AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GERMAN LANGUAGE SOURCES ON THE MARIANA ISLANDS

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2 AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GERMAN LANGUAGE SOURCES ON THE MARIANA ISLANDS

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4 An Annotated Bibliography of German Language Sources on the Mariana Islands DIRK H. R. SPENNEMANN Division of Historic Preservation Saipan, CNMI 2004

5 Dirk H. R. Spennemann, 2004 Cataloguing-in-Publication data: An Annotated Bibliography of German Language Sources on the Mariana Islands. / by Dirk H. R. Spennemann Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands : Division of Historic Preservation, v., ill. ; index ISBN LCC Z4741.S* Bibliographies Mariana Islands I. Spennemann, Dirk Heinrich Rudolph (1958 ). II. Title. III. Series. This publication received support from the U. S. National Park Service. The views expressed in this volume, however, do not necessarily reflect those of the U. S. National Park Service or the U. S. Department of the Interior. The Division of Historic Preservation receives federal financial assistance for identification and protection of historic properties. Under Title 6 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Section 504 of the rehabilitation Act of 1973, the U. S. Department of the Interior prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, age, national origin, or handicap in its federally assisted programs. If you believe you have been discriminated against in any program activity, or facility as described above, or if you desire further information, please write to the Office for Equal Opportunity, U. S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C

6 PREFACE THIS PROJECT FOUND ITS GENESIS IN A REQUEST by the Historic Preservation Office of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands to create a compendium of German colonial literature on the Mariana Islands. It was envisaged that as many articles and books on the German colonial period as possible would be copied, indexed and furnished with a summary in English. In that regard the project was similar to a project previously carried out for the Republic of the Marshall Islands in In total, the compendium contains 1588 entries with copied material exceeding 11,400 pages. Its bibliography, together with additions and deletions, forms the foundation for the present publication. The material has been reorganised here into major categories. The bibliography has been generated using ProCite 5.0 for Macintosh. The material for the compendium was collected in December 2001 and January The project was made possible through the cooperation of a number of persons who made their resources or their expertise available: Ms. Jutta Billig (Librarian, Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin); Mr. Lon Bulgrin (CNMI Historic Preservation Office, Saipan); Mr. Alfred Estermann (Librarian, Stadt- und Universitätsbibliothek, Frankfurt am Main); Ms. Anne Heimboldt (Librarian, Museum für Völkerkunde, Hamburg); Peter Junge (Scientific Assistant, Überseemuseum, Bremen); Dr. Antje Kelm (Section Head Oceania, Museum für Völkerkunde, Hamburg); Mr. Karl-Heinz and Ms. Gudrun Möller (Frankfurt); Prof. Dr. Joachim G. Piepke (Director, Anthropos Institut, Sankt Augustin); Ms. Elisabeth Quenstedt (Librarian, Museum für Völkerkunde, Hamburg); Brother Ephrem Rapp (Missionsprokur, Kapuziner Mönche, Münster); Mr. Scott Russell (CNMI Historic Preservation Office, later CNMI Humanities Council, Saipan); Prof. Dr. Schindelbeck (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin); Ms. Eleonore Schmitt (Librarian, Frobenius Institute, Frankfurt); Ms. Marianne Striedter (Librarian, Frobenius Institute, Frankfurt); Ms. Andrea Steffen (Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt); Ms. Angelika Strügel (Librarian, Steyler Missionswissenschaftliches

7 Institut, Sankt Augustin); Dr. Irmtraud Wolke-Renk (Koloniales Bildarchiv, Stadt- und Universitätsbibliothek, Frankfurt am Main). Jane Downing (Albury) commented on an earlier draft of the publication and provided editorial assistance, which is gratefully acknowledged. Genevieve Cabrera (CNMI Historic Preservation Office, Saipan) saw the volume through the production process in Saipan Dirk HR Spennemann Albury, NSW September 2004 iv

8 CONTENTS Preface... iii Contents... v Introduction... 1 Literature Covered... 3 Conventions... 4 Bibliographies... 5 Colonial Germany Colonial Germany German Colonial Life Emigration to the Colonies Germany in the Pacific German Colonial Administration General Colonial Administration Legislation Legal System Administrative Structure Education Infrastructure Development Scientific Research History Pre-German Period (-1886) German Colonial Period ( ) Post-German Period (1914 ) Health and Demography Public Health Specific Diseases and Conditions Food and Nutrition Demography v

9 Natural History General Natural History Geography Geology & Geomorphology Oceanography Climatology Fauna Flora Anthropology Anthropology in General Physical Anthropology Social Anthropology Material Culture Linguistics and Oral Traditions Economy General Economy Commerce Companies Companies Jaluit Gesellschaft Labour Relations Tropical Agriculture and Produce Communications & Shipping Philately Missions Missions General Religious Texts Mission History Appendix Other publications by and about Georg Fritz Author Index Subject Index vi

10 INTRODUCTION ONCE THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA HAD annexed Guam during the Spanish-American war of 1898 and taken the Philippines, the end of the Spanish era in the Pacific was imminent. Germany approached Spain with the proposition to acquire the rest of the Spanish holdings in Micronesia which Spain might retain after the peace settlement with the USA. With the date of 12 February 1899, Germany bought for the sum of 25 million pesetas (then US $4.2 million) the Marianas, with the exception of Guam; the Palau Islands; and the Carolines including the Polynesian atolls of Kapingamarangi and Nukuoro; as well as Enewetok and Ujelang of the Marshalls. On 17 November 1899 at four in the afternoon, the Spanish government formally handed the reigns of administration to the German Governor General of New Guinea, Rudolf von Bennigsen, in a public ceremony at Garapan. The day-to-day management of the Marianas District was placed in the hands of a district administrator, who at the beginning was aided by a chief of police and a medical aide, and initially supported by twelve Indonesian police troops. Over time the number of administrative staff grew, but at no time was the size of the German administration a large one. At the time of the Japanese occupation of Saipan in October 1914, the complement of staff merely comprised a station chief, a deputy station chief, an administrative assistant, a government physician and two German government teachers. Of the German administrators on Saipan, Georg Fritz was the most influential, partly because he was the first and also the longest serving, and partly because he took a personal interest in the islands and its people. In retrospect he was almost solely responsible for shaping the future of the colony. The glow of the newly bought expanse of the Caroline, Palau and Mariana Islands warmed the heart of a nationalistic German public and that of the emperor in particular. Small they might be, these islands of the Inselgebiet (Islands Territory), but the German sphere of influence now covered a large area of the Pacific Ocean. 1

11 Bibliography of German Language Sources on the Mariana Islands Map of the Mariana Islands 2

12 Introduction The first decade of the 20th century saw the publication of many textbooks on the German colonies. The Marianas were included, but only barely. Despite centuries of Spanish occupation, the Marianas were scientifically terra incognita. The early explorers had made some collections and the ruins and latte sites had attracted attention, however many other aspects including the economic side and the natural environment had attracted little research. Elsewhere in German Micronesia, government physicians acted as extension agents for meteorological research institutions and as local collectors for zoological museums. In the Marianas no government doctor existed until When he arrived, Dr. Paul Schnee, with previous experience in Micronesia, was scientifically inclined and published a series of papers on medical phenomena. Fritz, when administrator from , conducted the most extensive ethnographic research carried out to that date. He collected artefacts, noted and photographed latte sites, and speculated about the former use of the monuments. Much of the detail known today about Chamorro culture is a result of Fritz work. In some of his work Fritz was doubtlessly too quick to define and to categorize. His grammar and dictionary of the Chamorro language was criticised, mainly by the son of a settler Hermann Costenoble who was critical of all aspects of his work. Fritz main work Die Chamorro (The Chamorro) was also critisised, as in it Fritz mingled his own observations with those gleaned from the Spanish sources, which leads to confusion. However, Georg Fritz took up many challenges with enthusiasm. For example, he repeatedly collected specimens for the Zoological Museum in Berlin, and while he is mainly known for his work on the Chamorro, he also managed to compile a dictionary and grammar of the Central Carolinian language. In judging his work we need to remember that Fritz was driven by interest, but that he had no formal training in the matter: he was a gifted enthusiast. Beyond the work by Fritz and Schnee little was done. Literature Covered The literature covered in this bibliography encompasses German language sources published before, during and after the period that the Mariana Islands were a German possession. The literature of the pre-german period encompasses early missionary account translations of British voyages, as well as an 1848 call to establish a German colony in Oceania, albeit on New Caledonia. The literature of the immediate pre-german period is very limited, unlike the situation in the Marshall Islands, for example. 3

13 Bibliography of German Language Sources on the Mariana Islands German interests in Micronesia had been concentrated on the Marshalls, and after the partition of Micronesia between Spain and Germany in 1885, German interest in western Micronesia had waned, largely because German trading interests had to withdraw at that time. The purchase of Spanish Micronesia in 1899 led to a flurry of publications, mainly written by Georg Fritz. Literature dealing with the relations with Guam is conspicuously absent, with the exception of items on its economy which were furnished by the German consul in Manila. The loss of the colonies as a result of World War I curtailed the publications on Micronesia. The Marianas were particularly affected insofar as no substantial ethnographic work had been carried out there. The famous German South Seas Expedition to Micronesia ( ), the results of which were published throughout the 1920s and 1930s, had specifically excluded the Marianas because the Chamorro culture was perceived as too acculturated by Spanish influences. In the 1930s the reawakening of German nationalism and the concomitant interest in its former colonies brought about a few publications on the Japanese League of Nations Mandate of Micronesia. Conventions To make the resources more accessible, the German titles of the publications have been translated into English and added into the citation in angular brackets. The titles have been translated as literally as possible. Where required, Anglicised versions of names have been used. For the Chinese place names, modern spelling has been substituted: Jiazhou for Kiautschou and Qingdao for Tsingtau. 4

14 BIBLIOGRAPHIES NO SYSTEMATIC BIBLIOGRAPHIES EXIST. HOWEVER as part of the national fervour over the acquisition of colonies in the late 1890s and early 1900s, the colonial journals provided annual bibliographies [cf 6, 10] which were compiled into small separate publications [cf 4, 19]. Publishers, such as Wilhelm Süsserott, commenced colonial series, and book sellers issued special catalogues on colonial literature [cf 21]. The resurgence of German nationalism and the increased clamour for a restitution of colonies to Germany in the mid 1930s led to the compilation of select bibliographies [cf 1, 29] some of which were compiled by the Nazi Ministry of Propaganda [3]. 1. Anon Die deutschen Kolonien. Ein Bücherverzeichnis. [The German colonies. A list of publications]. Leipzig: Institut für Leser- und Schrifttumskunde. Roneographed publication listing key publications dealing with the German colonies. The section on the South Seas is limited. 2. Anon Kolonialkunde und Kolonialpolitik. Ein Führer durch das Kolonial- Schrifttum der Ernst-Abbe-Bücherei und Lesehalle zu Jena. [Colonial knowledge and colonial politics. A guide to the colonial literature held by the Ernst-Abbe-Library and reading room in Jena]. Jena: Ernst-Abbe-Bücherei und Lesehalle zu Jena. Annotated, but selective bibliography listing key publications dealing with the German colonies. The section on the South Seas is limited. 3. Anon Kolonial-Schrifttum. [Colonial Publications]. München: Werbe und Beratungsamt für das deutsche Schrifttum. Bibliography of selected publications relating to the German colonies, compiled by the Nazi Ministry for Propaganda. 5

15 Bibliography of German Language Sources on the Mariana Islands 4. Brose, Maximilian Die deutsche Kolonialitteratur von [The German colonial literature for 1884 to 1895]. Berlin: Otto Elsner. Bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 5. Brose, Maximilian Die deutsche Koloniallitteratur im Jahre [The German colonial literature for 1884 to 1895]. Koloniales Jahrbuch 10, pp Annual bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 6. Brose, Maximilian Die deutsche Koloniallitteratur im Jahre [The German colonial literature for 1897]. Koloniales Jahrbuch 11, pp Annual bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 7. Brose, Maximilian Die deutsche Koloniallitteratur im Jahre [The German colonial literature for 1898]. Koloniales Jahrbuch 12, pp Annual bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 8. Brose, Maximilian Literaturverzeichnis über die Karolinen, Palau und Marianen Inseln. [List of literature pertaining to the Carolines, Palau and Marianas]. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 16, nº 26, pp Background document compiling accessible literature on the newly acquired colonies. The entries are listed, but not annotated. 9. Brose, Maximilian Literaturverzeichnis über die Karolinen, Palau und Marianen. [Literature list on the Carolines, Palau and the Marianas]. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 16, nº 27, pp Background document compiling accessible literature on the newly acquired colonies. 10. Brose, Maximilian Literaturverzeichnis über die Karolinen-, Palau- und Marianen-Inseln. [Register of literature on the Caroline-, Palau- and Mariana Islands]. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 16, nº 27, pp Bibliography of selected publications relating to the recently acquired German Micronesia. 11. Brose, Maximilian Die deutsche Koloniallitteratur im Jahre [The German colonial literature for 1898]. Beiträge zur Kolonialpolitik und Kolonialwirtschaft Sonderheft, pp Annual bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 6

16 Bibliographies 12. Brose, Maximilian Neue koloniale Bücher und Aufsätze. [New books and articles on the colonies]. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 17, nº 41, p Bibliography of selected publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 13. Brose, Maximilian Die deutsche Koloniallitteratur im Jahre [The German colonial literature for 1900]. Beiträge zur Kolonialpolitik und Kolonialwirtschaft Sonderheft, pp Annual bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 14. Brose, Maximilian Die deutsche Koloniallitteratur im Jahre [The German colonial literature for 1901]. Beiträge zur Kolonialpolitik und Kolonialwirtschaft Sonderheft, pp Annual bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 15. Brose, Maximilian Die deutsche Koloniallitteratur im Jahre [The German colonial literature for 1902]. Beiträge zur Kolonialpolitik und Kolonialwirtschaft Sonderheft, pp Annual bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 16. Brose, Maximilian Die deutsche Koloniallitteratur im Jahre [The German colonial literature for 1903]. Beiträge zur Kolonialpolitik, Kolonialrecht und Kolonialwirtschaft Sonderheft, pp Annual bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 17. Brose, Maximilian Verzeichnis der von der Deutschen Kolonialgesellschaft in den Jahren 1884 bis 1904 herausgegebenen Schriften und Karten. [Register of the publications and maps published by the German Colonial Society 1884 to 1904]. Zeitschrift für Kolonialpolitik, Kolonialrecht und Kolonialwirtschaft 7, pp Bibliography of publications by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German Colonial Society). 18. Brose, Maximilian Die deutsche Koloniallitteratur im Jahre [The German colonial literature for 1904]. Beiträge zur Kolonialpolitik, Kolonialrecht und Kolonialwirtschaft Sonderheft, pp Annual bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 7

17 Bibliography of German Language Sources on the Mariana Islands 19. Brose, Maximilian Die deutsche Koloniallitteratur im Jahre [The German colonial literature for 1905]. Beiträge zur Kolonialpolitik, Kolonialrecht und Kolonialwirtschaft Sonderheft, pp Annual bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 20. Brose, Maximilian Die deutsche Koloniallitteratur im Jahre [The German colonial literature for 1906]. Beiträge zur Kolonialpolitik, Kolonialrecht und Kolonialwirtschaft Sonderheft, pp Annual bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 21. Halem, G. A. von Deutscher Kolonialkatalog. Ein Verzeichnis neuerer und älterer Schriften über die deutschen Schutzgebiete. [German Colonial Catalogue. A catalogue of recent and older publications about the German protectorates]. Bremen: Exportbuchhandlung G. A. v. Halem. A catalogue of a bookseller specialising in exporting books to German possessions overseas and in disseminating in Germany and Europe those publications printed in the German colonies. This catalogue gives a good insight into which publications were deemed worth reading. 22. Henoch, Hubert Die deutsche Koloniallitteratur im Jahre [The German colonial literature for 1907]. Beiträge zur Kolonialpolitik, Kolonialrecht und Kolonialwirtschaft Sonderheft, pp Bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 23. Henoch, Hubert Die deutsche Koloniallitteratur im Jahre [The German colonial literature for 1908]. Beiträge zur Kolonialpolitik, Kolonialrecht und Kolonialwirtschaft Sonderheft, pp Bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 24. Henoch, Hubert Die deutsche Koloniallitteratur im Jahre [The German colonial literature for 1909]. Berlin: Deutsche Kolonial-Gesellschaft. Bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 25. Henoch, Hubert Die deutsche Koloniallitteratur im Jahre [The German colonial literature for 1910]. Berlin: Deutsche Kolonial-Gesellschaft. Bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 8

18 Bibliographies 26. Henoch, Hubert Die deutsche Koloniallitteratur im Jahre [The German colonial literature for 1911]. Berlin: Deutsche Kolonial-Gesellschaft. Bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 27. Henoch, Hubert Die deutsche Koloniallitteratur im Jahre [The German colonial literature for 1912]. Berlin: Deutsche Kolonial-Gesellschaft. Bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 28. Henoch, Hubert Die deutsche Koloniallitteratur im Jahre [The German colonial literature for 1913]. Berlin: Deutsche Kolonial-Gesellschaft. Bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to foreign colonies. 29. Mai, Richard Auslanddeutsche Quellenkunde [Bibliography of Germans Overseas ]. Berlin: Weidmannsche Buchhandlung. Bibliography of publications relating to the German colonies as well as selected publications relating to Germans living in South America and foreign colonies. The bulk of the references deal with post-world War II items (such as the German settlements in Southwest Africa, now Namibia) and have little relevance to Micronesia. Some items listed deal with the Japanese occupation of the former German Islands Territory. The references to Germans living overseas give insight into the development of post-world War I German emigration. 9

19 Bibliography of German Language Sources on the Mariana Islands 10

20 COLONIAL GERMANY THERE IS A SUBSTANTIAL BODY of literature on the nature of the German colonial ambitions and their manifestations in the individual colonies. Much of the reflective literature on German colonialism was published from the 1970s onwards and is outside the scope of this bibliography. Included here are sources dating from the turn of the 20th century extolling the value of the colonies for Germany [cf. 36, 45]. There is a large body of overviews of the German colonial empire, written for the general public [cf 40, 41, 46, 51, 59] as well as for schools [cf 57]. German Micronesia and the Marianas in particular, usually feature only marginally, with most of the emphasis placed on the possessions in Africa. The outbreak of World War I and the loss of the colonies was widely chronicled [cf 116, 119, 122]. Obituaries of key colonial staff are also included [cf 106, 107, 109, 147]. The literature of the 1930s discusses the loss of the colonies during World War I [cf 49, 50, 135] and the need to regain the colonies mainly because of their economic importance [cf 55, 132, 133, 139, 143, 152]. Other authors commented on the inadvisability of regaining colonies [33, 35] and the German South Seas colonies in particular. Some of these date from as early as 1915 [137]. There is a body of publications promoting emigration into the colonies, particularly statistics on actual immigration inquiries [cf 77, 84, 105], but also works discussing the opportunities for settlers and trades people [32, 43]. There are only a few sources that detail the actual life of administrators and settlers in the German Pacific colonies, and none for the Marianas. Included here are reminiscences of administrators and priests [cf 70, 72]. German women were in short supply in most of the Pacific colonies [71]. So, not surprisingly, there are only few accounts of their lives and tribulations. There are accounts from the Marshall Islands [62, 64], and New Guinea [75], as well as examples of cook books written by women in Micronesia for colonial women [63, 65, 67]. 11

21 Bibliography of German Language Sources on the Mariana Islands Colonial Germany 30. Anon Max Prager. [Max Prager (Obituary)]. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 27, nº 4, p. 60. Died 2 January 1910, had been assistant of the Deutsche Seewarte (German Hydrographic Office) and other of relevant publications. 31. Buchhorn, Josef Die deutschen Kolonien. [The German colonies]. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 27, nº 49, pp Book review. 32. Deeken, Richard Die Auswanderung nach den deutschen Kolonien unter Berücksichtigung der wirtschaftlichen und klimatischen Verhältnisse. [The emigration to the German colonies with respect to the economic and climatic conditions]. Berlin: Wilhelm Süsserott. Discussion of the economic potential of the colonies. The South Sea colonies are described as climatically and economically extremely suitable (in particular Samoa where the author has personal experiences). A costing for the establishment of a plantation is included, as well as passage costs to the various colonies. 33. Fritz, Georg Romantische und nüchterne Kolonialpolitik. [Romanticised and realistic politics for the Colonies]. Berlin: Alldeutscher Verband. In this treatise Fritz reviews the history of various approaches to colonial policy. He discusses the rationale for having colonies and argues that only African colonies would be suitable for German settlement. In view of the naval situation, the maintenance of African colonies would require either the development of a substantial fleet capable of opposing England, or a treaty with England which would provide security for the German colonies in the absence of a German navy. Fritz comments on Eastern Europe as a colonial area for the German People, drawing on historic precedents. Comments on the relative position of the Slavic race are included. [Included here because of Fritz prior involvement in the Marianas]. 34. Fritz, Georg Romantische und nüchterne Kolonialpolitik. [Romanticised and realistic politics for the Colonies]. 2nd ed. Berlin: Alldeutscher Verband. Reprint of the previous item. 35. Fritz, Georg Kolonien? Das koloniale Schicksal der deutschen Volkes geschichtlich als Lehre politisch als Aufgabe. [Colonies? The colonial fate of the German people historically a lesson politically a mandate]. Berlin: Zentral-Verlag. Review of Germany s involvement in colonies. Reviews the Germanic history of colonisation since the beginning of time, with detailed discussion of the colonisation of the east. The overseas colonialism is criticised, arguing that Germans are primarily an agrarian people. 12

22 Colonial Germany Argues that there is little room for a new push for colonies, as this would be detrimental to the development of the German nation. Any colonisation and expansion should occur in eastern Europe. Heavily steeped in Nazi ideology. [Included here because of Fritz prior involvement in the Marianas]. 36. Gayl, Freiherr von Ein Vierteljahrhundert deutscher Kolonialgeschichte. [A quarter century of German colonial history]. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 30, nº 24, pp Historical retrospective on 25 years of German colonial policy, commenting on the peaceful acquisition of the colonial possessions (ie not through war from other European powers). The paper stresses the economic orientation of the colonial movement and the value of the colonies for the German economy. The increasing settlement of Germans in the colonies as well as the role of the German schools in shaping the future of the colonies is stressed. 37. Helfferich, D Am Scheidewege der Weltpolitik. [At the crossroads of world politics]. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 24, nº 1, pp Discussion paper providing a justification for the maintenance of colonies by outlining the economic value of the colonies for Germany and the need to maintain an active colonial policy. Written in response to a growing crisis in German political circles on whether colonies should be maintained. 38. Hoffmann, Edler von Kolonial- und Überseepolitik, Heer und Flotte. [Colonial and overseas policy, army and navy]. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 26, nº 44, pp A discussion on the role of the German army and navy in the protection of the German colonies against enemies both outside and within. Discusses the financial implications of maintaining a fleet and the political implications of not having one. 39. Karstedt-Steglitz, Dr Der Krieg und die deutschen Kolonien. [The war and German Colonies, compiled on request of the German Colonial Society]. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 31, nº 33, pp Review of the first three months of World War I with respect to the outcomes in the German colonies. Provides a brief overview on the Australian capture of German New Guinea (and the limited state of information, most of which was gleaned from British and Japanese sources). The account of the New Guinea campaign extols German efforts, which are incorrectly assessed. The capture of Nauru through British/Australian forces is mentioned. It is assumed that Palau is also occupied by British forces, whereas information on the nature of the occupation of Yap is reported as conflicting. Japan occupied all other islands of Micronesia by October Reputedly Japan had sent a Governor and 80 staff to the Marianas. 500 Japanese settlers were also on the way. The item also quotes a claim made in a German newspaper that the Sokeh s rebellion on Pohnpei was facilitated by illegal weapon sales by Japanese traders. 40. Krüger, Karl A Die deutschen Kolonien. Erdkundliche Umrisse und Characterbilder von unseren überseeischen Schutzgebieten. [The German colonies. Geographical outlines and character sketches of our overseas protectorates]. Danzig: A. W. Kasemann. Brief physical and economic geography of the Marianas. 13

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