D7.4 Field Trials I Report

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1 PEACOX Persuasive Advisor for CO2-reducing cross-modal trip planning Project Reference: FP7-ICT 2011: 6.6 Low carbon multi-modal mobility and freight transport Project Duration: 1 Oct Sept 2014 D7.4 Field Trials I Report [CURE Center for Usability Research & Engineering] Author(s) Sebastian Prost (CURE) Kathrin Röderer (CURE) Johann Schrammel (CURE) Efthimios Bothos (ICCS) Lara Montini (ETHZ) Saniul Alam (TCD) Date: 30/09/2013 Dissemination level: (PU, PP, RE, CO): PU Project Co-Funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Program

2 Abstract The PEACOX project aims at developing a persuasive trip advisor to support users in reducing their CO 2 emissions. To this end, there has been a first prototype of a trip planner app and navigation app developed during the first half of the project duration. These first prototypes have been evaluated in a field trial in the Vienna region, Austria. This document describes setup, conduction procedure, results, and conclusions of the trial with the PEACOX prototypes. We recruited 25 users to use PEACOX trip planner and the navigation app prototypes for a period of 8 weeks. 23 users finished the trial that involved free use of the application in their daily wayfinding tasks. We assessed user experience, acceptance, satisfaction with the quality of the service and impact of the implemented persuasive strategies using a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative methods included three online questionnaires before, during and at the end of the trial and the logging of usage (app interactions) and travel behaviour (GPS tracks). Qualitative methods included two workshops and two semi-structured interviews with each participant. Results show that the applications were used frequently and perceived well in satisfaction, usability and user experience. Furthermore, we found high environmental impact awareness among our study participants. Limited behaviour change could be observed, and we discuss participants reasons for (not) changing to more sustainable transport modes. Based on the results, we draw conclusions for further development. Page 2 / 99

3 Table of Contents 1. Introduction Background Scope of This Document General Overview Ethical Issues, Legislation and Regulations Laws and Regulations European laws and regulations on data security, privacy and ethical issues Austrian laws and regulations on data security, privacy and ethical issues Handling of Ethical Issues in the PEACOX Field Trial Data Protection Plan Ethical Principals und Documents Study Plan & Procedure User Participation Criteria Recruitment Procedure User Reimbursement Prototypes for Field Trial PEACOX Intermodal Trip Planner PEACOX Navigation App Research Objectives Methods & Materials Screening Questionnaires Focus Groups & Workshops Interviews & Participant Observations User Tasks Attitude Questionnaires User Experience (UX) Questionnaires Paper Diaries Logging of Data Duration & Schedule Risk Management & Support Strategy Risk of Damage of the Devices Used in Field Trial Risk of Financial or Physical Harm for Participants Dropout Risk Avoidance Page 3 / 99

4 4.8.4 Support Strategy Results Procedure of Analysis Data and Data Quality GPS Data Logging Behaviour & Emission Model Analysis Tree Visualisation User Sample Primary Users Paper Diaries Automatically Generated GPS Diaries Secondary Users Application Usage Self-reported Usage Route Requests Usability & User Experience Evaluation Search On-the-Go Routing Feature Requests Persuasive Strategies Evaluation Attitudes Towards Transport Modes Environmental Attitudes and Impact Awareness Travel Behaviour Self-reported Behaviour GPS Logs and Travel Diaries Observations Reasons for (Not) Changing Travel Behaviour The Role of Habits and Critical Life Events A Simulated Critical Life Event Changing Habits A Brief Outlook: The PEACOX System of the Future Summary of Results Conclusions and Implications for Further Development Client Features Usability Problems & Feature Requests Page 4 / 99

5 6.1.2 Persuasive Strategies Further Development & Second Field Trial Development Process Data Logging References Appendix A. Informed Consent Appendix B. Information Sheet Appendix C. Screening Questionnaire C.1. Demographic Questions C.2. Mobility Behaviour Questions Appendix D. Attitudes Questionnaires D.1. Attitudes towards the Environment D.2. Attitudes towards transport modes Appendix E. Usability and User Experience Questionnaires E.1. System Usability Scale (SUS) E.2. UMUX E.3. AttrakDiff E.4. HED/UT Appendix F. Introductory Workshop Guide Appendix G. Semi-Structured Interview Guide G.1. First Interview G.2. Second Interview Appendix H. Final Focus Group and Workshop Guide Appendix I. List of Figures Appendix J. List of Tables Page 5 / 99

6 1. Introduction 1.1 Background This document is based on several outcomes of the PEACOX project. It describes the realisation of Deliverable D7.1 User Evaluation Plan. The prototypes that were evaluated are the results of the concerted efforts of WP3 Behavioural Analysis and Environmental Impact Modelling, WP4 Automated Travel Mode and Trip Purpose Detection, WP5 Development of Persuasive Strategies for Green Mobility and WP6 System Design and Implementation. Deliverables D6.3.1 System Design and Interface Definition and D6.4 Initial Prototype describe system architecture and the prototype clients respectively. Within the prototype system, the emission model (Deliverable D3.1 Door-to-Door Emission Model), the Trip Mode Detection and Trip Purpose Detection, and the Recommendation Engine (D6.3.1) included. Also, the first prototype applications (D6.4) deploy the persuasive strategies described in D5.4.1 Detailed Design Persuasive Eco-Feedback Strategies. 1.2 Scope of This Document This document extends D7.1 User Evaluation Plan. D7.1 described the overall goal and approach of the user evaluations taking place within the project; this document gives a detailed rundown of the objectives, research questions, methodology, user sample and schedule of the first user trial. Moreover, it includes results derived from analysis of qualitative and quantitative methods applied in the first field trial. Finally, it includes conclusions of this trial and implications for the further development of the PEACOX system. The results will drive upcoming work in WPs 3, 4, 5, and 6. Page 6 / 99

7 2. General Overview The first PEACOX field trial evaluated two developed client applications: An intermodal trip planner and a turn-by-turn navigation app. Both applications connect to PEACOX server infrastructure. Goal of the evaluation was to assess usability, user experience, and effectiveness of the persuasive strategies implemented in the trial prototypes in terms of changing attitudes and behaviour towards sustainable modes of transport. To this end, 25 test participants were recruited by CURE to use both applications during an 8 weeklong period. All participants lived in Vienna or its surroundings and could freely use the apps for their daily wayfinding tasks. The trip planner app not only provided multi-modal routing possibilities, but the results presented by the recommendation engine balance user trip preferences and emission information. The app also gave pre-trip CO 2 feedback for each presented route option. Furthermore, it included feedback of past emissions based on GPS (Global Positioning System) tracks, visualised as a tree that grew or lost leaves depending on user behaviour. On the server side, the trip mode detection component calculated used modes of transports for recorded GPS tracks. Based on this, the emission model calculated emissions for a route. This deliverable is structured as follows. In the next Chapter, we will discuss the legislative requirements and ethical principles that surrounded the trial. Particularly, it describes our approach to safeguard the users privacy and data protection during the trial. In Chapter 4 describes at length the setup of the field trial. It explains criteria for users to participate, the recruitment procedure and reimbursement for participation. Furthermore it recapitulates the features of the prototype applications the users were exposed to. It then states our research objectives and the methods used to fulfil them. In particular, it explains which qualitative and which quantitative approaches were taken. Chapter 5 is the central chapter of this deliverable as it presents the outcomes and findings of the first PEACOX field trial. In the beginning, this chapter discusses problems with the quality of automatically collected data that arose during the trial and the consequences this has for evaluation. The socio-demographic characteristics of the users that participated in the trial are also discussed. The results are presented in four sections: The first section deals with application usage, i.e. how frequently and in which way users used the application, and how this changed over the course of the trial. This is based both on self-reported usage in Page 7 / 99

8 surveys and interviews and on logging of route requests. Second, the usability and user experience is discussed. Several problem areas identified by the users and requests for additional features are discussed. The third part deals with the persuasive strategies applied and their impact onto the users. Attitudes towards different modes of transport and towards the environment are described. Additionally, travel behaviour is analysed, based on reports by users, on GPS logs, and on observations in the field. Finally, reasons for changing behaviour or not are discussed in a dedicated section. Specifically, the role of habits is investigated here. Chapter 6 gives conclusions on the results and outlines the implications they have for further development in the project. These insights gained in the trial help the project not only to particular questions on user preferences, but also to guide the overall direction of the final year of project PEACOX. Page 8 / 99

9 3. Ethical Issues, Legislation and Regulations In PEACOX ethical issues play a major role since the project follows a user-centred design approach and involves the participation of many potential end-users. For assessing studies in the context of ICT usage directly, there exists no dedicated commission in Austria. Apart from following the laws and regulations listed in the following sections for the preparation and conduction of the PEACOX field trial, for the ethical approval of the PEACOX field trial the experience and expertise of CURE in ethical issues, as well as the advisory board and the PEACOX partners, were consulted. 3.1 Laws and Regulations The following sections give an overview which European and Austrian national laws governed the PEACOX field trial European laws and regulations on data security, privacy and ethical issues During the PEACOX field trial, personal data of the participants was collected. European Parliament and Council Directive 95/46/EC [5] on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data was taken into account for the main guidelines. This is a directive on European level and includes guidelines related to the: Quality of data and data processing Legitimacy and categories of data processing Right of access to the personal data Subject s right of information and objection Confidentiality and security of processing The full text of this directive and a short summary can be found on the official website of the European Union [5] Austrian laws and regulations on data security, privacy and ethical issues For the evaluations in Austria, besides adhering the European laws and regulation, particular emphasis was placed on local Austrian laws and regulations: Datenschutzgesetz (DSG, 2000), BGBl. I Nr. 165/1999 [4]: This act regulates the protection of personal data in Austria (i.e. the Austrian implementation of the European directive on data protection). Page 9 / 99

10 Informationssicherheitsgesetz (InfoSiG, 2002), BGBI. I Nr. 23/2002 [11]: This act regulates basic rights of data privacy and the duty to give information. Wiener Antidiskriminierungsgesetz (LBI, 35/2004) [23]: This act regulates the abatement of discrimination referring to the access to social, health and education as well as public services. It focuses on the non-discrimination and equal treatment regarding sex, age, disability, ethnic group, religion, ideology and sexual orientation. 3.2 Handling of Ethical Issues in the PEACOX Field Trial Data Protection Plan Research in the PEACOX field trial revolves around information about persons their travel profiles, lifestyle, behaviours and other personal data drawn from records, surveys and interviews. These types of information are private and sensitive and need to be protected. The protection of the privacy of participants is a responsibility of all persons involved in research with human participants. Privacy means, that the participant can control the access to personal information and is able to decide who has access to the collected data in the future. Due to the principle of autonomy the participants were asked for their agreement (see 5 Informed Consent) before private and personal information was collected. It was ensured that all persons involved in the field trial understood and respected the requirement for confidentiality. The participants were informed about the confidentiality policy that is used in this research project. Privacy plays a major role in the PEACOX field trial and was addressed as following: Publications: Hints to or specific personal information of any participant in (scientific) publications are omitted. It is avoided to reveal the identity of participants in research deliberately or inadvertently, without the expressed permission of the participants. Dissemination: Dissemination of data among partners. This relates to access to data, data formats, and methods of archiving (electronic and paper), including data handling, data analyses, and research communications. Access to private and information was granted only to PEACOX partners for purposes of evaluation of the PEACOX system and only in an anonymised form, i.e. any personally identifiable information such as name, phone number or address was omitted. Protection: The organization is responsible for the protection of the participant s privacy within the organization (e.g. employers, etc.) throughout the whole PEACOX Page 10 / 99

11 project process, including procedures such as communications, data exchange, presentation of findings, etc. Control: The investigator is not allowed to circulate information without anonymisation. This means that only relevant attributes, i.e. gender, age, etc. are retained. Information: As already mentioned above, the protection of the confidentiality implies informing the participants about what may be done with their data (i.e. data sharing). Individuals that participate in any study must have the right to request and obtain free of charge information on his/her personal data subjected to processing, on the origin of such data and on their communication or intended communication. During the field trial, participants received a generic user ID to identify them in the system and to anonymise their identities. No full names were stored anywhere electronically. The only personal data stored on the users smart phones was their login credentials. All other data was stored at the PEACOX server database. All gathered personal data was password protected and encrypted. Users personal data were safeguarded from other people not involved in the project Ethical Principals und Documents The Informed Consent (See 5) and the Information Sheet (See Appendix B) are the two important documents that were provided to the field trial participants. In order to be able to participate in the PEACOX field trial all potential participants had to read and sign an informed consent form before starting the participation. These documents aimed to fully inform the participants about the PEACOX field trial and make all parts of the field trial clear. Informed consent is the process by which a participant is fully informed about the research study in which they are going to participate. It originates from the legal and ethical right that the participant has to be informed what happens to their personal data and from the ethical duty of the researcher to involve the participant in the research. This means that the individual subject has the right to be informed about the research process and outcomes. The aim of the information sheet was to provide basic information about the study and the project in order to guarantee that participants have basic information to make decision about whether to participate or not in the PEACOX field trial. It included a summary and schedule of the PEACOX field trial, the objectives and descriptions of the PEACOX system and its components. Page 11 / 99

12 CURE used translated versions of both of these documents in order to provide basic information for potential study participants in German. All participants had the right to receive a copy of both of the documents. For any question related to ethical issues that arose during the PEACOX field trial the project participants as well as partners could consult CURE (WP7 Lead). Page 12 / 99

13 4. Study Plan & Procedure The following sections describe the setup of the first PEACOX field trial. In particular in explains the recruitment procedure, the evaluated prototypes (intermodal trip planner and navigation client), the support strategy during the trial, the research objectives, the methods applied and the trial schedule. Prior to the start of the field trial, CURE conducted expert and user-based usability evaluations [15] of the applications developed in PEACOX to ensure most usability problems could be avoided before users got a hand on the application for a longer period of time. Six users performed given tasks and tested the application, before they were asked about their impressions and experiences. Interviews and questionnaires, namely the HED/UT-Scale [19] and the System Usability Scale [3] were used. The detailed results are documented in D7.2 Usability and User Experience Feedback Report. The first field trial took place in Austria, in the ITS (Intelligent Transport System) Vienna Region, which includes the City of Vienna, parts of surrounding Lower Austria and Northern Burgenland (more than inhabitants and km of route network). CURE was responsible for the recruitment of participants for the PEACOX field trial in Vienna. The recruitment strategies of the first trial are discussed in detail in D8.4.1 Recruitment Strategies. This deliverable will give a summary. All participants in Vienna were recruited from CURE s internal database of study participants. This database contains participants with various demographical differences, backgrounds, level of education and more. 4.1 User Participation Criteria The following specifications had to be met for recruiting the participants: Age 18 or older Sex 50% male, 50% female Education and No constraints Occupation Residence Living and working/studying in the ITS Vienna Region Skills & props User of an Android smart phone for at least 3 months Smart phone must at least be running Android OS 4.0 User must have a data plan (min. 500 MB per month) Mother tongue German Page 13 / 99

14 Impairments Without any difficulties in reading and writing Availability During the 8 weeks of trial planned not more than 1 week absent (e.g. holiday outside of ITS Vienna region) Based on a screening questionnaire, there were 25 primary users recruited, who used the PEACOX app and also participated in lab sessions and telephone interviews and filled in diaries for one week. In addition, an open number of secondary users were invited via to use the application to gather more real-world usage data. 4.2 Recruitment Procedure Recruitment was performed in two steps in May 2013: 1. Screening Questionnaire. Potential users received an invitation to fill in a screening questionnaire. The screening questionnaires filtered out those participants that did not meet the criteria above and also asked for demographic data (age, sex, education, place of residence, relationship status, family status, distance between work and home place), mobility behaviour, and environmental attitudes. The questionnaire aimed at recruiting a balanced representation of the relevant user groups (car users, cyclists, user of public transport). 2. Selection of Users. a. Based on the analysis of the screening questionnaire CURE selected suitable users (n=25) who were invited to participate as primary users in the field trial. b. All other interested participants received an invitation to use the app as secondary users. Secondary users did not participate in any lab sessions but were asked to fill in several online-questionnaires during the field trial period. 4.3 User Reimbursement Primary Users were compensated for their participation with 150, if all required action had taken place (participation in introductory workshop, questionnaires, diaries, telephone interviews, and final workshops). Secondary users were given the opportunity to sign up for a lottery to win vouchers for an Internet mail-order trade. This served as a motivation to install and use the application as well as to fill in a questionnaire at the end of the study period. Moreover, secondary users served as buffer users in case of drop-out among the primary users. Page 14 / 99

15 4.4 Prototypes for Field Trial 1 For the first field trial, users used both the PEACOX intermodal trip planner app and the PEACOX navigation app. Both applications are detailed in Deliverable 6.4 Initial Prototype. For the purpose of linking findings discussed in Section 5, Results with the applications, a summary is giving in the following two sections PEACOX Intermodal Trip Planner The PEACOX trip planner app allowed users to search for routes from a given or their current location to any location within the ITS Vienna Region using available modes of transport, i.e. car, public transport, bicycle, and walking (see Figure 1). The screenshots depicted are in German, as all participants had German as their mother tongue. Figure 1: PEACOX trip planner app: route-searching screen The routing facilitated personalised route recommendations based on the individual user s travel preferences and environmental impact (see Figure 2). Therefore, the application featured a login mechanism where each user could register and log in to the PEACOX system (see Figure 3). Page 15 / 99

16 Figure 2: PEACOX trip planner app: search results Figure 3: PEACOX trip planner app: login screen The app provided the user with feedback of CO 2 emission along a route. It also contained a visualisation of past CO 2 emissions in the form of a tree that was losing or growing leaves depending on past user behaviour (see Figure 4). For these purposes the application continuously tracked the users movements via various sensors on the smart phone. Page 16 / 99

17 Figure 4: PEACOX trip planner app: Tree visualisation of CO 2 feedback Participants installed the trip planner application on their own Android smartphones via a link that CURE sent out at the beginning of the trial. The minimum OS version was 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich). The communication between the trip planner application and the server required a data plan of at least 500MB/month PEACOX Navigation App The PEACOX navigation app allowed users to search for routes from a given or the current location to any location within the ITS Vienna Region using a car, public transport or walking. The application provided turn-by-turn instructions to reach the desired target (see Figure 5). Like the intermodal trip planner, the navigation app was installed by the users via a link sent by CURE. Minimum OS version was again Android 4.0. Page 17 / 99

18 4.5 Research Objectives Figure 5: PEACOX navigation app: turn-by-turn instructions During the first field trial, primary and secondary participants continuously used the PEACOX apps for 8 weeks. Their mobility behaviour, their travel mode choices as well as their attitudes and user experiences were investigated during this time. Moreover, the impact of the PEACOX app on user behaviour and attitudes was examined. In particular, the following research questions guided the evaluation: Attitudes A1. How do attitudes towards the use of cars, public transport, and cycling change after using the PEACOX apps? A1.1. How do attitudes towards the use of cars, public transport, and cycling differ between before and after using the PEACOX apps? A1.2. How do attitudes towards the use of cars, public transport, and cycling differ between different mobility types? A2. How do attitudes towards the environment in general change after using the PEACOX application? A2.1. How do attitudes towards the environment in general differ between before and after using the PEACOX apps? A2.2. How do attitudes towards the environment in general differ between different mobility types? A3. Does the daily CO2 feedback influence users attitudes towards the environment? A4. Does the daily CO2 feedback influence users perception of their individual impact on the environment? Page 18 / 99

19 Travel Behaviour Actual behaviour change in terms of using more environmentally friendly behaviour is hard to detect, therefore research did not only quantitatively assess changes in transport mode, but also qualitatively explore reasons behind potential changes. B1. How did the usage quantity of different transport options (car, public transport, cycling, walking) change during the trial run? B2. Did users change their trip mode choice behaviour (car, public transport, cycling, walking) when comparing before and after the trial run? B3. What reasons do users have when they changed their trip mode choice behaviour? B4. Does the personalised CO 2 emission feedback for a planned route influence trip mode choices? User Experience UX1. How does the user experience of the PEACOX application change after using it for 8 weeks? UX2. How does the user experience of the PEACOX application differ between different mobility types? UX3. What emotional values do users associate with the PEACOX application and how do they change over time of usage? UX4. How did the frequency and length of usage of the PEACOX application change during the trial run? UX5. What reasons do users have to change the frequency/length of using the application during the trial run? UX6. How do users perceive the quality of the recommended routes compared to a standard routing device in terms of personal preferences? The following sections describe the methods applied to answer these research questions. 4.6 Methods & Materials The first field trial focused on the collection of usage behaviour and feedback data to inform further development. To this end, a variety of methods were deployed. All methods applied were guided by our ethical principles described in Section 3. Page 19 / 99

20 4.6.1 Screening Questionnaires The online screening questionnaire used for recruitment was also an easy way to gather quantitative data from a larger sample of users. It was sent out to all approximately 2000 individuals registered in CURE s test participant database. We asked for demographic data (age, sex, education, place of residence, relationship status, family status, distance between work and home place), mobility type (main mode of transport used), attitudes towards different modes of transport (car, public transport, and cycling), and environmental attitudes. The questionnaires can be obtained from Appendix C and Appendix D Focus Groups & Workshops Workshops and focus groups are interactive sessions with a smaller sample (6-10 participants), usually held at CURE s premises. A focus group is a method to gather qualitative feedback on a specific topic. It is less rigid than a structured group interview, as it allows adjusting the course of questions depending on the flow of the discussion. On the other hand it is more restricted than a discussion group, as a moderator can direct the course of discussion by specific questions. If needed, it can be supported with short questionnaires. In comparison, a workshop is a more hands-on experience. Usually participants get specific tasks to brainstorm ideas or evaluate specific design concepts. We used the workshop format to present prototypes and schedule to the primary users at the beginning of the trial. Users were given all relevant information, e.g. whom to call in case of technical or other problems (this was CURE). A randomised subgroup of users (n=11) was also handed out a dedicated GPS logging device they were required to carry with them during the trial. The purpose of the logging devices was to validate the GPS data from the smart phones. Moreover, the workshops were used to gather expectations from users about the coming months and collect attitudes towards different modes of transport and the environment in general. We used a mixed format of workshop and focus group at the end of the trial. First a standard focus group discussed experiences with the applications and reasons for (not) changing modes. The topics included in particular: Influence of life situations on transport behaviour o Information necessary in specific situation to support eco-friendly travel mode choices Page 20 / 99

21 o Role of habits and how they can be changed Perception of CO2 feedback User Experiences in detail Potentials of a PEACOX system of a future In a second part, we switched to a workshop format where participants were asked to work in small groups to develop and present their idea of an ideal PEACOX system of the future to learn more about the features of the PEACOX app participants liked most. Such a PEACOX system should support them in switching over to sustainable modes of transports, considering the barriers discussed earlier on in the focus group. This was done through use of the innovation game Product Box [10]. Workshop and focus group guidelines are included in Appendix F and Appendix H Interviews & Participant Observations Interviews were semi-structured, that means that the interviewer has a loose set of guiding questions to make sure all topics of interest will be covered during the interview. Interviewees can, however, freely talk about a subject matter. The interviewer can rearrange the order of questions and make up new questions depending on the answers given by the interviewee. This form of qualitative investigation is useful to gain deep insights and understanding into why users show certain behaviour and why or why not attitudes and behaviours changed during the field trial. Interviews were carried out in person after 1 week and via telephone after 1 month and lasted between 15 to 30 minutes (via telephone) and up to 60 minutes when carried out face-to-face. Interviews were audio-recorded and later on transcribed for analysis. Topics covered during the interviews were General impression of both apps, user experience related topics Usage situations of both apps Options about routing, recommendations and feedback Reasons for (not) changing transport behaviour and to (not) choose a certain route Influence of CO 2 emission feedback for a planned route on travel mode choices Personal environmental impact awareness Fit between preferences/intention and persuasive recommendation Face-to-face interviews were part of a participant observation carried out as a shared trip through Vienna by the participant together with a researcher from CURE. The participant Page 21 / 99

22 decided on route and mode of transport. Both met at a meeting point and then the researcher either travelled with them in their car, on the metro, on a bicycle, or walked. During this trip the researcher observed the participant using the application, deciding on modes of transport, and explaining in context why he or she is travelling in this particular way. These observations also allowed to freely talk about a participant s history in travelling and why certain travel habits came into being. Appendix G lists the guiding questions for the first and the second interview in detail User Tasks In order to be able to observe natural usage behaviour, users were generally not given instructions on how often they had to use the apps. We told them to use the app whenever they would use another trip planner app or when they did not know the way from A to B and thought the app could help them. As actual behaviour change was not guaranteed, we asked users to perform a task once, namely to use a different transport mode than usual for a trip they were doing anyway. This allowed us to collect experiences with new modes of transport and benefits or barriers of these unused modes Attitude Questionnaires Attitude questionnaires asked users for their attitudes towards specific modes of transport (car, public transport, and cycling), and the environment in general. To detect potential changes in impact of persuasive feedback given by the PEACOX trip planner app, attitude questionnaires were administered three times (in the screening questionnaire and twice during the trial). The questionnaires can be found in Appendix D User Experience (UX) Questionnaires Four different questionnaires were used to assess the user experience and usability of the PEACOX system: System Usability Scale (SUS) [3] UMUX [6] AttrakDiff [9] HED/UT Scale [19] The aim of using several questionnaires is to gain a broader impression on user experience. All questionnaires were administered twice during the trial. The questionnaires can be Page 22 / 99

23 found in Appendix E. Questionnaire data was further complemented with questions asked in the semi-structured interviews Paper Diaries In order to collect actual travel data necessary for validation of the GPS imputation routines a paper diary was developed. The goal was twofold: first, all travel data should be collected on a stage level that is all transport modes used on a trip should be reported including start and end times. Second, participants should be able to fill it in shortly after the trips were made, therefore it should be kept as small as possible. The final design of the travel diary was compact enough to fit on an A6 page. The diary was written in German, and is depicted in Figure 6. On each page, three trips can be reported, on the left the purpose of trip ( Wegzweck ) is asked, in the middle the times ( Uhrzeiten ) when a new transport means is used should be specified. And on the right hand side, the sequence of transport modes ( Verkehrsmittel ) should be indicated. Furthermore participants were asked if they used the PEACOX trip planner app for a trip and there is also enough space to write down a comment. Page 23 / 99

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