the first and second generations, but later relinquishes such decisions to Albertus Julius and Capitain ~ olff~an~.~ Dietrich Naumanp Politik und Moral: Studien mr Utopie der deutschen Aufwdrung. (Heidelberg: Car1 Winter UniversiHtsverf ag, L 977) p. 97. Naumann, p Werner Frick, Providenz und Kontingenz: Untersuchungen tur Schicksalssernuntik im deutschen und europdischen Roman des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts Teil 1, (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1988) p Bernhard Fischer, "Der moralische Natumistand und die Vernunft der Familie," Deutsche Li feraîumissenscholf und Geistesgeschichte 6I (1) (1987), p p ~rick Teil l p Frick, Teil 1, p. 196.

14 ~aas", ~aul" and Frick descnbe the life histories as a narrative vehicle for the display of divine intervention. Haas points out that "Lediglich bei Eberhard J. erlebt der Leser wie eben gerade in dessen Leben die gottliche Vorsehung über Leonhard Wolffgang handungsmachtig wird,"i2 drawing fùrther attention to the importance of the element of narration with reference to providence and comecting it to the self-recognition of the eighteenth-century Bürger. Voakarnp sees the invocation of divine intervention as a way to explain "cunwahrscheinliche Ereignisse und unglaubwlirdige ~e~ebenheiten"'~ within the robinsonade as a genre, but adds that "das Handeln der Vorsehung als Wahrheitsbeweis fir das in der Erzahlfiktion Benchtete entfalt... bei chn na bel,"'^ as Schnabel does not completely maintain the fiction of the manuscript as tnie which appears in other robinsonades. Obviously, a variety of opinions exists concerning providence, fortune and fate and their roles in the Wunderiiche Futa, most of which are highly infiuenced by the interpretation of the significance of other motifs in the novel. In order to corne to an understanding of the work focused prirnarily, rather than secondarily, on the role of fate, fortune and providence, their meaning must first be understood as they are referred to and discussed within the book, particularly in relation to one another. It is therefore most useful to examine closely the text itsek Schnabel's usage of key concepts, and the 'O Roland Haas, Lesend wird sich der Bzirger seiner Welt bewupt. (FrankniR am Main: Verlag Peter Lang, 1977) partidar1y pp " Nicholas Sad, "The Motif of Baptism in Three Eighteenth-Cenniry Novels: Secularization or Sacralization?" Gennan Life and Letters 39:2(Jon. 1986). particularly pp '* Roland Haas, p " Wiihelm Vofikamp, "rheorie und Praxis der iiterarischen Fiktion in Johann Gottfried Schnabels Roman 'Die lnsel Felsenburg'," Gennanisch-Romanische Monatsschrift, vol. 18 pi) p l4 VoBkamp, "Theone und Praxis," p. 139.

15 opinions and comments conceniing them which are reported by various characters in the novel.

16 8 B. Fate, Fortune, and "Vorsicht" in the Text of the Wunderliche Futa A sense of the importance of the ideas of fate, fortune, and divine providence in the Wunderliche Futa einiger See-Fahrer is easily derived fkom the very title of Schnabel's work. "Glück," "Verhiingnis," or "die gottliche Vorsicht" are invoked with extreme f?equencyi5 in the WunderIiche Fm. Key to an understanding of their form and the role which they play is a carefiil examination of Schnabel's language. An observation of the relationship between these tems is likewise necessaiy as a basis for an understanding of the system of the novel, and for further interpretation of the significance of this system. Eberhard Julius translates the inscription nom Don Cyrille de Vaiaro's tin tablets, "Si tibi fomina, mihi multos per annos * negata, contingit,."16 with '?)enn wenn dir das Glücke, dasjenige, was es mir * seit vielen Jahren her venveigert hat, * wiederfahren n 17 lasset,... It is "das Glkk," and sometimes "das Ungliick," used much in the sense of the english "Iuck," to which the constant change in the situations and prospects of individual characters is attributed. At times, Glück appears as a two-sided force, causing either positive or negative aiterations in the same sense as the traditional interpretation of fortuna. It is notable for its fickleness, as in the foilowing quotations in the narration of Eberhard' s father : Wie nun aus den dem was ich bü3hero erzahlet genungsam abmnehrnen, dab mir das Glück in den Stiicken sehr l5 on average, approximately once in every three pages 16 Job Gottfried Schnabel, WunderIiche Fata einiger See-Fahrer.-., vol. 1 (1 731)- (Hildesheim: O h Press, 1973) p " Schnabel, vol. L p. 182.

17 gewogen gewesen, und ich binnen so vie1 Jshren wenig VerdmB, viehehr recht guten GenuD gehabt uitwischen h g das Glück, welches rnich bibhero so fieundlich angelacht, auf einrnahl an, mir die empfindlichsten Streiche zu spielen Likewise, Capitain Hom says, "Wem ich sage, dab das Glück mit uns Menschen wie mit Bden spielet, so wird mich hoffentlich niemand Lügen straeen ko~en."~~ and "Ich d aber doch erweiblich machen, dao Nchts wandelbarer sey, als das ~lück."~' Both characters view Glück as a controliing and unpredictable force, most notable for its arbitrary nature; ifit has the strength to cause good fortune, it also has the strength to cause misfortune. This ambivalence is very much focused on by Schnabel, particularly in comection with the narrative process. Thus, he most ofien does not speak solely of "Glück," but rather of "Glück" and clunglück," in the sense of the english "good luck7 and "bad luck." As well, he often qualifies "Gluck" with an adjective, as, for example, "den Tumrnel-Platz meines widerwartigen ~lücks."~ The altemathg of Gluck and Unglück is of primary importance in the life stories of various characters. It is referred to explicitly as the content of the histories of Don Cynllo de ~alaro," Mechanicus Plager's ~ither,~~ l8 Johann Got$ried Schnabel, Wunderliche Fato einiger See-Fohrer... vol. LU (1 736), (Hildesheim: O h Press. 1973) p. 16 l9 Schnabel, vol. KI, p Schnabel, Wunderliche Fata einiger See-Fdrer..., vol. N(1743). (Hildesheim: Olms Press. 1973) p Schnabel, vol, ïv, p- 47. " Schoabel, Wunderliche Fuîa einiger See-Fahrer..., vol. 1 (1 731). (Hildesheim: Olms Press, 1973) p " "Jedoch meinen damahligen Glücks- und Unglücks-Wechsel ni folgen,..." (Schoabel, vol. 1, p. 573).

18 Eberhard's father, Franz Martin ~ulius,~ and Mirrunanda's mother? The antonyms are fiequently mentioned in connection with one another; where good luck appears' bad luck cannot be far behind. As Posamentirer Harckert says: Solchergestalt wurde ich in allergroster Geschwindigkeit eh Brautigam, und schiitzte mich bey einer so schonen Liebste der glücksetigste Mensch von der Welt ni seyn, weil aber Glück und Unglück sehr selten weit von einander entfemet kt, so muste aus ich armer Scheim, solches ni meinem grosten Verdnisse erfhhren,...,327 Schnabel uses the jwctaposition of Glück and Unglück fiequently, as in the following pardel construction: "Wie glückiich aber die bib daherige gantze Fahrt gewesen war, so unglücklich war hingegen die Einfahrt in dasigen Hafen,..."*' Perhaps most interesting of al in Schnabel's usage of such a juxtaposition is the inscription on Albertus Julius' gravestone: "der im Ungiück, an das Glück, * und Un Glück, an das Unglück, * niemahls als allezeit gedacht...."= It is a vimte not to trust in fortune, but rather to recognize, accept, and expect the constant change which accompanies the state of man. Just as Eberhard translates "fortuna" with "Glück," so too does he translate 'Tatum" with 'c~chicksal."30 Schicksal is used mainly with the sense of personal, individual fate, in which case it does not possess a positive or negative connotation, unless 24 "mein Vater fieng an, mir eine ausfühtliche Erzehlung seiner Gliicks- und Ungliicks-Falle zu thun..." (Schnabel. VOL 11, p. 25 1). "'ich will voritzo nur von meiner eigenen Person, auch gehabten Glücks- und Unglücks-Faen, so kurtz als rndglich Bericht erstatten, damit doch ein jeder von ihnen recht wisse wer ich sey und wie das Schicksai mit mir gespielet hat" (Schnabel, vol. III, p. 11). '6 %ie hatte mir vorhero gma offenhertzig vie1 von ihren Gliicks- und Ungiücks-Fallen erzehiet." (Schnabel, Vol, NT p. 440). Schnabel, vol. II, p Schnabel vol. II, p " Schnabel, vol. III, p. 291.

19 accompanied by a descriptive adjective. Thus in his letter to Eberhard, Capitain WoHgang writes, "Mein, als ein Studiiender, werden sie vielleicht besser, ais andere Ungelehrte, ni begreiffen wissen, wie unbegrernch zuweilen der Hunmel das Schicksal der sterblichen Mensch disponiret."" Likewise, Eberhard's father says "Von dem klaglichen Schicksale meiner Vor-Eltem konte ich eine weitlauflige und vieiieicht nicht unangenehme Erzahlung rna~hen,"~~ Monsieur van Blac asks Charlotte Sophie van Bredal, "Habe ich nicht Recht., MademoiseHe, dab wir beyde fast einerley Schicksal ha ben^'^^ Capitain Hom's brother says, "...dem ich riberlasse mich und mei. Schicksal dem ~immel,"~' and the inscription on Albertus Julius' gravestone calls him, "ein glücklicher Besieger des unglücklichsten * ~chicksale."~~ This individual fate is, then, something which may or may not be attributed and cornrnended to divine providence. Although individual fate is fore-ordained, it is also no absolute force, but rather causes conditions which may be fought and overcome. Schicksal is also occasionaiiy used in a broader sense, with the idea that being subject to fate is intirnately comected to the fden state of man. Don Cyrillo de Valaro's inscription on the tin tablets is translated: 'O Schuabel. vol. I* p Scbnabel* vol. 1, p Schnabel, vol. ïïi, p Schaabel, vol. m, p Schnabel, vol. N, p Schnabel, vol. DI, p Wenn dich vieleicht das wunderliche Schicksd in diese wunderbare Behausung wunderbarer Weise fuhren wird, so erstaune nicht allzusehr über die unvermuthete Erblickung meines Gerippes, sondem gedencke,

20 DaB du nach dem Fa11 der ersten Ekem eben dem Schicksal, und eben der Sterblichkeit unterworffen b i~t.~~ This aspect of Schicksal as a force which controls man as a result of Adam's fd obviously has some wide-reaching permutations, particularly considering the paradisical nature of the island, which wili be treated in a fuhrre chapter of this thesis. Schicksai, when treated as an objective force, rather than a subjective destiny (perhaps as 'Tate," a controlling power, as opposed to "fate," the destiny of the individual), remains qualined only by its accompanying adjectives; it is assigned no positive or negative value, except the possibility of a slightly negative interpretation of Schicksal as a punishment after the f d of man. To some extent, Schnabel uses the word "VerhiingniB" interchangeably with "Schicksal" to indicate fate as a controhg force. Verh$ingnis is seldom a personai, individual destiny, but rather is generally referred to as a negative, blind entity. Accordmg to David ~awkins," Virgiha van ~attmers,~* Herr Magister ~chmeltzer,~~ Chirurgus ramer,^' Monsieur van lac^' and Charlotte Sophie van ~redal," it is virtually impossible to resist, and completely impossible to understand or predict. On the other hand, 36 Schnabel, vol. 1, p '' "Doch, wenn sich das VerhangniB ellunahl vorgesetzt ha& unglückseelige Menschen nachdriicklich ni verfolgen, so miissen sich auch aufder allersichersten Strasse ihre Feinde finden lassen." (Schnabel, vol, 1, p. 338). '* "Ailein, weil das einmahl beschlossen hatte, dab meiner Jugend Jahre in lauter BetrübniB mgebracht werden solten..." (Schnabel, vol. ï, p. 409). " Allein das unerforschliche VerhangniB hatte gantz widerwartig-scheinende Schlüsse gegen mich gefasset,..." (Schnabel, vol. iï, p. 64). 40 "ich w&e von dem Verhangnisse mit den FleiB forcirt worden: vorhero so vie1 an mein bestandiges Wohlseyn ni spendiren,.. Aber, aber! selbiges war noch lange nicht ermiidet mich ni verfolgen, sonder mir nunmehro erstlich den aller empfindlichsten Streich ni spielen..." (Schnabel, vol. U, p. 233). ''Nein. über welchen das VerhangniB einmahl beschlosen hat, ihn unglücklich ni machen, der muo es wohl seyn und bleikn..." (Schnabel, vol UI, p. 95). 42 "aïiem Ansehen nach, hat das VerhangniB beschlossen, mich Arme durch das Heyrathen wiglücklich tu machen." (Schnabel, vol. ïii, p- 158).

21 13 however, those who do not attempt to resist these negative circumstances are roundly criticized. Lt is the sharnefùi, (although usefil) FranzBsin in the harem who says to Charlotte Sophie van Bredai, "wer wolte so wunderlich seyn in der Welt, es erfordert der Menschen Schuldigkeit, sich in ihr Verh&gd3 schicken ni lernen. Was sich nicht wiil Pndern lassen, mub man mit Gedult urnfa~sen.'~~~ and the villainous and wifaithfiil van Steen who says, "nur thut so wohl, und retiriret euch, um femeres Unglück zu vermeiden, aus meinem Hause... welcher Mensch aber ist so krafffig, sein VerhilngniB ni besiegen?" To this Charlotte Sophie replies, "ich habe schon von feme gehoret, was die Glocke bey euch geschlagen hat, derowegen wiil ich erstiich mit meinem Verhiingnisse einen rechtschaffenen Streit anfangen, ehe es mich vollkommen besiegen SOU."" The central paradox, that it is wrong not to resist an irresistible force, may ody be understood with the context of sin and virtue; although Verhiingnis may lead one inescapably towards sin and misfortune, it remains wrong to accept sin. As with Schicksal, Verhhgnis appears very occasiondy in comection with God; it is thus wrong to cornplain about it (although it must be admitted that the characters in the novel do more than their share of larnenting and complaining). According to Albertus Julius: ausgenomrnen, wenn uns die erlittenen Trauer-Falle eh betrübtes Zurückdencken erweckten, welches wir aber immer eines dem andem zu gefden, so vie1 moglich, verbargen,... mithin das ohne dem einsame Leben zu 43 Scluiabel, vol. III, p. L Schnabel, vol. III, pp

22 verbittern, oder solche Leute ni heissen, die wider das VerhiingniB und Straff-Gerichte GOttes murren ~olten.~' There is, of course, a very large difference between the nature of Verhrngnis as a bhd force and Verhhgnis as an instrument of divine judgement; it is, firstly, the narration of the workings of bhd fate, the ups and downs of fortune, and, secondly, the recognition of a logic and goal of the workings of Verhmgnis, transfonning it into an acceptance of providence, which are important in the WderZiche Fda. Generally speaking, the realm of Giück, Schicksal, and Verhiingnis is the European world, the world outside of the island, while the realm of providence is the world of the island. This general poiarization varies somewhat, according to context; an occasional inexplicable accident happens upon the is~and,~ a number of characters, particularly Hem Magister Schmeltzer, cal1 on divine providence or perceive its workings in the course of their Lives in Europe. Ln general, the prerequisite to entrance to the island is a perception of the working of providence, a view which is, indeed, virtuaily the basis of the Felsenburg society. The positive value of such a conversion experience will be investigated in the chapter on Pietistic autobiography; the negative permutations of a lack of such a recognition are Ocewise sigiuficant. The importance of recognition of providence as a fundament for the Felsenburg society is clearly visible in the cases of those who do not experience such a conversion. In 4s Schwkl, vol. 1, p " In Schimmer's death, "der vieueicht auch noch nicht so bald gestorben wiire, wenn er nicht durch einen umgeschiagenen Balken bey dem Getiâude seiner Kinder, so sehr beschadigt und ungesund worden W." (Schnabel, vol. 1, p. 369) and the death of Amias while working to reinforce and secure the mountain barrier amund the istand (Schnabel, vol. 1, p. 41 9). for example.

23 the initial shipwreck, Lemetie's destructive and disruptive nature is est recognired through his refusal to acknowledge the work of providence: Dieser wundertiche Capitain Lemelie sad dorten von feme, mit unterstützten Haupt, und an statt, dab er dem Aiimachtigen vor die Fristung seines Lebens dancken solte, fiihren lauter schandliche gottlose Flüche wider das ihm so feindseelige VerhiïngniB aus seinem nichlosen Munde, wolte sich auch mit nichts trosten lassen, weiln er nunmehro, so wol seine Ehre, als gantzes Vennogen verlohren zu haben, vorgab." The sinfiilness of Lemelie's nature appears in this refusal, as well as in his horror of corpses. His sin is represented by his rebeilïon against the two elements of human life whkh fouow the fd of man, as mentioned in Don Cyriilo de Valaro's inscription. As he does not accept these elements of the fd, he, lacking virtue, cannot regah entrame hto Paradise, and must die in order that a harmonious state be established. The pomiguese sailors, although helpful, are not given access to the Insel GroO-Felsenburg, nor are Capitain Hom's men. When Don Juan de Silves is permitted to enter without having had such an expenence, this has disastrous results, and his ghost subsequently allies itself with the ghost of Lemelie "Weilen ich nun im Reiche der Todten dein Schicksal und einen guten Theil deiner Begebenheiten so wohi, als den Ort deines Begrabnisses erfkhren, so habe, weil wir beyde fast einerley Verhgngnil3 auf Erden gehabt, der meiner Nation angebohrnen HofXchkeit gehabt, mir eine Schuldigkeit daraus gemacht, aus meiner Gnifft herüber ni dir ni komrnen, und mich einer und anderer Sachen wegen mit dir zu 47 Schnabel, vol. 1, p. 141.

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