Aerosol Science and Technology: History and Reviews

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1 Aerosol Science and Technology: History and Reviews Edited by David S. Ensor RTI Press

2 2011 Research Triangle Institute. RTI International is a trade name of Research Triangle Institute. All rights reserved. Please note that this document is copyrighted and credit must be provided to the authors and source of the document when you quote from it. You must not sell the document or make a profit from reproducing it. Library of Congress Control Number: ISBN: doi: /rtipress.2011.bk About the Cover The cover depicts an important episode in aerosol history the Pasadena experiment and ACHEX. It includes a photograph of three of the key organizers and an illustration of a major concept of atmospheric aerosol particle size distribution. The photograph is from Chapter 8, Figure 1. The front row shows Kenneth Whitby, George Hidy, Sheldon Friedlander, and Peter Mueller; the back row shows Dale Lundgren and Josef Pich. The background figure is from Chapter 9, Figure 13, illustrating the trimodal atmospheric aerosol volume size distribution. This concept has been the basis of atmospheric aerosol research and regulation since the late 1970s. This publication is part of the RTI Press Book series. RTI International 3040 Cornwallis Road, PO Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, NC USA

3 Chapter 6 The Clean Air Commission of the Austrian Academy of Sciences A Historical Sketch Helmuth Horvath and Othmar Preining Introduction The Clean Air Commission (Kommission für Reinhaltung der Luft), part of the self-organized and independent Austrian Academy of Sciences (Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften), has contributed considerably to the air quality in Austria and its surrounding countries. Although the commission has no legislative power, it has influenced Austria s laws, standards, and regulations concerning air quality. Because the Austrian Academy of Sciences is not involved in politics, it is recognized by all stakeholders as a scientific authority, and evidence produced by the Academy usually is regarded as valid and well examined. The Austrian Academy of Sciences is very similar to other European Academies of Sciences in that it is a learned society. Presently, the Academy has 167 elected members, and it regularly holds plenary sessions where scientific work is presented and officers and new members are elected. The plenary has two sections (Klassen): the Section for Mathematics and the Natural Sciences (Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlicheKlasse) and the Section for the Humanities and the Social Sciences (Philosophisch-historischeKlasse), both of which hold sessions prior to the meeting of the plenary. However, because the Academy represents all sciences and the fields of the two large sections are very broad (e.g., ranging from astronomy to zoology in the case of the Section for Mathematics and the Natural Sciences), neither the plenary meetings nor the section meetings are an appropriate forum for detailed discussion, work, research, or fact finding on a specific scientific subject. To address such issues, the plenary of the Academy establishes commissions (Kommissionen) that conduct scientific work on particular subjects and report the results to the plenary. A commission can be formed

4 124 Part II. Research Institutions ad hoc, finishing its work over a few months before reporting and disbanding, or serve as an ongoing commission, with work conducted continuously and regularly reported to the plenary. The Clean Air Commission is an ongoing commission. The Academy established its first commission, the Commission on Radioactivity (Kommission über Radioaktivität), in 1901; at the time, radioactivity was a new field of science. Ten years later, in 1911, the Academy founded its first research institute, The Institute for Radium Research (Radiuminstitut), which was the first institute in the world devoted exclusively to nuclear research. The institute s researchers won multiple Nobel prizes, and all known pioneers of nuclear research cooperated with and visited the institute. The Founding of the Clean Air Commission When Austria was freed from German occupation in May 1945 at the end of World War II, the allies divided the country into four zones of occupation and restricted traffic (persons and goods) between the zones. As a result, most of Austria s industry was destroyed. After the war, rebuilding Austria was the main task for the Austrian government. However, due to a lack of foreign currency, the government was not able to import the fossil energy necessary to support the rebuilding. To address this lack of supply, local coal mines, which were exhaustively exploited during the war, supplied the urgently needed energy to Austria s residents. During this time, very little attention was paid to the health of miners working in Austria s coal mines, and no attention was paid to the amount of emissions created by industrial polluters. As a result, industrial air pollution, especially from the mining industry, became a serious problem in Austria in the 1950s and early 1960s. In response to this issue, the Austrian government and high-ranking Ministry officers asked individual scientists, mostly members of the Academy, for advice on how to address the country s air quality problem. At the request of Academy member Professor Ferdinand Steinhauser, the Austrian Academy of Sciences created the Clean Air Commission on December 13, 1962, as a multidisciplinary organization to address air quality issues in Austria. Academy members and non-academy members were assigned to serve on the commission. All of the Academy members were department heads at the University of Vienna, with various areas of expertise

5 The Clean Air Commission of the Austrian Academy of Sciences: A Historical Sketch 125 (i.e., F. Hayek, medicine [anatomy]; F. Steinhauser, meteorology; F. Wessely, chemistry; and G. Stetter, physics), and all had research interests in air pollution and its effects on humans. The other (non-academy) members were specialists in environmental issues (J. Schedling, medical physics; G. Wagner, inorganic chemistry). The first chairman of the commission was Professor Georg Stetter; subsequent chairmen were Hanns Malissa, Othmar Preining, and Marianne Popp. Table 1 shows a listing of the chairmen and deputy chairmen of the commission. A listing of the members of the commission and their expertise is provided in Table A-1 Appendix A to this chapter. Table 1. Chairmen of the Clean Air Commission Obmann (chair) Stellvertreter (deputy chair) Period Georg Stetter NA Johann Schedling Hanns Malissa Othmar Preining Othmar Preining Manfred Haider Helger Hauck Marianne Popp Helger Hauck 2003 present An important asset in the investigation of particulate pollution in postwar Austria was the strong background of several physicists in Vienna in the study of ultra-fine aerosols particles. These physicists were former PhD students of Felix Ehrenhaft, a leading physicist at the University of Vienna from the beginning of the 20th century until 1938, when he escaped to the United States. (Dr. Ehrenhaft returned to Vienna in 1947, where he stayed until his death in 1953.) Similar to Robert Millikan in Chicago, Ehrenhaft determined the charge of the electron, but used solid selenium particles instead of oil droplets, which caused additional problems. When illuminated for observation, the selenium particles showed photophoresis (i.e., motion in temperature gradients) and many other effects. These phenomena were analyzed thoroughly, and most of Ehrenhaft s students became specialists in photophoresis or the optical and mechanical problems of particles below diameters of 1 micrometer. Today, this field is called nanoparticle aerosol science.

6 126 Part II. Research Institutions By enabling the collaboration of numerous experts from very diverse fields, the Clean Air Commission was able to bring state-of-the-art knowledge and information to the Academy and, in due course, to agencies, governments, and other authorities involved in environmental research and policy in Austria. Early Challenges for the Clean Air Commission The rapid increase in the number of cars and the boom of industry in Austria in the 1960s led to heavy pollution in the country, which raised the concerns of the Austrian government and environmental ministry. From the mid-1960s onward, the Clean Air Commission started systematic work to address this pollution issue, with analysis by the commission revealing unacceptably high concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) in Austria s narrow city street canyons, as well as high concentrations of particulate matter and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ). One of the commission s first successes was the closure of a narrow city street in the central part of Vienna to through traffic, which reduced the CO concentrations at this location to acceptable levels. To keep the Academy members informed and to maintain contact with cutting-edge researchers, the commission invited internationally known scientists from environmental disciplines, especially aerosol science, to present lectures in Vienna. These lectures occurred at a rate of about two to three per year. Furthermore, the members of the commission engaged in cooperative international activities and participated in international meetings. A brief description of the political structure in Austria is germane. Austria is a federal state, and the Austrian provinces (Bundesländer) have legislative power for clean air regulations. As a result, air quality regulations may be different among neighboring provinces, which can lead to political problems. In addition, the provincial governments are very critical of clean air recommendations made by the federal government and are more apt to accept the science-based recommendations made by the Austrian Academy of Sciences. Since 1968, the Clean Air Commission has organized meetings of the clean air experts of the provinces twice a year (sporadic meetings took place between 1962 and 1967). These meetings provide a forum for discussion of hot topics on air quality and an opportunity for the provinces to exchange information on air quality management experiences. In the 1960s and 1970s, it was difficult for the commission to discuss problems of SO 2 and dust (i.e., aerosols, Total Suspended Particles [TSP]) with

7 The Clean Air Commission of the Austrian Academy of Sciences: A Historical Sketch 127 decision makers due to the lack of air quality information and regulations. To investigate and solve these complex problems, the commission increased its membership and added specialists from agriculture and forestry. In 1975, the Clean Air Commission addressed the problem of high concentrations of SO 2 and provided detailed documentation and recommendations to the respective government agencies for air quality management. As a necessary restriction for the protection of human health, the commission recommended that the daily mean concentrations of SO 2 and TSP should be less than 200 µgm -3. To protect plants, the commission recommended much lower SO 2 concentrations (i.e., 50 µgm -3 during the growing season; 100 µgm -3 during other times of the year). These recommendations were summarized in the 120-page booklet Sulfur Dioxides in the Atmosphere Air Quality Criteria SO 2 (Schwefeldioxide in der Atmosphäre Luftqualitätskriterien SO 2 ; Akadamie der Wissenschaften, 1975). The booklet contains chapters about the effects of SO 2 and TSP concentrations on humans and the environment; information on methods of measurement; recommendations for ambient concentrations; and a literature review. The table of contents of this booklet is provided in Table B-1 of Appendix B. The commission s recommendations for air quality criteria were a big success. Eventually, all large power plants were required to install SO 2 removal devices, sulfur was greatly reduced in heating oil, and the amount of SO 2 in the atmosphere in Austria was reduced. The commission used a similar approach to develop the air quality criteria documents for nitrogen oxides (NO x ). In 1988, the commission published the document Air Quality Criteria Nitrogen Oxides (Stickstoffoxide in der Atmosphäre Luftqualitätskriterien NO 2 ; Akademie der Wissenschaften / Wissenschaftlicher Beirat für Umwelthygiene im Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Jugend und Familie, 1988) and published an update to the document in 1998, Nitrogen Oxides in the Atmosphere: Effects on Humans, Update 1998 (Stickstoffoxide in der Atmosphäre Wirkungen auf den Menschen Neubearbeitung 1998; Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1998). The commission s NO x criteria had an immediate influence on industry. One example of this influence was the update of one of the first European power plants the lignite coal power plant at Köflach with de-noxification technology. This technology was critical because the plant is situated in an air shed where inversions are frequent and the number of days without wind is extremely high.

8 128 Part II. Research Institutions The commission used the same exacting approach to develop the ozone criteria document Photo-oxidants in the Atmosphere: Air Quality Criteria Ozone (Photooxidantien in der Atmosphäre Luftqualitätskriterien Ozon; Akademie der Wissenschaften /Wissenschaftlicher Beirat für Umwelthygiene im Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Jugend und Familie, 1989) and the document Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Air Quality Criteria VOC (Flüchtige Kohlenwasserstoffe in der Atmosphäre Entstehung, Verhalten und Wirkungen, Luftqualitätskriterien VOC; Akademie der Wissenschaften/ Wissenschaftlicher Beirat für Umwelthygiene im Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Jugend und Familie, 1997). Besides addressing the rationale for reducing concentrations and providing measurement and control techniques, the VOC criteria document also addressed indoor exposure issues. The tables of contents of these criteria documents are listed in Tables B-2 to B-5 of Appendix B. In addition to these air quality documents, the commission also investigated the possible consequences of climate change for Austria, and in 1993, completed a 490-page report on this topic, Climate Change, Consequences for Austria (Bestandsaufnahme anthropogene Klimaänderungen: Mögliche Auswirkungen auf Österreich Mögliche Maßnahmen in Österreich, Dokumentation; Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften- KRL, 1992). This report included information on climate models; the effect of climate changes on Austria s hydrology, limnology, and vegetation; and emission sources and recommended actions. The commission continued its broad focus on climate change in 1993 with the document The Scientific Basis for a National Plan for Environmental Protection (NPEP) with Respect to Climate, Air, Odor, and Noise (Umweltwissenschaftliche Grundlagen und Zielsetzungen im Rahmen des Nationalen Umweltplans [NUP] für die Bereiche Klima, Luft, Geruch und Lärm; Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften-KRL, 1994). A decade later, the commission produced the book Guidelines for Rating Indoor Air Quality (Richtlinie zur Bewertung der Innenraumluft; Arbeitkreis Innenraumluft im Bundesministerium für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft; Kommission für Reinhaltung der Luft der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2003), which reported on the evaluation of air quality inside buildings. Again, English translations of the tables of contents of these documents can be found in Tables B-6, B-7, and B-8 of Appendix B, as well as on the home page of the Austrian Clean Air Commission (http://www.oeaw.ac.at/krl/).

9 The Clean Air Commission of the Austrian Academy of Sciences: A Historical Sketch 129 The Austrian Project on the Health Effects of Particulates After many years of studying international literature on the effects of air pollution on humans, the Clean Air Commission used its comprehensive knowledge to initiate a project on the health effects of particulate matter. Using its well-established contacts in Austrian agencies that deal with and regulate air pollution, the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulates (AUPHEP) was started in 1999, with the agencies contributing instruments, data, and financing to the project. The main financing for the project came from the government ministry responsible for the environment. The aim of the AUPHEP was to experimentally investigate the health effects of particulate pollution; such investigations are characterized by size-selective sampling of all size fractions of aerosols, including ultra fines. The project analyzed samples chemically for major inorganic components and for a large number of organic compounds. In addition, the project analyzed gases continuously. One rural and three city sites were studied, and the sampling was conducted at each site for 1 year. The large number of data obtained by the project permitted a medical group to study the effects of particulate pollution on preschool and school-age children and on the elderly population. The AUPHEP was operational from 1999 until 2003 and resulted in many publications. The project s final report was published in 2004, and six papers about the project were published as a special issue of Atmospheric Environment (Volume 38, No. 8 [2004] pages 3905 to 3981). More details about the AUPHEP can be found on the home page of the commission (http://www.oeaw.ac.at/krl/). Other Activities of the Clean Air Commission The members of the Clean Air Commission have expertise in such a wide variety of fields that they are considered experts for all questions related to environmental policy. Members of the commission have been invited to serve on international and national boards, or as representatives of Austria at international conferences and negotiations. Two studies on power plants should be mentioned as examples of the successful, scientifically based work of the commission. The Powerplant Moosbierbaum/Dürnrohr near Vienna was scheduled to be located at the abandoned Moosbierbaum industrial site. Members of the commission were asked to give a scientific evaluation/expert opinion on the environmental impact of the power plant and the expected effects that the plant would have on ambient pollution levels. The commission completed its study on the

10 130 Part II. Research Institutions environmental impact of the power plant in As a result of the study s findings, the coal-fired power plant, which went into operation in 1987, was equipped with desulfurization and denoxification technologies. The commission s expert opinion also was sought for a planned power station at Bildein, which is near the Hungarian border. For this power plant, lignite of inferior quality would have been brought to the power plant via a conveyor belt from Hungary, which would have resulted in a tremendous amount of pollution. The commission s report on the emissions, ambient concentrations, and environmental hygiene of the proposed plant was a critical factor in the decision not to build the plant. Since the 1950s, members of the Clean Air Commission informally have advised high-ranking officers of the Ministries responsible for the environment (these Ministries have had different names over the years). Although the Clean Air Commission has never had any political power, it has sustainably influenced Austrian environmental politics through its strict adherence to scientifically based analyses and recommendations. Starting in 1970, members of the Commission had a seat on the advisory board for the Minister of the Environment, providing up-to-date information on topics related to air quality criteria. In a similar manner, some members of the commission were members of the Austrian CO 2 Commission. The Clean Air Commission members have always used their expertise to provide scientifically up-to-date evaluations of the problems at hand. Being independent scientists, these recommendations sometime contradict political expediency, which can cause friction. In 1985, the Austrian Federation founded the Environment Agency Austria (Umweltbundesamt), which is subject to the directives of the Minister of the Environment. Currently, this new agency serves as the government agency advising the Minister, and the advisory board consisting of the independent scientists of the Clean Air Commission has been immobilized. This experience is similar to situations experienced by advisory boards in other countries. Conclusion Since being founded, the Clean Air Commission has contributed to the development of Austrian environmental policy. The commission has created documents that aid governmental decisions regarding the environment, and the scientific results of commission-based analysis have been published and presented at many international meetings. The coordination of expert

11 The Clean Air Commission of the Austrian Academy of Sciences: A Historical Sketch 131 scientists from very diverse fields and the effective nurturing of contacts in the Ministries and provincial governments is a time-consuming and exhausting job for the chair of the commission. Further information on the Clean Air Commission, as well as cited literature, can be found on the commission s home page at References Akadamie der Wissenschaften. (1975). Schwefeloxide in der Atmosphäre, Luftqualitätskriterien SO 2 [Sulfur Dioxides in the Atmosphere Air Quality Criteria SO 2 ]. (MfGuU [Hrsg.]). Retrieved from ac.at/krl/publikation/index.htm Akademie der Wissenschaften /Wissenschaftlicher Beirat für Umwelthygiene im Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Jugend und Familie. (1988). Stickstoffoxide in der Atmosphäre Luftqualitätskriterien NO 2 [Air Quality Criteria Nitrogen Oxides]. (Richtlinie 14, BMfGuU [Hrsg.]). Retrieved from Akademie der Wissenschaften /Wissenschaftlicher Beirat für Umwelthygiene im Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Jugend und Familie. (1989). Photooxidantien in der Atmosphäre Luftqualitätskriterien Ozon [Photooxidants in the Atmosphere: Air Quality Criteria Ozone]. (Richtlinie 15, BMfUJuF [Hrsg.]). Retrieved from publikation/index.htm Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften-KRL. (1992). Bestandsaufnahme anthropogene Klima-änderungen: Mögliche Auswirkungen auf Österreich Mögliche Maßnahmen in Österreich, Dokumentation [Climate Change, Consequences for Austria]. (BMfWF/BMfUJF, ISBN ). Retrieved from Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften-KRL. (1994). Umweltwissenschaftliche Grundlagen und Zielsetzungen im Rahmen des Nationalen Umweltplans (NUP) für die Bereiche Klima, Luft. Geruch und Lärm [The Scientific Basis for a National Plan for Environmental Protection (NPEP) with Respect to Climate, Air, Odor, Noise]. (Band 17/1994). Retrieved from htm

12 132 Part II. Research Institutions Akademie der Wissenschaften / Wissenschaftlicher Beirat für Umwelthygiene im Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Jugend und Familie. (1997). Flüchtige Kohlenwasserstoffe in der Atmosphäre Entstehung, Verhalten und Wirkungen, Luftqualitätskriterien VOC [Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Air Quality Criteria VOC]. (Richtlinie 16, BMfUJuF [Hrsg.]). Retrieved from Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. (1998). Stickstoffoxide in der Atmosphäre, Wirkungen auf den Menschen Neubearbeitung 1998 [Nitrogen Oxides in the Atmosphere: Effects on Humans, Update 1998]. (Richtlinie 17, BMfGuU [Hrsg.]). Retrieved from krl/publikation/index.htm Arbeitkreis Innenraumluft im Bundesministerium für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft; Kommission für Reinhaltung der Luft der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. (2003). Richtlinie zur Bewertung der Innenraumluft [Guidelines for Rating Indoor Air Quality]. (ÖAW-KRL [Hrsg.]). Retrieved from oeaw.ac.at/krl/publikation/index.htm

13 Appendix A Table A-1. Members of the Clean Air Commission Name of Member Field of Expertise Membership in the Commission Stetter, Prof. Dr., Georg Physics Hayek, Prof. Dr., Heinrich Anatomy Steinhauser, Prof. Dr., Ferdinand Meteorology Wessely, Prof. Dr., Friedrich Organic Chemistry Schedling, Prof. Dr., Johann Medical Physics Wagner, Prof. Dr., Georg Inorganic Chemistry Reuter, Prof. Dr., Heinz Theoretical Meteorology Flamm, Prof. Dr., Heinz Medicine Preining, Prof. Dr., Othmar Physics Haider, Prof. Dr. Dr., Manfred Medicine, Psychology Environmental Hygiene Kisser, Prof. Dr., Josef Anatomy and Physiology of Plants Benger, Prof. Dr. Dr., Johann Hygiene Hackl, Prof. DI, Dr., Albert Process Engineering 1980 date Malissa, Prof. DI, Dr., Hanns Analytical Chemistry Microchemistry 1980 date Halbwachs, Prof. Dr., Gottfried Botany 1980 date Hauck, Prof. Dr., Helger Medical Physics 1986 date Kromp-Kolb, Prof. Dr., Helga Meteorology 1986 date Puxbaum, Prof. Dr., Hans Chemistry Environmental Analysis 1986 date Reischl, Ass. Prof. Doz. Dr., Georg Physics Nöbauer, Prof. Dr.,Wilfried Mathematics Burian, Prof. Dr., Karl Anatomy and Physiology of Plants Gutmann, Prof. DI, Dr. mult., Viktor Inorganic and General Chemistry (continued)

14 134 Part II. Research Institutions Table A-1. Members of the Clean Air Commission (continued) Name of Member Field of Expertise Membership in the Commission Kummer, Prof. DI, Dr., Wolfgang Physics Steinhauser, Prof. Dr., Peter Geophysics 1988 date Bauer, Prof. Dr., Siegfried, J. Meteorology, Geophysics 1991 date Hantel, Prof. Dr., Michael Physics of Geo-fluids 1991 date Berner, Prof. Dr., Axel Physics 1993 date Hlawka, Prof. Dr., Edmund Mathematics Horvath, Prof. Dr., Helmuth Physics 1993 date Huber, Prof. Dr., Josef Analytic Chemistry Neuberger, Prof. Dr., Manfred Medicine, Environmental Hygiene 1993 date Steininger, Prof. Dr., Friedrich Biostratigraphy 1993 date Grasserbauer, Prof. DI, Dr., Manfred Analytical Chemistry 1994 date Pischinger, Prof. DI, Dr., Rudolf Mechanical Engineering 1996 date Hittmair, Prof. Dr., Otto Theoretical Physics Guttmann, Prof. Dr., Giselher Psychology 2001 date Popp, Prof. Dr., Marianne Plant Physiology 2001 date Boxberger, Prof. Dr., Josef Agricultural Engineering (Agricultural Economics) 2001 date Kasper-Giebl, U.-Ass. Dr., Anne Technical Chemistry 2001 date Amann, DI, Dr., Markus Economy, Electrical Engineering 2001 date Smidt, Doz. Dr., Stefan Biomolecular Food Technology 2002 date

15 The Clean Air Commission of the Austrian Academy of Sciences: A Historical Sketch 135 Appendix B Reference information, abstracts, and in most cases downloads of the following publications can be found at index.htm. Table B-1. Air Quality Criteria Sulfur Dioxide Title Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Schwefeloxide in der Atmosphäre, Luftqualitätskriterien SO pages, published 1975 Luftverunreinigende Stoffe, Emissionen, Immissionen, Luftqualitätskriterien, wirkungsbezogene Immissions- Grenzkonzentration Physikalisch-chemische Eigenschaften und Reaktionen der Schwefeloxide in der Atmosphäre Schwefeloxide in der Atmosphäre, Herkunft und Meßmethoden; Verfahren zur Ermittlung der Staubkonzentration Einfluß meteorologischer Faktoren auf die Verbreitung von Schwefeldioxid Konzentration von Schwefeldioxid und Staub in der Atmosphäre Wirkung der Schwefeloxide in der Atmosphäre auf Materialien Wirkung von Schwefeloxiden in der Atmosphäre auf die Vegetation Air pollutants, emissions, ambient concentrations, air quality criteria, effect-related concentrations and limits Physical and chemical properties and reactions of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere Sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere, sources and measuring methods, methods to determine dust concentrations Influence of meteorological conditions on the dispersion of sulfur dioxide Concentration of sulfur dioxide and dust in the atmosphere Effects of atmospheric sulfur dioxide on materials Effects of atmospheric sulfur dioxide on vegetation Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Toxikologische Wirkungen auf Mensch und Tier Im Experiment ermittelte Kombinationswirkungen Schwefeldioxid/Staub auf Mensch und Tier Epidemiologische Studien über Schwefeloxide Normen und Vorschläge für Grenzwerte in verschiedenen Staaten und durch die Weltgesundheitsorganisation Zusammenfassung, Schlußfolgerungen, Empfehlungen Toxicological effects on humans and animals Experimentally determined combination effects of sulfur dioxide and dust on humans and animals Epidemiological studies on sulfur dioxide Norms and suggestions for limiting concentrations used/proposed in different countries and proposed by the World Health Organization Summary, conclusions, recommendations

16 136 Part II. Research Institutions Table B-2. Air Quality Criteria Nitrogen Oxides Title Stickstoffoxide in der Atmosphäre Luftqualitätskriterien NO pages, published 1988 Chapter 1 Vorbemerkung Introduction Chapter 2 Vorkommen von Stickstoffoxiden Occurrence of nitrogen oxides Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Physikalische und chemische Eigenschaften von Stickstoffoxiden Reaktionen von Stickstoffoxiden in der Atmosphäre Meßmethoden zu Bestimmung stickstoffhaltiger Luftschadstoffe Wirkungen von Stickstoffoxiden auf den Menschen Wirkungen von Stickstoffoxiden auf Tiere Wirkungen von Stickstoffoxiden auf Pflanzen Wirkungen von Stickstoffoxiden auf Materialien Übersicht über die in- und ausländische Immissionssituation von Stickstoffmonoxid und Stickstoffdioxid sowie ausgewählter Folgeprodukte Prognostische Erfassung von Immissionsbelastungen durch Stickstoffoxide und ihre Folgeprodukte Internationale Luftqualitätskriterien und Immissionsgrenzwerte Empfehlungen für wirkungsbezogene Immissionsgrenzkonzentrationen Umsetzung der wirkungsbezogenen Immissionsgrenzkonzentrationen Empfehlung für Alarmwerte für Stickstoffdioxid Physical and chemical properties of nitrogen oxides Reactions of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere Methods to measure air pollutants containing nitrogen Effects of nitrogen oxides on humans Effects of nitrogen oxides on animals Effects of nitrogen oxides on plants Effects of nitrogen oxides on materials Overview of ambient concentrations of NO and NO 2 and selected reaction products Estimates for future ambient concentrations of NO and NO 2 and selected reaction products International air quality criteria and limits for ambient concentrations Recommendations for effectrelated limits for ambient concentrations Realization of effect-related limits for ambient concentrations Recommendations for warning values of NO 2

17 The Clean Air Commission of the Austrian Academy of Sciences: A Historical Sketch 137 Table B-3. Nitrogen Oxides in the Atmosphere: Effects on Humans, Update 1998 Title Stickstoffoxide in der Atmosphäre Wirkungen auf den Menschen Neubearbeitung pages, published 1998 Chapter 6 Chapter 13 Wirkungen von Stickstoffoxiden auf den Menschen: NO 2, NO, HNO 3, Nitrate Wirkungsbezogene Immissionsgrenzkonzentrationen Effects of nitrogen oxides on humans: NO 2, NO, HNO 3, nitrate Effect-related limits for ambient concentrations Chapter 13.1 Einleitung Introduction Chapter 13.2 Chapter 13.3 Chapter 13.4 Chapter 13.5 Chapter 13.6 Zusammenfassung der Wirkung auf Mensch und Tier Zusammenfassung der Wirkung auf Pflanzen und Ökosysteme Zusammenfassung der Wirkung auf Matderialien Wirkungsbezogene Immissionsgrenzkonzentrationen für Stickstoffdioxid Begründung der wirkungsbezogenen Immissionsgrenzkonzentrationen Summary of effects on humans and animals Summary of effects on plants and ecosystems Summary of effects on materials Effect related ambient limits for nitrogen dioxide Rationale for effect-related ambient limits for nitrogen dioxide Chapter 13.7 Literaturverzeichnis References

18 138 Part II. Research Institutions Table B-4. Photo-oxidants in the Atmosphere: Air Quality Criteria Ozone Title Photooxidantien in der Atmosphäre Luftqualitätskriterien Ozon 453 pages, published 1989 Chapter 1 Vorbemerkungen Preliminary remarks Chapter 2 Vorkommen Occurrence Chapter 3 Chemisch-physikalische Eigenschaften von Ozon und anderen Photooxidantien Chemical and physical properties of ozone and other photo oxidants Chapter 4 Reaktionen Reactions Chapter 5 Meßmethoden zur Bestimmung der Immissionskonzentration von Ozon und anderen Photooxidantien Methods to measure ambient concentrations of ozone and other photo oxidants Chapter 6 Wirkungen auf den Menschen Effects on humans Chapter 7 Wirkungen auf Tiere Effects on animals Chapter 8 Wirkungen auf Pflanzen Effects on plants Chapter 9 Wirkungen auf Materialien Effects on materials Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Modelle zur Simulation der Immissionsverhältnisse Internationale Luftqualitätskriterien und Immissionsgrenzwerte Wirkungsbezogene Immissionsgrenzkonzentrationen Sinn und Anwendung eines Immissionsgrenzwertes für Ozon Models for simulation of ambient concentrations International air quality criteria and limits for ambient concentrations Effect-related limits for ambient concentrations Reasons and application of limits for ambient concentrations of ozone Chapter 14 Maßnahmen Actions

19 The Clean Air Commission of the Austrian Academy of Sciences: A Historical Sketch 139 Table B-5. Air Quality Criteria VOC Title Flüchtige Kohlenwasserstoffe in der Atmosphäre Entstehung, Verhalten und Wirkungen, Luftqualitätskriterien VOC 763 pages, published 1996 Chapter 1 Einleitung Introduction Chapter 2 Vorkommen Occurrence Chapter 3 Substanzeigenschaften Properties of VOCs Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chemisches Verhalten in der Troposphäre Analytik flüchtiger organischer Verbindungen in der Atmosphäre Chemistry of VOCs in the atmosphere Analysis of VOCs in the atmosphere Chapter 6 Wirkungen auf den Menschen Effects on humans Chapter 7 Wirkungen auf Pflanzen Effects on plants Chapter 8 Indoor-Problematik The problem of indoor VOCs Chapter 9 Klimawirkungen Effects on climate Chapter 10 Immissionssituation Situation of ambient concentrations Chapter 11 Modellberechnungen für Ausbreitung und chemische Umwandlung Model calculations for dispersion and chemical transformation Chapter 12 Kriterien und Standards Criteria and standards Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Wirkungsbezogene Immissionsgrenzkonzentrationen für Menschen und Pflanzen und Werte zur Begrenzung des Krebsrisikos sowie Minderungsziele für indirekte Wirkungen (Ozonbildung, Treibhauseffekt) Messstrategien für VOCs in der Atmosphäre Effect-related limitations of ambient concentrations for humans and plants. Values for limitation of the cancer risk and reduction goals for indirect effects (formation of ozone, greenhouse effect) Strategies for measurements of VOCs on the atmosphere Chapter 15 Maßnahmen, Empfehlungen Actions and recommendations Chapter 16 Glossar Glossary

20 140 Part II. Research Institutions Table B-6. Climate Change, Consequences for Austria Title Bestandsaufnahme anthropogene Klima-änderungen: Mögliche Auswirkungen auf Österreich Mögliche Maßnahmen in Österreich, Dokumentation Published in 1992 as extended abstract and in 1993 as full document, 490 pages Chapter 1 Einleitung Introduction Chapter 2 Klimamodelle Climate models Chapter 3 Klimareihen Climate series Chapter 4 Hydrologie Hydrology Chapter 5 Limnologie Limnology Chapter 6 Vegetation und Treibhausproblematik Vegetation and greenhouse effect Chapter 7 Vegetation Vegetation Chapter 8 Emissionen von Treibhausgasen Emission of greenhouse gases Chapter 9 Maßnahmen Actions Chapter 10 Weiterführende Literatur References

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