FOLIENSKRIPTUM BASISVORLESUNG GLOBAL STUDIES

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1 FOLIENSKRIPTUM BASISVORLESUNG GLOBAL STUDIES Autoren: Gilbert Ahamer, Wolfgang Benedek, Karl Farmer, Franz Höllinger, Christian Pippan, Gerald Schöpfer, Peter Teibenbacher, Stefan Vorbach

2 Inhaltsverzeichnis- Folienskriptum Modul 1 Development and Global History Peter Teibenbacher Modul 2 Wirtschaft (1) Gerald Schöpfer Wirtschaft (2) Karl Farmer Modul 3 Umwelt, Klima und Technologie Stefan Vorbach Modul 4 Kultur (1) Franz Höllinger Kultur (2) Gilbert Ahamer Modul 5 Völkerrecht (1) Christian Pippan Völkerrecht (2) Wolfgang Benedek

3 GLOBAL STUDIES Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte Universitätsstr. 15/E2, 8010 Graz Telefon: 0316/ graz.at graz.at/globalstudies Globalisierung studieren Modul1: Development and Global History Prof. Teibenbacher GLOBAL STUDIES Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte Universitätsstr. 15/E2, 8010 Graz Telefon: 0316/ graz.at graz.at/globalstudies Globalisierung studieren Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics The lecture will follow three concepts resp. perspectives: What is history? What means global? What is development? 1

4 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics What is history? Is history just the past, which is a dead time, not of interest for recent times which has it s own hopes and fears and needs? Or can t we know where to go when we don t know where we come from? History is: Former recent times Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics What means global Networks of interregional activities and relations resp. of interregional interdependencies, covering wide parts of this globe. Thus we could speak primarily of intercontinental networks, activities, relations and interdependencies of resp. between systems and cultures. Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics What means global In another words we have to speak of In another words we have to speak of encountering in very different ways: exchangig, dealing and trading, conquering and exploiting, learning and transforming, destruction and construction etc. 2

5 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics What is development? A philosophical view An eschatolocical view A pragmatic view Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics What is development? A philosophical view Development means firstly profan progress in knowledge, g, in production etc. But this view only appeared in the 17 th century. It is mainly the view, that humans can change the world. Instead of a stable and timeless devine order the paradigm of evolution, of a chronological change, of development was favorized. Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics What is development? A philosophical view The origin of a developmental views can be dated back to the 17th century and is connected strongly gyto the process of scientification and enlightment, the natural sciences faced a strong increase (especially astronomy, physics and mathematics). From now on world was experienced also from a scientific view. 3

6 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics What is development? A philosophical view The development of earth in a natural sense was followed by the idea of the development of humans. Of course, humans always had been engaged in improving their methods (domestication of animals, constructing of irrigation plants, draining for agricultural use etc.) Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics What is development? A philosophical view But accomponied by the production of scientific knowledge this process of improving was enhanced and accelerated enormously. Development is: a progress, a process of improving Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics What is development? An eschatological view An eschatolocical view is oriented on a final time. Many religions have envoked such views, connected with salvation. Many profan views like those of Marx but also of his contrahent Rostow are eschatologial also: They do creat a last, namely perfect time resp. society, in which people are somehow salvated, living in the best of all worlds, having reached the (profan) paradise. Development means: paradise 4

7 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics What is development? A pragmatic view Developmentmeans means participation. The more people are participating and involved in the ressources, their production, their distribution and consumption the more developed is a system. Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics What is development? A pragmatic view Ofcourse, participation as one main attribute of development should not be cut off from the process of progress as the second main characteristics of development. Development is: progress and participation Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics Periods of global history and landmarks of encountering The Greek world The Roman world Christian and Islamic world India and Islamic world China and Innerasia Europe and the world 5

8 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics Periods of global history and landmarks of encountering These landmarks can also be identified as empires resp. large spatial areas with a central power or at least a predominating system, a culture, an idea or ideology, enforced by political and military power. Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics Main thesis: Regional patterns or identities are not only based on so called cultural issues in a closer sense (language, religion, art, manners etc.), but is very strongly connected with economic and demographic development also. Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics Objects: Comparisons of economic and demographic Comparisons of economic and demographic development in different European regions and different world regions since the 16th century, since the appearance of a first world system. 6

9 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics Objectives: To get a deeper understandig of existing disparities between European regions and between Europe and other world regions in concern of economic and demographic development. Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics Zu lesende Texte Blaschke, Jochen (Hg.)(1983), Perspektiven des Weltsystems. Frankfurt.Main Fischer, Karin & Hödl, Gerald & Sievers, Wiebke (Hgg.)(2008), Klassiker der Entwicklungstheorie. Wien. Osterhammel, Jürgen/Petersson, Niels P. (2007): Geschichte der Globalisierung : Dimensionen, Prozesse, Epochen. München. Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.1 Basics Vorlesungszeiten Montag 4.Oktober 9:30 15:30, HS Montag 4.Oktober 9:30 15:30, HS Donnerstag 7.Oktober 13:15 15:45, HS Montag 11.Oktober 9:30 12:30, HS

10 GLOBAL STUDIES Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte Universitätsstr. 15/E2, 8010 Graz Telefon: 0316/ graz.at graz.at/globalstudies Globalisierung studieren Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development In the 18th and 19th century theories already appeared, reaching a peak in the 20th century. The type of an universal history, comprising the whole humanity was cultivated, calling just one of the last of them, namely Arnold J. Toynbee ( ). He identified 32 different types of culture and tried to explain why the ones are were more successful than others or even disappeared again. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development But what we want to deal with are theories, which concentrate on the problem of global inequality, not only from a theoretical and general, but from a historical perspective also. First we can distinguish endogenic and exogenic theories. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 8

11 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development Endogenic theories are underlining endogenic issues like geomorphological ones (too dry or too much rain etc.), like badgovernance governance, corruption etc. asreasons for less development. Exogenic theories are emphasizing external issues like conquering, exploitation, competitive disadvantage on the markets by national or supranational economic policies (for example high import duties in the EU for agrarian products from Africa etc.) Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization 2 Theory of dependency 3 World System Theory We will concentrate on World System Theory, because it considers historical issues most. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization Modernization theories are endogenic ones. They do address the western development (Europe and European offsprings) since the outgoing 18th century. Especially the process of industrialization, capitalization and the enforcement of market oríented behaviour are underlined as main factors enabling progress and development. Modernization theories are very western oriented and convinced of having gone the right way. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 9

12 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization Economic development of an underdeveloped people by themselves is not compatible with the maintenance of their traditional customs and mores. A break with the latter is a prerequiste to economic progress. What is needed is a revolution in the totality of social, cultural and religious institutions and habits, and thus in their psychological attitude, their philosophy and their way of life. What is, therefore, required amounts in reality to social disorganization. Unhappiness and discontentment in the sense of wanting more than is obtainable at any moment is to be generated. The suffering and dislocation that may be caused in the process may be objectionable, but it appears to be the price that has to be paid for economic development; the condition of economic progress. J.L. Sadie, "The Social Anthropology of Economic Underdevelopment", The EconomicJournal, No. 70, 1960, p.302, zitiert in: Gérald Berthoud, "Market" in: The Development Dictionary, hrg. von Wolfgang Sachs, London: Zed Books, 1992, pp , from wikipedia. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The Stages of Economic Growth The US Economist Walt W. Rostow (born in 1916 as sonof of Russian immigrants) set up sixstages stages of economic growth in In his opinion each country faces all these stages like a child during his process of growing up. In the end the model is not free of eschatology, because there was no critical annotation on how the future will be. He thought, that all less developed countries should go the western way and they would reach the same wealth then. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The Stages of Economic Growth 1 The traditional society 2 Precondotions for the take off 3 The take off 4 The drive to maturity 5 Age of mass consumption Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 10

13 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The Stages of Economic Growth Source: wikipedia Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The Dependency Theory Dependency Theory appeared as critical reply to Modernization theories, already after WW II (Hans Singer and Raul Prebisch, 1949). The most critical argument was, that developing countries are facing much discrimination by the policies of developed countries. Such a discrimination developed countries never had experienced. Therefore it is not fair to require, that less developed countries just should follow the western way, but they need a special, an adapted solution. Developing countries are disadvanted on a free market, therefore they should avoid it so far as possible till they have stenghtened their structures and can compete with the developed countries. The theory was put forward e.a. by economists from Latin America like Celso Furtado and US. American Marxists like Andre Gunter Frank. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The Dependency Theory Dependency Theory especially addressed the situation in Latin America and the strong dependency on the US market. In the early 1960s,. When Rostow had published his stages of growth, Latin America was poorer than before WW II and we could say, modernization theory had failed. Dependency theory was influenced by Marxist theories and supported socialist strategies to solve the problems of developing countries. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 11

14 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The World System Theory World System Theory was developed by the Sociologist Immanuell Wallerstein (born 1930) since the 1974s. He started with his research in post colonial African history. a world-system is a social system, one that has boundaries, structures, member groups, rules of legitimation, and coherence. Its life is made up of the conflicting forces which hold it together by tension and tear it apart as each group seeks eternally to remold it to its advantage. It has the characteristics of an organism, in that is has a lifespan over which its characteristics change in some respects and remain stable in others [ ] Life within it is largely self-contained, And the dynamics of its development are largely internal. (Wallerstein, 1974) Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The World System Theory A world system is a multicultural territorial division of labor in which the production and exchange of basic goods and raw materials is necessary for the everyday life of its inhabitants. (Wallerstein, 1974) Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The World System Theory Wallerstein is oriented on a system of capitalistic economy and of regional inequality. Therefore he distinguishes four parts, defined by the role and function of a region in a world wide, capitalistic market system: The core The periphery The semi periphery The external area Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 12

15 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The World System Theory These four roles are characterised by advantages and disadvantages in the system, defined by terms of trade, by the concentration of capital, by the rate of returns etc. In history this system is prevailing since the 16th century, the role of different parts of the world have changed, but always all of them are existing and need to exist, because they all together are creating the system. Thus Wallerstein s findings are comparable to Paul Kennedy s investigation on rise and fall of great powers (1987) or of David Landes research on the question why the one are poor and the others are rich (1998). Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The World System Theory But in comparison to Kennedy and Landes Wallerstein tries to explain the historical processes and changes by a theory which should be valid for the whole world and the whole period of modern times (since the 16th centuries till today). Wallerstein published a trilogy, titled The Modern World System (volume I, 1974, is addressed to the beginnings, vol. II, 1980, to the times of mercantilism and vol. III, 1989, deals with the great European expansion), covering the 16th, the 17th and the long 18th century till Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The World System Theory The core benefited the most from the capitalist world economy strong central governments, extensive bureaucracies, and large mercenary armies Capital is concentrated Banking, the professional training, mercantile activity, and skilled manufacturing supply all these services to the periphery and most to the semi periphery expropriated much of the capital surplus generated by the periphery through unequal trade relations Northwestern Europe (England, France, Holland) (source: Jingwei Tang, wikipedia) Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 13

16 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The World System Theory The periphery lacked strong central governments or were controlled by other states exported raw materials to the core, and relied on coercive labor practices subordinated to the need of the core for low cost agricultural production of food and raw materials Enslavement of the native populations, the importation of African slaves, and the coercive labor practices made possible the export of cheap raw materials to Europe not merely for internal consumption but for a capitalist world economy Eastern Europe (Poland) and Latin America (source: Jingwei Tang, wikipedia) Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The World System Theory The semi periphery either core regions in decline or peripheries attempting to improve their relative position in the world economic system buffers exhibited tensions between the central government and a strong local landed class limited failed to predominate in international trade Portugal, Spain, Italy, southern Germany, and southern France (source: Jingwei Tang, wikipedia) Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The World System Theory The external area maintained their own economic systems remain outside the modern world economy Internal commerce remained more important than trade with outside regions (source: Jingwei Tang, wikipedia) Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 14

17 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The World System Theory Stages of growth 1 Bureaucratization. Homogenization of the local population Expansion of the militia Absolutism Diversification of economic activities (source: Jingwei Tang, wikipedia) Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The World System Theory Stages of growth 2 European states participated in active exploration for the exploitation of new markets the expanding European world system enhance U.S. and Germany core status core regions shifted from a combination of agricultural and industrial interests to purely industrial concerns core areas encouraged the rise of industries in peripheral and semiperipheral zones (source: Jingwei Tang, wikipedia) Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The World System Theory Significant Core regions in the last 200 years British, maritime, world system Japan, seaborne trade, British model America, continental, version of the British world system Germany, technical, world system (source: Jingwei Tang, wikipedia) Question: what s about Soviet Union and Russia, China, India, Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Brazil? 15

18 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The World System Theory Critical comments Peter J. Hugill introduced the argument of technology as the motor of capitalist development, since Wallerstein addressed especially the factors of land, raw materials and cheap workforce The German shift from a geographically extensive world system dependent upon long distance trade with a climatically diverse periphery, to a technically intensive world system dependent upon the synthesis of substitutes for biological raw materials fundamentally alters Wallerstein s model. (source: P.J.Hugill, 1988, Structural changes in the core regions of the world economy, cited by Jingwei Tang, wikipedia) Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.2 Theories of development 1 Theory(ies) of Modernization The World System Theory Critical comments Prof. Teibenbacher After World War II, technical intensive world system was solidly established. The technical intensive world system is not as ecologically sound as its land extensive predecessor. Our dependency is now upon the supply and quality of human capital. The means of production have become the research laboratories and the universities, not colonies and cheap labor (Jingwei Tang, wikipedia) Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 GLOBAL STUDIES Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte Universitätsstr. 15/E2, 8010 Graz Telefon: 0316/ graz.at graz.at/globalstudies Globalisierung studieren Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History 16

19 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History Two main stages of growth/times of incorporation : 15 th to 17 th centuries rise of modern world system 18th century and beyond: The great European expansion (industrialization, colonialism, imperialism, globalization) Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History Till the end of 15th century the Europeans didn`t know anything about the Americas, nothing about Australia and about the concrete size and shape of the African or the Asian continent also. The Europeans of the Middle Ages haven`t been really seafarer. The Hanse ships went through the Eastern and Northern Sea, there were ships crossing the Mediterranean Sea between Orient and Okzident and those going on to the North. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History But the Arabian, Indian and Chinese merchants had already crossed the Chinese and the Indian Ocean and met each other and had even reached the Eastern coast of Africa. Thus the great Asian cultures and the Orient (Arabia, India, China) were well connected by maritime trading already during the European Middle Ages. The paths for the European trading since the early Modern Times were already drawn before and by others. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 17

20 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History These networks, which partially reached also Europe via Levante and Venice broke down in the 15 th century due to the Great Plague and the Mongolian expansion a century before. On ethesis say, that tthe Europeans took over the paths, there was a fall of the East before a rise of the West. (Abu Lughod 1989). Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History But these cultures and empires obviously didn`t use their maritime knowlede to conquer each other or to establish larger empires. It was just trading. Thepartial conquering ofindia (Northern part) by Arabs and later Islamic Sultans and then Moguls was a terrestrial one, it followed the very old terrestrian military ways, well known since the days of the Persians, Alexander the Great, long before Christ`s birth, and the Mongols. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History And Europe was also trading with Arabia, India and China via the Near east and the Mediterranean sea. But there was also no trial by the Europeans to conquer these areas. The medieval cruisades had been limited to the area of Palestine or coastal regions along the Mediterranean Sea. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 18

21 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History This situation began to change crucially during the 16th century. It was the time when the rise of the economic, political and military European predominance in the world started, which ended only after World War I ( ). Or, if you want, which has not ended yet and was continued especially by the USA as an European offspring. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History The real difference was, that from now on (16th century) global economic activities were based on and accompanied by the dissemenation of national political and military power over the world. And all that was done by some, partially and especially in comparison with India or China very small European nations. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History And it was not a unified Europe, but a handful of different nations, competing with each other: England France Spain Portugal The Netherlands Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 19

22 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History In the Middle Ages European merchants as global economic actors had been alone, no state stood behind them, partially they were protected as members of an association, a guild like the Hanse. But now the merchants or their associations were supported by the military and political power of their home nations. Nevertheless they could loose this support in competition with other merchants or if their nation has lost a war. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History The background was the new, the modern state. It was interested in his successful merchants because it was interested in his own success. And although we speak about the predominance of economy in recent days of globalization how could that work without the political, economic and military power of nations behind it`s global players? Who else can make and guarantee the framework of rules if not powerful nations or alliances? Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History But we have to be careful when speaking about this first phase of creating an economic world system by the Europeans to serve their own interests. There have been differences we should not let unregarded and differences between strategies and methods among different global players are existing still today. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 20

23 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History There was a difference between the Atlantic area and the Asian area. The Europeans had one main target: India the sub continent and South East Asia. The discovery of the Americas happened by chance, in search for India, and Africa was not yet of interest for the Europeans, exept the western coastal line. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History The Indian area was already known and there had already existed a terrestrial, one way trade from India to Europe via the oriental area, with Arabian merchants as middlemen. But since the midst of the 15th century the coastal oriental areas ( Levante ) fell to the Ottoman Empire which had already conquered parts of South East Europe. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History The Levant Source: wikipedia Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 21

24 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History The line to India has been ripped up now. That cirsumstances and ancient knowledge about the earth as a bll ball were the arguments for Columbus to find a free way to India, to sail to the West, in order to reach India in the East. Also in order to reach India, in the 1480ties the Portuguese sea farer Diaz had already reached the most southern point of Africa. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History So the Spain and the Portuguese were the first who tried to reach India and, furthermore, China. These countries offered luxury goods to Europeans: cotton textiles, silk, spices. Why did the British, the French and the Dutch need decades to follow the Iberians? We don`t really know. Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 Modul 1: Development and Global History 1.3 History Overseas trade by the Spanish and Portuguese Source: Braudel 1986 Institut für Wirtschafts, Sozial und Unternehmensgeschichte, RESOWI E F2 22

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