A dissertation submitted to ETH ZURICH. for the degree of Doctor of Sciences. presented by ALEXANDER SCHILLING Dipl. Masch.-Ing.

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1 Diss. ETH No Model-Based Detection and Isolation of Faults in the Air and Fuel Paths of Common-rail DI Diesel Engines Equipped with a Lambda and a Nitrogen Oxides Sensor A dissertation submitted to ETH ZURICH for the degree of Doctor of Sciences presented by ALEXANDER SCHILLING Dipl. Masch.-Ing. ETH Zurich born 19. November 1979 citizen of Zurich (ZH), Switzerland accepted on the recommendation of Prof. Dr. Lino Guzzella, examiner Prof. Dr. Rolf Isermann, co-examiner Dr. Alois Amstutz, co-examiner 2008

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3 Abstract The present work deals with the diagnostics problem of diesel engines. Until now, to this author s knowledge, no diagnostics system for modern diesel engines based on emission sensors has been proposed. This work can thus be considered as a first attempt to make good use of a wide-range sensor for the relative air/fuel ratio (Lambda, λ) and of a nitrogen oxides concentration sensor to realize a diagnostics system able to detect, estimate, and classify faults of the air and fuel paths of modern diesel engines. First, a model of the crank-angle discrete combustion process of the test-bench diesel engine is developed. It is to help the understanding of the NO x emission formation process and to provide the basics for the further development of the control-oriented models. The model is calibrated by means of static measurements and a complete cylinder pressure analysis. Next, two control-oriented emission models for the real-time prediction of the NO x emission and the relative air/fuel ratio are developed. These models are based on a linear approach. The parameters needed are calculated efficiently by means of simulations, using the previously developed combustion model as a virtual engine. According to the physical definition of the relative air/fuel ratio, the linear approach is justified in the case of the corresponding controloriented model, but not in the case of the control-oriented NO x model, where that linear approach represents only an approximation of the real behavior, which is known to be non-linear. This problem reduces the effective accuracy of the control-oriented NO x model. Hence an adaptation algorithm is developed in order to slightly adjust certain vii

4 viii Abstract parameters of the control-oriented NO x model. The aims are to increase its accuracy and to match the characteristics of each individual engine. Finally, both control-oriented models are used together with sensors for the relative air/fuel ratio and NO x emission for the development of the two proposed fault detection and isolation strategies A and B. These are then able to detect and isolate faults of the injected fuel quantity, the air mass flow, and the boost pressure. All models and algorithms presented are tested by means of experiments conducted on an engine test-bench, and the results obtained are presented and discussed.

5 Zusammenfassung Die vorliegende Arbeit behandelt das Thema der Diagnose von modernen Dieselmotoren. Nach der Kenntnis des Autors liegen bisher keine auf Emissionssensoren basierenden Systeme zur Diagnose von Dieselmotoren vor. Diese Arbeit kann somit als erster Versuch gesehen werden, zur Diagnose eine Breitband-Lambda-Sonde und einen Stickoxydsensor zu verwenden. Das präsentierte Diagnosesystem ist in der Lage, Fehler in den Luft- und Kraftstoffpfaden von modernen Dieselmotoren zu detektieren, zu schätzen und zu klassifizieren. In einem ersten Schritt wurde direkt aus physikalischen Überlegungen ein detailliertes Verbrennungsmodell hergeleitet. In diesem Modell wurden alle relevanten Prozesse, die während einer üblichen dieselmotorischen Verbrennung vorkommen, modelliert. Die Kalibrierung des detaillierten Verbrennungsmodells erfolgte anhand von statischen Messungen sowie einer vollständigen Analyse des Zylinderdruckverlaufs. Dann wurden zwei lineare regelungstechnische Emissionsmodelle für die echtzeitfähige Berechnung der NO x -Emissionen und des Luftverhältnisses entwickelt. Das Verbrennungsmodell diente als virtueller Motor, um die Parameter dieser Modelle schnell und effizient mittels Simulationen zu bestimmen. Gemäss der physikalischen Bedeutung des Luftverhältnisses ist der verwendete lineare Ansatz im Falle des regelungstechnischen Luftverhältnismodells gerechtfertigt. Im Falle des regelungstechnischen NO x - Modells stellt der lineare Ansatz hingegen nur eine Approximation dar. Diese Tatsache reduziert die Genauigkeit dieses Modells. Auf diesem Grund wurde ein Adaptionsalgorithmus entwickelt, um einige Parameter des NO x -Modells leicht anzupassen. Das Ziel dieses Vorgehens ist ix

6 x Zusammenfassung es, die Genauigkeit des regelungstechnischen NO x -Modells zu erhöhen, und das Modell in Übereinstimmung mit den Charakteristiken jedes einzelnen Motors zu bringen. Basierend auf den regelungstechnischen Emissionsmodellen und auf Informationen aus den Lambda- und NO x -Sensoren wurden zwei Fehlererkennungssysteme A und B für die Detektion, die Schätzung und die Klassifizierung von Fehlern in der Einspritzung, in der Luftmenge und im Ladedruck entwickelt. Alle Modelle und Algorithmen wurden mittels Experimenten am Prüfstand erprobt und die erhaltenen Resultate werden hier vorgestellt und analysiert.

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