Waste Management in the EU

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1 Waste Management in the EU - Landfill Ban and the Issue of Biogenic waste - presented at the Columbia University, New York, October 20 th and 21 th, 2005 J. Vehlow Institute for Technical Chemistry - Thermal Waste Treatment Division

2 what is our historical background?

3 waste disposal in Europe around 1350

4 prisoners collecting waste (Hamburg 1609) Amsterdam ( 1600) waste disposal around 1600

5 sorting and utilisation on a landfill (Vienna 1910)

6 paper, glass, textiles, metals ashes, garbage kitchen waste three Container System in Berlin (1907)

7 products green glass white glass bones paper textiles iron brass cans copper tin leather wood and in 2000 hand sorting of waste in 1907

8 Frederiksberg (DK) Fulham (UK) Hamburg (D) MSW incineration around 1900

9 where are we today?

10 <300 <400 <500 <600 >600 waste generation in kg/cap/y

11 USA waste generation and GDP

12 how do we manage our waste problem?

13 avoidance waste reuse benefits saving of ressources by recovering of - materials -energy recycling problems health risk emissions economy inertisation & energy recovery landfill waste management strategies

14 Waste Framework Directive 75/442/EEC Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC Waste Incineration Directive 2000/76/EC Hazardous Waste Directive 1999/31/EC Dec. 2000/532/EC List of Wastes Regulated waste streams waste oils sewage sludge batteries accumulat. packaging waste ELV PCBs WEEE EU legislative framework on waste

15 consequences harmonisation of national regulations technical standards emission standards main targets reduction of biodegradable waste disposal (standard 1995) 25 % in % in % in 2016 landfil ban in some countries

16 0 <10 <20 <40 <60 >60 landfill tax for organic MSW in Europe in /Mg

17 status of waste management in

18 <10 <30 <50 <70 <90 >90 direct landfilling of MSW in %

19 0 <5 <10 <15 <20 <30 >30 material recycling in %

20 0 <5 <10 <15 <20 <30 >30 waste composting in %

21 waste incineration technology and its today s environmental impact

22 0 <10 <30 <50 <70 <90 >90 waste incineration in Europe in %

23 municipal solid waste incineration plant

24 flue gas 5000 m 3 /Mg of waste dust HCl CO HF SO NO x Hg Cd + Tl Σ HM TOC Dioxins [ng(te)/m 3 ] EU D NL 0.1 emission limits in mg/m 3

25 PCDD/F emission sources in Germany sources metal industry sintering plants iron- & steel production waste incineration municipal solid waste hazardous waste medical waste sewage sludge power plants industrial combustion facilities domestic stoves traffic crematoria emission per year in g I-TEQ * < < < 0, ,4 2 0,04 0,1 0,0002 < 0,1 0, < < < <1 4 2 < 2 source:

26 what is the biogenic energy inventory and what are the consequences for energy recovery?

27 wood 1.8 % putrescibles 33.7 % paper 15.4 % textiles 2.9 % diapers 6.3 % composits 8.0 % plastics 6.3 % glass 7.4 % metals 4.0 % fines 14.3 % MSW = 310 kg/cap./d source: Abfallbilanz der Länder 1998 MSW composition (Hassia, Germany)

28 paper 24.3 % wood 2.9 % putrescibles 15.4 % textiles 4.6 % diapers 3.5 % composits 16.3 % fines 11.6 % plastics 21.4 % LHV total = 10 MJ/kg LHV of total MSW in MJ/kg (Hassia, Germany)

29 paper 24.3 % wood 2.9 % putrescibles 15.4 % textiles 1.9 % diapers 1.4 % composits 3.3 % fines 2.9 % plastics 0 % LHV reg. = 5.2 MJ/kg LHV of regenerative MSW in MJ/kg (Hassia, Germany)

30 <7 <8 <9 <10 <11 >12 lower heating value of MSW in MJ/kg

31 <50 <55 <60 <65 <70 >70 biogenic energy inventory in MSW in %

32 <1 <1.5 <2 <2.5 <3 >3 substitution of primary energy by total MSW in %

33 <3 <5 <7 <9 <11 <15 not rel. substitution of fossil power by residual MSW in %

34 <1 <1 <2 <2.5 <3 <3.5 CO 2 from regenerative waste in % of total CO 2

35 conclusions

36 status in the EU recycling established, still increasing MBT and biogas potential not yet exhausted waste incineration will be mandatory and is partly accepted as biogenic energy source challenges costs (especially for decentralised systems) environmental impact of MBT management of residues from thermal treatment bottom ash utilisation APC residue management and disposal

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