Advanced Techniques in Personalized Information Delivery

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1 Advanced Techniques in Personalized Information Delivery Dr.-Ing. W. Lehner (Hrsg.) Lehrstuhl für Datenbanksysteme Institut für Informatik Friedrich-Alexander- Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

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3 Preface While most of our day-by-day interactions with information systems are of pull-based nature, the availability of mobile information appliances like smart phones, PDAs, or even laptop computers demands permanent and personalized information supply without explicitly querying the information sources. This shift from pull- to push-based information delivery hides a tremendous potential as well as the risk of information flooding. Thus the need of systems providing a push-based and personalized information service is obvious. In general we may distinguish four classes of personalized information services. The lowest class applies to broadcasting, where information is simply distributed to every consumer device. Either the end user or an appropriate application on his/her side is responsible for filtering and further processing. The next class of data dissemination provides a channel-based addressing scheme, where users register explicitly for certain channels. Every information fed to the selected channels by any information producer is forwarded to the end user without further filtering. Sample application scenarios may be seen in news- or stock-tickers. The third class of personalized information services may be considered the content-based filtering scheme provided by data notification services. In this context, the user may specify a predicate addressing the relevant information with regard to a certain channel, thus providing extensive information filtering. All these concepts covered by broadcast, dissemination or notification preserve the original messages produced by the publisher. Any further processing like combining information from multiple information sources or aggregating numerical or textual information is not supported. Therefore the class of subscription systems allows users to register complex queries in combination with specific delivery criteria. Once messages are produced by publishing components, they are integrated into a publication-consistent global database and propagated to the appropriate subscribers. The application context, the resulting requirements, the existing technologies, and advanced strategies from a modeling as well as implementional perspective are the focus of this report. The collection of papers is subdivided into four parts. The first two articles give a general overview and a comprehensive introduction into the publish/subscribe area. While the first paper emphasizes the interface between publish/subscribe systems and classical database

4 4 Preface concepts, the second paper provides a general overview of the subscription system PubScribe to build an open information market where information may be freely published and users may specify their personalized delivery strategies. The second part of this report contains a comprehensive discussion of personalized information delivery in the context of data warehousing and ebusinnes application areas. The first paper in this part, Revealing Real Problems in Real Data Warehouse Applications, pinpoints several requirements with regard to a successful data warehouse installation. The following contribution extends the classical demand-driven data warehouse architecture by an additional subscription component providing flexible data integration as well as push-based data delivery. The use of subscription technology in the context of contract negotiation in electronic business environments is discussed in the following article. Subscription technology is used during an informational match making phase between the selling and buying side. The third part includes a collection of papers addressing technological issues from several directions. The first contribution discusses maintenance strategies to synchronize materialized views with changes to the base tables implemented in IBM DB2/UDB. Efficient synchronization techniques may be considered the core of an efficient propagation mechanism of incoming messages to the corresponding subscribers. While the second paper addresses the producer of a subscription system by reviewing web site scraping technologies and proposes a new iterative mechanism called XWeb, the third article in this part gives an example of possible target systems of subscription delivery in the context of footprint database systems running on handheld devices. The last part finally provides an in-depth explanation of the research prototype PubScribe. In general the PubScribe system aims at implementing a highly scalable and open subscription system based on relational database technology. The first contribution introduces the general architecture at a microscopic and at a macroscopic level. The second paper emphasizes the different modeling perspectives from a structural and dynamic perspective. The last article closes the description by sketching implementational issues like mass query optimization and mapping schemes to relational structures. In summary, the reader of the report will gain an in-sight knowledge of general requirements, special characteristics, and technological impacts as well as on-going work in the field of subscription systems. Erlangen, February 2001 Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Lehner

5 Table of Contents Preface... 3 Table of Contents... 5 PART A: INTRODUCTION...9 The Revolution Ahead: Publish/Subscribe meets Database Systems (Wolfgang Lehner, Wolfgang Hümmer) Abstract Introduction Information Delivery Criteria An Overview of Existing Event Notification and Data Dissemination Systems The PubScribe Subscription Model The PubScribe Message Processing Model Summary References Building An Information Marketplace using a Content and Memory based Publish/Subscribe System (Wolfgang Lehner, Wolfgang Hümmer, Michael Redert) Abstract Introduction Related Work Subscription Semantics The PubScribe Communication Pattern The Message Processing Model Implementational Perspectives Summary and Conclusion References... 46

6 6 Table Of Contents PART B: APPLICATIONS...47 Revealing Real Problems in Real Data Warehouse Applications (Wolfgang Lehner, Thomas Ruf) Abstract Introduction Modeling the World of Business User-Friendly Warehouse Access Ways of Optimizing Aggregation Processing The Magic Triangle of Summary Tables Summary and Conclusion References Publish/Subscribe-Systeme im Data-Warehousing: Mehr als nur eine Renaissance der Batch-Verarbeitung (W. Lehner, W. Hümmer, M. Redert, C. Reinhard) Kurzfassung Einleitung Logische PubScribe Architektur Verarbeitungsmodell PubScribe Implementierung Verwandte Arbeiten und Projekte Zusammenfassung und Ausblick Literatur Über Anbahnung und Aushandlung von Verträgen im ebusiness (H. Wedekind, W. Hümmer, W. Lehner) 1. Einleitung Aspekte des ebusiness Anbahnung auf Basis von Publish/Subscribe Vertragsverhandlungen als eine dialogische Inhaltsbearbeitung Zusammenfassung und Ausblick Literatur

7 Table Of Contents 7 PART C: TECHNOGICAL ISSUES Maintenance of Automatic Summary Tables in IBM DB2/UDB (Wolfgang Lehner, Bobbie Cochrane, Richard Sidle, Hamid Pirahesh, Markos Zaharioudakis) Abstract Introduction Definition of Automatic Summary Tables Incremental Maintenance of ASTs Correctness of the Cube Delta Approach Full Refresh of ASTs Summary and Future Work References Server Side Website Wrapping: The XWeb approach (Jürgen Lukasczyk, Wolfgang Hümmer) Abstract Introduction Related Work General Aspects of Wrapping The XWeb Framework An Example: XWeb wraps news.com Conclusion References Platform Invariant Database Design for Information Appliances (Ulrich Grießer, Wolfgang Hümmer, Wolfgang Lehner) Abstract Introduction Overview of Handheld Device Operating Systems EPOC Release Palm OS Version 3.x Windows CE Version 3.0 and PocketPC Other Handheld Operating Systems Platform Invariant Design of Applications Summary and Conclusion References Internet Links

8 8 Table Of Contents PART D: PUBSCRIBE PubScribe Mikro- und Makroarchitektur (M. Redert, C. Reinhard, W. Lehner, W. Hümmer) Kurzfassung Einleitung Architekturentwurf Informationskanäle des Brokers Verteilter Architekturentwurf Zusammenfassung und Ausblick Literatur Strukturelle und Operationelle Modellierungaspekte in PubScribe (M. Redert, W. Lehner, W. Hümmer) Kurzfassung Einleitung Beispielszenario Struktureller Aspekt Operationeller Aspekt Modellierung von Produzenten Modellierung von Subskriptionen Zusammenfassung Literatur Ausgewählte Konzepte der Realisierung von PubScribe (M. Redert, C. Reinhard, W. Hümmer, W. Lehner) Kurzfassung Einleitung Registrierung einer Subskription Produzentenregistrierung und Publikation Anfragenübergreifende Optimierung Evaluierung anfrageübergreifender Optimierungsmethoden Zusammenfassung Literatur

9 A Introduction

10 10 Part A: Introduction

11 THE REVOLUTION AHEAD: PUBLISH/SUBSCRIBE MEETS DATABASE SYSTEMS Wolfgang Lehner, Wolfgang Hümmer University of Erlangen-Nuremberg Martensstr. 3, Erlangen, 91058, Germany {lehner, Abstract The traditional way of user interaction with a database system follows the classical request/response query paradigm where the user is issuing a query and retrieving the result as fast as possible. The primary issues are efficiency and consistency. Driven by huge numbers of concurrent users accessing large data sets especially in the context of Data Warehouse Systems, the request/response paradigm looks no longer feasible. There is commonly no doubt that the novel query paradigm of publish/subscribe may be one way to diminish the before mentioned problems. In the publish/subscribe context, a user registers a subscription (also called a standing query) once at a subscription management system and periodically or aperiodically receives notifications, i.e. the result of the query with regard to the currently valid state of the underlying database. In this paper, we give an overview of the publish/subscribe paradigm in general and introduce the framework of the content- and memory-based subscription system Pub- Scribe. The PubScribe framework provides an open platform for information publishing and registering of complex structured subscriptions. The PubScribe subscription model as well as the processing model are discussed.

12 12 1. Introduction 1 Introduction The everyday interaction with any sort of databases is following the classical request/response paradigm, where the user (or client) is posing a query, and the (database) system (or server) tries to execute the query as fast as possible and the result set is transferred into the user s application context (Figure 1a). However, it would be nice to move from a system-oriented perspective, where the user has to explicitly interact with a database system, to a dataoriented perspective, where the user simply has to register some kind of information template (subscription) and automatically gets notifications over new or updated information within the underlying database ([Norm98]). In this paper we address such a kind of interaction paradigm ([Birm93]), typically called publish/subscribe, where producer and consumer of information do not know each other and communicate via a subscription management system (figure 1b; [OPSS93], [Chan98]). Producers ( Publishers ) are sending new information in form of messages to the subscription management system as soon as the information is available. Newly incoming messages are merged into a global logical database and standing queries, specified in the context of a subscription, are evaluated. Furthermore, query specification and result transmission are decoupled from a subscriber s point of view. Once a query is formulated, the user is no longer in contact with the database system, but receives a notification only if new messages of interest have arrived at the database system or a given time interval has gone by. The advantage for the user is tremendous: once a query (in form of a subscription) is specified, the user does not have to wait for the answer of the query because the result will be delivered automatically according to the predefined delivery properties. From a more global information provider perspective, we can argue that the publish/subscribe paradigm helps the users to efficiently filter the vast amount of available information with regard to only relevant information pieces. The advantages of the publish/subscribe paradigm for a database system are also of fundamental importance: the execution of queries does not necessarily proceed isolated from each other. Instead, multiple subscription queries may be clustered together and executed simultaneously ([Sell88]) thus decreasing the overall query runtime and increasing the overall capacity of a database system. Obviously, handling thousands of subscriptions within a single system requires specific support from a database system. Publish/Subscribe Sample Scenario 1: News-Service A very popular and already prospering service implementing a very limited kind of publish/ subscribe system may be seen in news services, sending s on a regular basis containing abstracts of various news articles ([RaDa98], [Mari97]). However, we envision a more intelligent subscription management system, attaching additional information to incoming articles, e.g. adding stock information to company names and weather information to city or region names. Figure 2a shows this scenario with three different information publishers on the

13 1 Introduction 13 producer producer request response consumer consumer consumer publisher publisher publish Subscription- Management-System subscribe subscriber subscriber subscriber delivery a) the request/response paradigm b) the publish/subscribe paradigm Fig. 1.1: Comparison of request/response and publish/subscribe paradigm one hand but only one single type of subscribers ( s recipient) on the other hand. It is worth to mention here that even a (passive) web server (e.g. the weather service) may play the role of a publisher. This implies that the terms publish and subscribe must not be mixed up with the very modern concepts of push and pull (section 2) mainly stressed in the web application domain ([Hack97], [Fran97]). Publish/Subscribe Sample Scenario 2: Decision Support in Data Warehouse Environments A Data Warehouse System provides an integrated, long-term, and logically centralized database to retrieve information necessary for decision support, supply chain management, customer relationship management etc. Due to the nature of data warehousing, these database applications exhibit specific characteristics with regard to data volume, update characteristics, and aggregation-oriented organization of data. Information stored in a data warehouse is usually accessed using predefined reports printed on a regular basis, interactively explored using standard OLAP tools, or exported into special statistical software packages ([CoCS93]). Figure 2b shows a scenario, where different data sources are publishing to the subscription management system. The subscription management system performs analyses on the data and satisfies a huge variety of different subscriber types. In general, a subscription management system may be seen as an addition to a state-of-the-art data warehouse environment, where decision makers are informed about regularities as well as irregular patterns within the database. Publisher Subscriber Publisher Subscriber weather service news agency stock broker Subscription- Management-System user marketing sales customer service logistics production distribution Subscription- Management-System finance accounting auditing HR purchasing controlling a) news service example b) subscription service for a data warehouse environment Fig. 1.2: Examples of Publish/Subscribe Scenarios

14 14 2. Information Delivery Criteria The PubScribe Framework The proposed framework of a content- and memory-based subscription-management system extends the classical paradigm of publish/subscribe in the following directions: The role model Every communication within the PubScribe framework relies on the principles of publish/subscribe. This implies that the notion of publisher and subscriber are only roles which may be taken on by all participating components. The processing model PubScribe does not only route incoming messages efficiently to subscribed recipient but also provides a processing model as a mean to specify complex processing operators. Thus, incoming message holding new sales data in a data warehouse scenario, may be evaluated into multiple directions to answer complex decision support queries. Structure of the Paper As we will show in the remainder of this paper, the publish/subscribe paradigm is an efficient and adequate mean to overcome limitations caused by the traditional query paradigm of request/response and may build the basis of a powerful platform for open and selective information distribution. The next section reveals different parameters which have to be considered in the design of a subscription management system. Section 3 provides a comprehensive overview of existing subscription management systems following a content-based subscription specification. Section 4 details the PubScribe subscription model and section 5 outlines the PubScribe message processing model and sketches the internal representation on top of a relational database system. The paper concludes with a short summary given in section 6. 2 Information Delivery Criteria In this section, we identify and explain a number of different information delivery characteristics ([AcFZ97]), which are useful to address general problems in subscription management systems as well as to classify our own novel approach PubScribe. Push and Pull++ versus simple Pull From the traditional request/response paradigm point of view, the consumer or client follows a pull strategy in fetching the results from the database server into its application context. So the consumer initiates the server to send him the desired information. The opposite strategy is to push information from the server to the clients ([Fran97]), i.e. the consumer receives new information whenever the server thinks it is necessary. Multiple applications are already following that paradigm in the web context. News articles or stock trade information are supplied by various information brokers. However, pushing data to a client is not directly

15 2 Information Delivery Criteria 15 supported by the underlying transport protocols (i.e. TCP, HTTP,...). This implies that all such push services are implemented in an extended pull style, i.e. a piece of software is running at the client side in the background permanently polling for new information, thus pretending a pushing server to the user. Such a strategy is called smart pull or pull++ ([DeJe97]). Another technique for simulating push is server-initiated pull: the server sends a short notification to the client stating that there is a new document ready for delivery. The client then downloads this document by a pull operation ([Hack97]). Once more it has to be said that the concepts of push vs. pull and publish/subscribe vs. request/response are completely orthogonal to each other. Publish/subscribe for example can be implemented using push as well as pull techniques for data delivery. Time Driven versus Data Driven Notifications The second criterion with regard to information delivery is to distinguish the kind of event which has to happen to send out a notification to the client ([HaNo99]). Notifications are sent out either periodically after a specified amount of time has passed or are initiated due to a data driven event. A typical example of the first case is to send out an electronic news letter every day at 6 p.m. A new letter (or the collection of accumulated single news articles) is simply sent out after another 24 hours have gone by. On the other hand a subscriber may be interested in getting notified by the dissemination system aperiodically, i.e. only when a certain event occurs, e.g. a stock value the subscriber is interested in passes a certain threshold. Data driven events are usually connected to insert or update operations in the underlying database and result in aperiodic notifications. They are closely related to the trigger concept of active and relational database systems. In practice the combination of both notification modes is most interesting, e.g. you want to be informed immediately if the IBM stocks fall below a certain value and additionally get a weekly summary how it performed through the week. Subject Based versus Content Based Subscriptions A subject-based subscription implies that all events belong to a certain group (or channel) and are automatically sent to all subscribers without further filtering, i.e. without analyzing the content of the event. Thus in a subject-based system publishers and subscribers are bound to a number of predefined channels presenting specific topics ([Elle97], [RaDa98]). Publishers have to assign their products to a certain channel and subscribers may choose among the set of all existing channels which they want to subscribe to. A good example for subjectbased subscriptions are mailing lists, where a user may register him-/herself for the corresponding mailing list at providers like All postings to this mailing list are forwarded to the subscriber either right away or as a daily digest. In the opposite, contentbased subscriptions are referring to a specific information or a portion of a channel inside the single messages without regard to the subject. Typically content-based subscriptions are coming along with a predicate identifying the context of the subscription. Therefore, contentbased subscriptions free producers and consumers from binding to specific channels. Publishers can publish independently and subscribers can subscribe independently. Especially

16 16 3. An Overview of Existing Event Notification and Data Dissemination Systems the subscriber is not restricted by choosing from a predefined set of channels. Certainly someone has to pay the price for the freedom of publishers and subscribers: managing content-based subscriptions is by far more complex than in the subject-based way: The system has to scan all incoming messages/events and check all possible predicates provided by the subscribers. Thus the subscription management system has to be very powerful. Broadcast versus Unicast Data Delivery Mechanisms The way of data delivery opens up a third dimension to classify proactive data delivery services. Broad-/multicasting (or flooding) is a often used to disseminate data from servers to clients. Although this 1-to-N data delivery strategy seems adequate for subject-based subscriptions, it is not feasible for (the more interesting) content-based subscriptions, because the client has to post process, i.e. filter the received data according to the content predicates. Depending on the selectivity of the client s content predicate, flooding yields a huge potential for wasting resources. In the opposite, using unicast connections to deliver the information from the server to the client is recommended for highly specialized content-based subscriptions but produces even more load on the subscription management server. A reasonable compromise for certain applications may be the use of multicast connections to implement channel-based subscriptions directly on the network level ([HuSu97]). Full Update versus Incremental Update For the subscription management system, it is important to know what to do with the data the client already has got by a previous delivery. In case of a thin client like a simple web browser without any application logic and local storage capacity, the server always has to deliver a full update to the client. However, if the client is only interested in the current value of a business figure, e.g. a certain stock value, or it is able to combine the values already received with the latest value on its own, the server system should choose an incremental update strategy, i.e. it will only send the delta changes and thus save network bandwidth and perhaps server memory. 3 An Overview of Existing Event Notification and Data Dissemination Systems This section characterizes the most interesting event notification and data dissemination services which are of interest in the context of publish/subscribe systems. We intentionally focus on content-based systems and omit a vast number of channel-based systems, found especially in the context of web applications like PointCast, Marimba, BackWeb, etc. For a comprehensive overview and comparison, we refer to [Inri97] and [Hack97]. SIENA (Scalable Internet Event Notification Architecture, [BKS+99]) targets a scalable event service for highly distributed applications, which is realized by a network of distributed event servers organized in a hierarchical or peer-to-peer topology. Notifica-

17 4 The PubScribe Subscription Model 17 tions are sets of attributes consisting of an identifying name, a data type and a value. Subscriptions are combinations of event filters representing logical predicates over attributes. Subscription and notification are said to be compatible if a notification sent out by a server contains all attributes of a subscription and further fulfills its event filters. In the Elvin system ([FMK+99]) publishers (producer clients) are special servers not using the subscription engine and never getting notified. Subscribers (consumer clients) are also special servers ignoring any subscription requests from the server. The content-based subscriptions consist of boolean expressions specified in a specifically designed subscription language even comprising full support for regular expressions. Sample applications based on Elvin are Tickertape, a configurable news ticker, or Breeze, an event driven workflow engine. SIFT (Stanford Information Filtering Tool; [YaGa95]) is a large scale information dissemination service supporting full text filtering and emphasizing the information retrieval application area ([FoDu92]). Subscriptions are set up by specifying an information profile with different parameters concerning update frequency or information amount. Two filtering models (vector space model and boolean model) are used to compute a relevance factor for an incoming message. Documents with a higher relevance factor than the specific relevance threshold given in the subscription are delivered to the subscriber. Gryphon ([SBC+98]) is a scalable message brokering system developed by IBM that allows, similar to PubScribe, content based subscriptions based on an information filtering graph consisting of information spaces (the nodes storing event histories or interpretations) and information flows. Along these edges filtering, merging (union semantics, no join), transformation, interpretation and expand operations can be applied. The Gryphon project specializes in optimizing this graph and in distributing it over several broker processes. The Continual Query Project (CQ, [LiPT99]) is a publish/subscribe system for querying large distributed and heterogeneous information sources. Within the CQ project a subscription consists of a standard SQL query, a time/event based trigger condition for delivery and a termination condition. The CQ Project is able to process subscriptions over multiple sources as demonstrated with one of CQ s related projects (Query Router, [LiPH00]). 4 The PubScribe Subscription Model This section explains the PubScribe Subscription Model in detail. First of all we sketch the logical architecture of PubScribe, then introduce different types of supported subscriptions and finally outline the components of a subscription in the PubScribe context.

18 18 4. The PubScribe Subscription Model The Logical PubScribe Architecture The logical architecture of the proposed PubScribe service is based on the ANSI/SPARC 3- schema architecture for database systems ([TsKl78]). This architecture proposes a 3 layered approach with an internal, conceptual, and external schema. Transferring this approach into the context of publish/subscribe, we identify the internal schema for representing all incoming messages from the publishing side and we view the subscription-oriented part as the external schemata. Thus, like in database systems, a single and evaluation independent conceptual schema decouples the incoming messages from the outgoing subscription deliveries. Figure 3 illustrates the PubScribe framework according to the 3 schema architecture. We have to note here that a subscription (better: the instantiation of subscription, i.e. a piece of data) may also appear as a message on the publishing side of another PubScribe service. The internal schema holds all incoming messages as individual entities in the order of their arrival in the system. These published messages are then compiled into a single conceptual schema. This separation yields a first decoupling between incoming messages and the evaluation process of subscriptions. The external schemata represent the set of registered subscriptions in the systems. Obviously, a subscription is not only a single database query but extended with additional properties. Logically, each subscription is derived from the integrated database represented by the conceptual schema. Physically however, similar subscriptions are clustered and evaluated simultaneously (section 5). Types of PubScribe Subscriptions As one extension with regard to existing subscription systems, the PubScribe system supports three different types of subscriptions based on the data requirement: snapshot subscriptions: A snapshot ([LHM+86]) subscription may be answered by processing only the most current message of a publisher. Snapshot subscriptions require update-in-place semantics. Example: A subscription regarding the current weather condition only refers to the last available information. external schema registered subscriptions conceptual schema integrated database internal schema contributing publications Fig. 4.1: PubScribe architecture according to ANSI/SPARC 3-schema-architecture

19 4 The PubScribe Subscription Model 19 ex-nunc ( from now on ) subscriptions: Ex-nunc subscriptions are based on a set of messages. This set of messages is constructed starting from an empty set at the time of registering a subscription. Some kind of data store is necessary in this case. Example: Computing the value of a three-hour moving average of a stock price starts with a single value for the first hour, the average of two values for the second hour, and the average of three values for all other hours. ex-tunc ( starting in the past ) subscriptions: Ex-tunc subscriptions are based on data from the past plus current information. Example: A subscription of the cumulative sum of trading information of a specific stock needs an initial overall sum, which can be maintained using new messages. To provide ex-tunc subscriptions, the system implements an initial evaluation mechanism. Such an initial evaluation of a subscription is performed as a set of queries referring to the corresponding publishers, asking for historic data. If the publisher is capable of providing this information (e.g. in the context of a data warehouse scenario), this data is used for an initial evaluation of the ex-tunc subscription. Otherwise, the subscription is rejected. Components of a Subscription A PubScribe subscription consists of multiple atoms stating the type of delivery, address of recipient, three conditions, and most important the body (query) of the subscription. The evaluation of this subscription body is controlled by the following conditions: opening condition closing condition delivery condition The complete condition evaluation semantics works as follows: once the opening condition is satisfied the first time, the delivery and closing conditions are instantiated and evaluated. If the delivery condition is satisfied, the subscription body is evaluated and the result is delivered to the corresponding subscriber instance. If the closing condition evaluates to true, the subscription is removed from the system. It is worth to note here that the PubScribe system provides an at least once semantics with regard to the execution of a subscription in the context of an initial evaluation for ex-tunc subscriptions: the delivery condition is checked before the closing condition is evaluated. Thus, if the delivery condition is satisfied, the subscription body is evaluated and delivered before a satisfied closing condition removes the subscription from the system.

20 20 5. The PubScribe Message Processing Model 5 The PubScribe Message Processing Model This section discusses the message processing model from a conceptual as well as from an implementational point of view. First of all, we introduce the notion of a message scheme, followed by a description of the available operators on messages disseminated by registered publishers. The section closes by outlining the representation of the message processing model on top of a relational database. Message Schemes and Message Queues The messages produced by registered publishers must follow a message scheme announced during the registration process of a publisher at the subscription management system. The scheme of a message M = (H, B) consists of a header H=(H 1,...,H n ), a (possibly empty) set of header attributes H i (1 i n) and a message body B=(B 1,...,B m ) with at least a single body attribute B j (1 j m). For example, the scheme of messages produced by a stock information service may look like the following: M = ( {TimeStamp, Stock, StockExchange}, { Price, ChangeAbs, ChangePercent } ) A message queue then is an ordered list of messages following the same message scheme, i.e. the entries of a queue are produced by the same publisher. The order is given implicitly by the arrival time of the message in the system. Operators are then applied to such message queues. A subscription body is then represented as a directed acyclic graph (DAG) where nodes are message operators and messages are flowing in form of a queue along the edges of this graph. The opening, closing, and delivery conditions are also expressed in terms of such operator graphs. Figure 5.1 represents the internal representation of a subscription referring to stock information with a corresponding delivery condition. switch merge scalar AND(DelivTimeOK, DelivDataOK) SUM(TradeVol) AS TradeVolSum (Exchange) collapse scalar merge >(Price, Const) AS DelivDataOK scalar <(NextDelivery, CurrentTime) AS DelivTimeOK (*) subscription body selection StockID IN ( IBM, Oracle, MSE ) merge selection 70.0 StockID= MSE AND Exchange = FSE Timer merge scalar +(DeliveryInterval, LastDelivery) AS NextDelivery StockWatch delivery condition [(), (DeliveryInterval)] TimeIntervals merge [(), (LastDelivery)] Repository Fig. 5.1: Operator Tree of a Sample Subscription (subscription body and delivery condition)

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