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1 Inhalt Content Internationale Zeitschrift für Kernenergie 5 Mai 2012 Offizielles Fachblatt der Kerntechnischen Gesellschaft A. Petersen 303 Grußworte zur R. Güldner Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 2012 in Stuttgart Content in brief 306 Fukushima Daiichi waste water treatment scenario (from June to September 2011) (Seite 308) T. Prevost 308 Areva s Actiflo TM -Rad M. Blase Wasserbehandlungssystem für das H. Paillard Kernkraftwerk Fukushima H. Mizuno Areva s Actiflo TM -Rad Water Treatment System for the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant W. Timpf 313 Lastwechselfähigkeiten von M. Fuchs Kernkraftwerken Erfahrungen und Ausblick The Load Follow Capability of Nuclear Power plants Experience and Outlook Ausschnitte des hybriden Rechengitters (Seite 322) F. Blömeling 318 CFD-Analysen in Aufsichts- und P. Pandazis Genehmigungsverfahren A. Schaffrath CFD Analyses in Regulatory Practice J.-U. Klügel 325 Risikobeurteilung komplexer Unfallszenarien Risk Assessment of Complex Accident Scenarios C. Bühler 331 Sicherheitsanalytik für den Einsatz neuer digitaler Sicherheits-Leittechniksysteme Safety Analysis for the Use of New Digital Safety I&C Systems Cover: Inspection of an emergency diesel generator at the Santa María de Garoña NPP in Spain. The current license for the 466 MWe gross boiling water reactor will expire in According to a new safety review of the facility in 2012 by the Spanish safety authority CSN, the plant should operate for further 10 licensed years until 2019 (Courtesy: Nuclenor) H. Bienia 337 Brennilis Erster Einsatz von Th. Noll Industrierobotern für den Rückbau eines französischen Kernkraftwerks Brennilis First Use of Industrial Robots in the Demolition of a French Nuclear Power Plant 304 atw 57. Jg. (2012) Heft 5 Mai

2 International Journal for Nuclear Power Inhalt Content H. Völzke 343 Aktuelle Entwicklungen auf dem Gebiet G. Nieslony der Behälter-Bauartprüfungen für das V. Noack Endlager KONRAD P. Hagenow Current Developments in Container O. Kovacs Design Testing for the Konrad Repository K. Büttner 347 Alternative Lösungen für Abfallbehandlungszentren bei Neubauten von Kernkraftwerken (russischen Typs) Alternative Solutions for Waste Management Centres Designed for New Nuclear Power Plants Under Construction (Russian Type NPPs) Unfallmodell nach Bowtie (Seite 326) Redaktion 350 Tagungsbericht: Endlagerexperten trafen sich in Essen Reges Interesse am 1. Fachgespräch Endlagerbergbau von DMT und GNS Conference Report: Repository Experts Met in Essen Keen Interest in the 1st Technical Discussion of Repository Mining Organized by DMT and GNS Redaktion 352 Kernenergie Online: Forschungsreaktoren Nuclear Power On line: Research Reactors Impressum 353 Roboter mit Werkzeugmagazinen links und oberhalb der Türöffnung zum Reaktorraum (Seite 342) Nachrichten 353 Marktdaten 365 Veranstaltungshinweise 367 KTG-Mitteilungen 369 DAtF-Mitteilungen 370 Brüdenverdichter-Verdampfer der Firma LOFT (Seite 349) atw 57. Jg. (2012) Heft 5 Mai 305

3 Content in brief Areva s Actiflo TM -Rad Water Treatment System for the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (Page 308) T. Prevost, M. Blase, H. Paillard and H. Mizuno In the wake of the March 11 th 2011 earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent flooding of several of the Fukushima Daiichi reactor units, Japan and the Japanese utility Tepco faced a crisis situation with incredible challenges. Sea water and later desalted sea water used for open circuit post-accident reactor cooling accumulated in the basements of four reactor buildings as well as in the basements of the turbine buildings on the site. The water had been heavily contaminated due to the fact that it had been in contact with molten fuel assemblies in the reactor cores. The water from flooding and subsequent cooling needed to be collected, along with rainwater. Despite the use of additional water storage systems brought to the site, a shortage of water storage capacity was expected in a 3-month timeframe, especially in view of the coming rain season in Japan. The overall water inventory was estimated at around 110,000 tons with a contamination up to the order of 1 Ci/l ( Bq/l). To avoid an over-flow of highly contaminated water into the sea Tepco envisaged establishing a water treatment system. This article focuses on the Actiflo -Rad water treatment project implemented by Areva as part of the Tepco general water treatment scheme. It presents a detailed look at the functional principle of the Actiflo -Rad process, related on-the-fly research and development, an explanation of system implementation challenges and a brief summary of operation results. The Load Follow Capability of Nuclear Power plants Experience and Outlook (Page 313) W. Timpf and M. Fuchs The notion that nuclear power plants are unflexible machines that cannot be operated in load-following mode has constantly been spread by anti-nuclear activists over the last years. But actually, the opposite is true. Nuclear Power Plants are able to adjust their power output over a wide range within a short period of time. High power flexibility was already implemented into the original design of German nuclear power plants from the very beginning. In the past, nuclear power plants demonstrated their load-following capability for decades in practice. But for many years, there was no economic incentive and no technical need to make use of this capability and thus, it was almost forgotten. The situation has changed due to the development of renewable energies. Fluctuations in the offer from volatile energy sources will cause an increasing need for the flexibility of the power plant fleet. Just recently, nuclear power plants were employed to balance fluctuations in wind energy production. Since nuclear power plants are highly flexible and do not emit any carbon-dioxide, they are ideal partners of the renewable energies. CFD Analyses in Regulatory Practice (Page 318) F. Blömeling, P. Pandazis and A. Schaffrath Numerical software is used in nuclear regulatory procedures for many problems in the fields of neutron physics, structural mechanics, thermal hydraulics etc. Among other things, the software is employed in dimensioning and designing systems and components and in simulating transients and accidents. In nuclear technology, analyses of this kind must meet strict requirements. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes were developed for computing multidimensional flow processes of the type occurring in reactor cooling systems or in containments. Extensive experience has been accumulated by now in selected single-phase flow phenomena. At the present time, there is a need for development and validation with respect to the simulation of multi-phase and multi-component flows. As insufficient input by the user can lead to faulty results, the validity of the results and an assessment of uncertainties are guaranteed only through consistent application of so-called Best Practice Guidelines. The authors present the possibilities now available to CFD analyses in nuclear regulatory practice. This includes a discussion of the fundamental requirements to be met by numerical software, especially the demands upon computational analysis made by nuclear rules and regulations. In conclusion, 2 examples are presented of applications of CFD analysis to nuclear problems: Determining deboration in the condenser reflux mode of operation, and protection of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) against brittle failure. Risk Assessment of Complex Accident Scenarios (Page 325) J.-U. Klügel The use of methods of risk assessment in accidents in nuclear plants is based on an old tradition. The first consistent systematic study is considered to be the Rasmussen Study of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC, WASH Above and beyond the realm of nuclear technology, there is an extensive range of accident, risk and reliability research into technical-administrative systems. In the past, it has been this area of research which has led to the development of concepts of safety precautions of the type also introduced into nuclear technology (barrier concept, defense in depth, single-failure criterion), where they are now taken for granted as trivial concepts. Also for risk analysis, nuclear technology made use of methods (such as event and fault tree analyses) whose origins were outside the nuclear field. One area in which the use of traditional methods of probabilistic safety analysis is encountering practical problems is risk assessment of complex accident scenarios in nuclear technology. A definition is offered of the term "complex accident scenarios" in nuclear technology. A number of problems are addressed which arise in the use of traditional PSA procedures in risk assessment of complex accident scenarios. Cases of complex accident scenarios are presented to demonstrate methods of risk assessment which allow robust results to be obtained even when traditional techniques of risk analysis are maintained as a matter of principle. These methods are based on the use of conditional risk metrics. Safety Analysis for the Use of New Digital Safety I&C Systems (Page 331) C. Bühler Age-induced replacement or modernization of safety I&C systems by digital equipment technology has been one of the topical subjects in nuclear technology for more than a decade. Digital equipment technology in this case means microcontroller- or microprocessorbased systems which implement I&C functions in software (SW) and, on the other hand, systems with programmed hardware (HW) components, such as Application-specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC), Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) or Programmable Logic Devices (PLS), which can be developed only by means of sophisticated SW development environments. The switch to digital equipment technology is more than a mere change in equipment technology even though the I&C functions remain almost identical in most cases. The switch not only leads to a different approach in equipment qualification, but also requires new focal points in plant design when it comes to assessing plant design, and needs new or adapted methods of analysis and evaluation. The main reason lies in the greater possibilities of systematic errors caused mainly by software-based development, manufacture and maintenance. New and adapted methods of analysis and evaluation for I&C atw Vol. 57 (2012) No. 5»atomwirtschaft-atomtechnik«is published monthly by INFORUM GmbH, Robert-Koch-Platz 4, Berlin, Germany phone fax Publisher: Editorial: atw 57. Jg. (2012) Heft 5 Mai

4 Content in brief systems are presented and explained. It is safe to say that safety I&C technology in the highest category of requirements necessitates a very far reaching realignment in design and evaluation as well as the use of new analytical techniques. This meets the claim of an I&C technology fit for use, reliable and comparable to the technology it replaces. Brennilis First Use of Industrial Robots in the Demolition of a French Nuclear Power Plant (Page 337) H. Bienia and Th. Noll A share of approx. 80 % nuclear electricity makes France the country with the world's largest proportion of nuclear electricity. A considerable number of French plants were commissioned more than 30 years ago. At the present time, 58 nuclear power plants out of this population are in operation, twelve have already been decommissioned and are about to be, or are being, demolished. France thus is one of the most interesting and most dynamic countries as far as future demolition projects are concerned. Current demolition projects in France have a kind of model or pilot character for the future French demolition strategy and are under particularly close supervision and inspection by the operator, Electricité de France. One of these projects is the current demolition of the CO 2 -cooled heavy water reactor (EL 4) of Brennilis in Brittanny which was decommissioned in Demolition of the reactor, its primary system and ancillary systems is handled by a Franco-German consortium composed of ONET Technologies Grands Projets, France, and NUKEM Technologies, Germany. Because of the special design features of the Brennilis reactor and the boundary conditions this created, it was not possible in many cases to transfer directly German demolition techniques. The demolition technique adopted is based on the use of remotely operated robot systems not only performing disassembly but, step by step, also building up infrastructure of their own in the reactor compartment as demolition progresses. Besides the special technical features and challenges arising in this project there are also differences in licensing regulations and cultural differences which play a major role. The report concludes with a brief summary of experience accumulated. Current Developments in Container Design Testing for the Konrad Repository (Page 343) H. Völzke, G. Nieslony, V. Noack, P. Hagenow and O. Kovacs In 2002, the Konrad repository was licensed as a repository for radioactive waste generating no heat. That permit subsequently became the object of litigation and was confirmed by a court of last resort as late as in The Federal Office of Radiation Protection (BfS) then started planning and converting the former iron ore mine into a repository. The licensed repository volume is 303,000 m 3 based on estimates of expected waste arisings. The mine proper would offer a much larger volume. However, cask emplacement can be started only after completion of the repository which, according to the present status, will not be before the end of this decade. Nevertheless, there is great interest even now in conditioning and packaging for repository storage of the radioactive waste planned for Konrad, which also requires casks type tested by the Federal Institute of Materials Testing (BAM) and approved by the BfS. The key items in the license for the repository are comprehensive requirements to be met by waste forms and casks. As far as continuous revision of repository requirements and consideration of materials hazardous to water are concerned, it is assumed that the key requirements applying to type tests of casks with respect to waste forms and casks will be affected by this either not at all or only very slightly. Alternative Solutions for Waste Management Centres Designed for New Nuclear Power Plants Under Construction (Russian Type NPPs) (Page 347) K. Büttner Today, designers of new VVER reactors as well as companies operating Russian NPP favour direct methods of waste management for treating wastes of different categories generated during plant operation. The objective is to achieve the amount of 50 m 3 of conditioned waste per 1 reactor unit per year, which is currently being discussed internationally. NUKEM Technologies has reviewed the existing waste management concepts and proposed improved waste management technologies. The first step was to identify the waste prevention policies. The waste management concept focuses on subjecting different liquid wastes to different treatment methods. Another objective was to minimise the organic content in conditioned waste. The treatment methods for solid radioactive waste include high force compaction and incineration. The new concept also features a tracking system which is used for classifying the incoming waste and ensuring its traceable documentation at different stages throughout the entire treatment process. Additionally, each waste package prepared for final storage is monitored before it leaves the treatment building and provided with an individual certificate containing all data about the treated waste including its radiological characteristics and the place of storage. Conference Report: Repository Experts Met in Essen Keen Interest in the 1st Technical Discussion of Repository Mining Organized by DMT and GNS (Page 350) The Editor In mid-march 2012, more than 200 participants met at the Essen technology service provider's, DMT GmbH & Co. KG, for the 1 st Essen Technical Discussion of Repository Mining. In cooperation with GNS Gesellschaft für Nuklear-Service mbh of Essen, DMT had invited to a lecture event about this very topical subject. A new platform was to be created for exchanges of experience and discussions with colleagues in the field and with representatives of the competent authorities of the federal and state administrations. The 5 lectures presented by Georg Arens (Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety BMU), Dr. Ute Blohm Hieber (Nuclear Power, Transport, Demolition and Waste Management Unit of the EU Commission DG ENER-D.2), Matthias Ranft (Federal Office of Radiation Protection BfS), Wilhelm Bollingerfehr (DBE Technology), and Dr. Philipp Birkhäuser (Nationale Genossenschaft für die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfälle Nagra, Switzerland) discussed both national German and European as well as international topics and aspects of final storage of radioactive waste. Nuclear Power On line: Research Reactors (Page 352) The Editor Presentation of these contents in the World Wide Web (WWW): Forschungsreaktoren MMM (Research Reactors MMM): Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier- Leibnitz FRM II: TRIGA Mainz: Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin BER-II: www. helmholtz-berlin.de/zentrum/grossgeraete/ber2/index_de.html atw Vol. 57 (2012) No. 5»atomwirtschaft-atomtechnik«is published monthly by INFORUM GmbH, Robert-Koch-Platz 4, Berlin, Germany phone fax Publisher: Editorial: atw 57. Jg. (2012) Heft 5 Mai 307

5 Water Treatment System for Fukushima Als Folge des Erdbebens und des Tsunamis am 11. März 2011 wurden mehrere der Reaktorblöcke des Kernkraftwerks Fukushima Daiichi überflutet. Japan und der japanische Betreiber Tepco sahen sich daraufhin einer Krisensituation mit unglaublichen Herausforderungen gegenüber. Meerwasser und später entsalztes Wasser, das in einem offenen Kreislauf zur Reaktorkühlung im Störfall verwendet wurde, sammelte sich in den Untergeschossen von 4 Reaktorgebäuden sowie den Maschinenhäusern am Standort. Dieses Wasser war stark kontaminiert, da es in Kontakt mit den geschmolzenen Brennelementen in den Reaktorkernen stand. Das Wasser aus der Überflutung und der anschließenden Kühlung musste, zusammen mit Regenwasser, gesammelt werden. Trotz der Nutzung zusätzlicher Speicher war ein Engpass bei der Wasserspeicherung innerhalb von 3 Monaten zu erwarten, insbesondere im Hinblick auf die kommende Regenzeit in Japan. Das gesamte Wasserinventar wurde auf rund t geschätzt, mit einer Kontamination bis zur Größenordnung von 1 Ci/l (3, Bq/l). Um ein Überlaufen dieses hoch kontaminierten Wassers in das Meer zu verhindern, sah Tepco vor, ein Wasseraufbereitungssystem einzusetzen. Dieser Beitrag berichtet über das von Areva durchgeführte Actiflo TM -Rad-Wasseraufbereitungsprojekt als Teil des allgemeinen Wasseraufbereitungsschemas von Tepco. Detailliert wird über das Funktionsprinzip des Actiflo TM -Rad-Prozesses sowie die durchgeführte kurzfristige Forschung und Entwicklung informiert. Die Herausforderungen bei der Systemimplementierung werden zusammengefasst und die Betriebsergebnisse vorgestellt. Areva s Actiflo TM -Rad Water Treatment System for the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Thierry Prevost and Michael Blase, Paris/France, Herve Paillard, Saint Maurice/France, and Hisamatsu Mizuno, Tokyo/Japan Introduction In the wake of the March 11 th 2011 earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent flooding of several of the Fukushima Daiichi reactor units, Japan and the Japanese utility Tepco faced a crisis situation with incredible challenges. Sea water and later desalted sea water used for open circuit post-accident reactor cooling accumulated in the basements of 4 reactor buildings as well as in the basements of the turbine buildings on the site. The water had been heavily contaminated due to the fact that it had been in contact with molten fuel assemblies in the reactor cores. The water from flooding and subsequent cooling needed to be collected, along with rainwater. Despite the use of additional water storage systems brought to the site, a shortage of water storage capacity was expected in a 3-month timeframe, especially in view of the coming rain season in Japan. The overall water inventory was estimated at around 110,000 tons with a contamination up to the order of 1 Ci/l ( Bq/l). To avoid an over-flow of highly contaminated water into the sea Tepco envisaged establishing a water treatment system. The schedule had been extremely challenging: Design, installation and commissioning of the system were to be realised within less than 3 months. Global treatment scheme defined by Tepco Tepco decided to implement a water treatment system which will be able to decontaminate and to recycle the bulk of the water used for cooling of the reactors with a throughput of 50 m 3 /h, i.e. 1,200 m 3 /d. For this purpose Tepco requested a multi stage treatment process (Figure 1) to handle the radioactive water consisting of: Anschriften der Verfasser: Thierry Prevost and Michael Blase AREVA NC 1, place Jean Miller Paris la Défense France Herve Paillard Veolia Water 1 B, rue Giovanni Battista Pirelli Saint Maurice France Hisamatsu Mizuno Veolia Water Japan Yokoso Rainbow Tower 11F, Kaigan, Minato-Ku Tokyo Japan Fig. 1. Fukushima Daiichi waste water treatment scenario (from June to September 2011). 308 atw 57. Jg. (2012) Heft 5 Mai

6 Water Treatment System for Fukushima de-oiling pre-treatment decontamination desalinization. The de-oiling stage had been supplied by Toshiba, the pre-treatment stage based on a Cs adsorption on zeolite by Kurion and the decontamination based on a co-precipitation by Areva in co-operation with Veolia (Actiflo TM -Rad system). The first desalinization stage based on reverse osmosis had been realised by Hitachi and the final desalinization stage based on evaporation had been realised partly by Toshiba and partly by Areva in co-operation with Veolia (supply of 3 evaporators with an overall throughput of 100 m 3 /d). Fig. 3. Co-precipitation and flocculation principle. ACTIFLO TM -RAD principles and facility layout Fig. 2. Actiflo TM -Rad: Decontamination by co-precipitation. Based on the Areva know-how related to radionuclide precipitation from fuel cycle plants in France, Areva considered the use of the precipitation process for the decontamination of the water. To deal with the high flow capacity requested by Tepco and the narrowness of potential installation areas, Areva selected compact mixer settlers from Veolia instead of a vessel cascade as used in the fuel cycle plants in France. Contaminated water that passed through the pre-treatment stage enters Actiflo TM - Rad, which is a 2-stage process comprising 2 Veolia Water Multiflo TM and Actiflo TM mixer-settlers units (Figure 2). In these units the co-precipitation process developed by Areva is implemented. It is used to decontaminate so that the treated water can enter the desalinization units. The water is mixed with several reagents in pre-contact tanks (2 40 m 3 tanks for each treatment process stage) to capture the different radioactive elements, so that they can be recovered from the solutions. Reagents used at Fukushima Daiichi are nickel ferro cyanide (ppfeni) to adsorb cesium and barium chloride to precipitate strontium as strontium sulfate in a mixed crystal with barium sulfate. The water is then transferred into the mixer-settlers, which comprises four tanks. The first one is the coagulation tank, where the water is mixed with coagulant and undergoes ph adjustment; in a second tank the water can be mixed with micro sand and in a third tank, the maturation tank, the water is mixed with a polymer (Figure 3). All these tanks are mechanically stirred. The solid material settles to the bottom of the fourth tank, the settling tank, while the decontaminated water overflows into storage tanks. A rack of inclined metal plates, called lamella, is used to improve the flocculated material separation from water that flows across the plates. The Actiflo TM -Rad process consists of two stages of mixer settlers including upstream precontact tanks (Figure 4). The system had been implemented in the radwaste building of Fukushima Daiichi, including also other process parts such as e.g. the waste water and waste water retention tanks, treated water, sludge and reagents storage tanks as well as a disc filter (Figure 5 and Figure 6). A part of the auxiliary equipment for the Actiflo -Rad system, namely some of the reagents storage tanks, including pumps, Fig. 4. Two-stage Actiflo TM -Rad process implemented in Fukushima Daiichi. 310 atw 57. Jg. (2012) Heft 5 Mai

7 Water Treatment System for Fukushima Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Layout of the Actiflo TM -Rad unit implemented in Fukushima Daiichi. Actiflo TM -Rad unit during installation in the radwaste building at Fukushima Daiichi. pipes, valves and instrumentation had been installed outside the radwaste building (Figure 7). The sludge had been discharged into a concrete pit below the process area, which had been equipped with an air bubbling to avoid hydrogen accumulation, heat exchangers to remove the decay heat and different pumps for removal of sludge and supernatant water. The reagents storage and injection system had been realised outdoor in front of the radwaste building. Outside the radwaste building also further equipment such as the process ventilation system, air injection system for air bubbling of the pit as well as for flushing the system itself to avoid hydrogen accumulation and the cold water generation system had been installed. Safety related measures had been drawn up with redundancies respectively diversification, e.g. for air bubbling using a compressor and pressurized air cylinders. Schedule for the implementation As with the beginning of the rainy season in Japan, Tepco expected an overflow of contaminated water to the sea by mid of June, the schedule had been extremely challenging. Therefore the highest priority had been to implement a water treatment facility for recycling the treated water for cooling of the reactors. After a corresponding call of the Japanese government on 27 th March (Figure 8), Areva, within days, developed a specific solution for Fukushima Daiichi, combining Areva experience related to precipitation of radionuclides with the Veolia know-how for precipitation of pollutants for conventional industrial waste water. Immediately laboratory tests had been started for process verification. These tests consisted in hot tests at Areva s La Hague site and CEA (Commissariat à l énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives) premises in Marcoule, to assure the performance of the precipitation in the salty water, as well as in cold tests at Veolia premises, where the compatibility of the Areva process with the equipment of Veolia had been assured. Benefit had been taken from the R&D led continuously by CEA and Areva during many years on the precipitation process to decontaminate radioactive liquid effluents. For hot tests Fukushima Daiichi s wastewater had been simulated by mixing seawater with boric acid and fission products from La Hague recycling plant. Tests showed the efficiency of nickel ferro cyanide (ppfeni) and barium chloride reagents to decontaminate cesium and strontium from the salted wastewater. After the feasibility tests, a design optimization R&D was conducted on a large range of wastewater with different characteristics (presence of chloride, high salinity, ph, effluents temperature range from 20 to 60 C) which proved that there was no significant impact on the decontamination factors for cesium and strontium. Collateral benefits i.e. decontamination factors on other radionuclides than cesium and strontium were assessed (Ru ~10; Rh ~10; Eu ~100; Ce ~10; Am ~20; Cm ~2; Ba-140 ~10). The optimal concentration of each reagent in industrial configuration with recycled sludge was determined. It led to an optimization of the sludge quantities by a factor 10 compared to the sludge production in the La Hague tests. The optimal contact time between waste waters and reagents was determined (more than 1 hour) for the design of the unit (leading to the installation of pre-contact tanks). The efficiency of coagulation in the Actiflo TM -Rad process was assessed through jar tests in Veolia laboratories in France and Japan. These tests validated the compatibility of Areva and Veolia reagents and determined the settling speed and the turbidity of supernatant. They proved that a 2-stage Actiflo TM -Rad would achieve a decontamination factor on cesium between 1,000 and 10,000 and a decontamination factor on strontium between 10 and 100. Finally, pilot tests for the validation of the chemical engineering were conducted in atw 57. Jg. (2012) Heft 5 Mai 311

8 Water Treatment System for Fukushima Fig. 7. Actiflo TM -Rad unit: auxiliary equipment during installation outside the radwaste building at Fukushima Daiichi. Areva, Veolia as well as partner JGC (Japanese Gasoline Company, responsible for the installation and commissioning of the Actiflo -Rad system) together with Tepco and partners worked to design an emergency unit, making the most of 3 keywords: robust, simple, and efficient. The ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable) guided the adaptation of Actiflo TM equipment to a nuclear environment: the equipment was modified (e.g. valves were doubled, replaced and/or moved) and shielded to improve the maintainability of the unit and limit the dose rate to workers. Each maintenance operations have been studied individually with maintenance experts from La Hague fuel recycling plant, the goal was to prepare guidelines to operators, and assess the operator dose rate thus defining the minimum amount of radiological shielding. For supervision of commissioning of the system Areva deployed a team of 45 experienced employees to Fukushima Daiichi, supported by staff of Veolia Japan. ACTIFLO TM -RAD operation results to-date Fig. 8. Overall schedule for Actiflo TM -Rad implementation at Fukushima Daiichi. Veolia Kawasaki (Japan) plant on a 1/10 scale model. The technical solution had then been presented on 7 th April to Tepco. During the following period, design and equipment modification had been performed by teams working in Europe and Japan. At Areva, more than 200 engineers had been working in Europe and more than 20 engineers had been in Tokyo, working 7 days a week, to co-ordinate the interfaces with the third parties mentioned above contributing to the project and with Tepco. Schedule was not the only issue: the activity levels of the contaminated water, outside of a crisis situation, would have required the design and construction of a dedicated building for the water treatment, with remote operation and maintenance. Instead the water treatment unit was based on existing Actiflo TM and Multiflo TM units that had to be dismantled from the industrial site where they were used, then modified in Veolia workshops and finally installed in the radwaste building on Fukushima site. This created added complexity in the design and implementation. Water decontamination at Fukushima Daiichi is a success: the highly radioactive water decontamination emergency facility operated by Atox proved essential in Fukushima Daiichi crisis mitigation. It prevented any overflow or non-mastered release of contaminated water to the sea. As of 20 September, 2011 a total of 77,400 tons of highly radioactive water has been decontaminated through the Actiflo TM -Rad unit enabling a closed circuit cooling of the Fukushima Daiichi reactor units and used fuel pools with decontaminated and desalted water (Table 1). The cesium decontamination factor for the Actiflo TM -Rad unit is above Conclusion Tab. 1. Operational results of the water treatment (September 2011). Areva s response to the Fukushima Daiichi crisis was multi-phased: emergency aid and relief supply was sent within days after the 312 atw 57. Jg. (2012) Heft 5 Mai

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