Volume 2: Appendices

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1 Volume 2: Appendices APPENDIX A. List of CL rules selected for the evaluation... A -l APPENDIX B. Available rules in custom version of acrocheck... B -l APPENDIX C. Penn Treebank Tag Set... APPENDIX D. Examples of modifications of raw segm ents D -l APPENDIX E. Transcript of the evaluation guidelines given to French and German evaluators (first study)... E-l APPENDIX F. Evaluation results for French... F-l APPENDIX G. Evaluation results for Germ an... G -l APPENDIX H. List of violated CL rules in the selected documents... H -l APPENDIX I. Source documents used to generate French and German MT docum ents APPENDIX J. French MT documents (not formatted) APPENDIX K. German MT documents (not formatted)... K -l APPENDIX L. Survey results... APPENDIX M. Evaluators results (second study)... M APPENDIX N...Transcript of the instructions given to the French and German evaluators (second study)... N -l

2 APPENDIX A. list of CL rules selected for the evaluation ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL in Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens & (Bernth 1998) based on KANT Bernth & MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 ) (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 1 Avoid ambiguous Avoid ambiguous Repeat the Rule 2. Repeat final In the case of Coordination coordinations by coordinations by head noun words of the left coordination, repeating the head repeating the with conjoined conjunct or initial write complete noun, or by changing head noun, or by adjectives. words of the right compounds when the word order. changing the conjunct, as possible. word order. necessary, to disambiguate the coordination. 2 Do not use Do not use Rule 4. Rewrite ing- ambiguous ambiguous words that follow an attachments of non- attachments of object as a relative finite clauses non-finite clauses clause (who/that) or (present-participles) (present- add a suitable participles) preposition, depending on what you mean. A -l

3 ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL in Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens & (Bernth 1998) based on KANT Bernth & MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 ) (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 6 Do not omit the use 'that' to Rule 9. Always write subordinating word clarify the complementizer 'that' after verbs or sentence that explicitly. verbat nouns structure 7 Do not omit relative 7. Do not omit Rule 7. Avoid post pronouns and a form conjunctions modifying adjective of the verb 'be in a or relatives. phrases. relative clause. The post-modifier is an adjective. 8 Do not omit relative 7 Do not omit Do not omit Rule 4. Rewrite ing- pronouns and a form conjunctions relative pronouns words that follow an of the verb 'be' in a or relatives. and a form of the object as a relative relative clause. The verb 'be' in a clause (who/that) or post-mod ifier is afi - relative clause. add a suitable ing word. The post-modifier preposition, is an -ing word. depending on what you mean (by). A -3

4 ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL in Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens & (Bernth 1998) based on KANT Bernth 8. MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 ) (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 9 Do not omit relative 7. Do not omit Do not omit The -ed form pronouns and a form conjunctions relative pronouns should not be of the verb 'be' in a or relatives. and a form of the used as reduced relative clause. The verb 'be' in a relative clauses. post-modifier is a relative clause. past-participle. The post-modifier is a past- participle. 10 Do not enclose Do not express an Do not use Short relative clauses, idea in parentheses parentheses parenthetical parentheses inside for remarks, or a sentence. Use a explanations extraneous separate sentence comments in instead. Use parentheses. parentheses only to enclose abbreviations. A -4

5 ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL in Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens & (Bernth 1998) based on KANT Bernth & MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 ) (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 11 When appropriate, Use the before a Wherever use articles When writing use an article (a, an, noun for specific possible, before nouns English text for the) before a noun. reference; use a/an the use of MT, use before a singular determiners grammatical noun for non should be markers such as specific reference. encouraged. articles whenever Repeat articles in possible. co-ordinated word groups 12 Use the active voice Do not use the Rule 16. Avoid when you know who passive voice passive or what did the constructions, if action. possible. 13 Do not use the Do not use the impersonal passive passive voice voice. 14 Do not make noun 9. Avoid Avoid complex do not use Rule 10. Avoid long clusters of more than strings of multi-word noun clusters noun phrases, if three nouns. nouns. compounds longer than possible. four words 15 Do not use an ambiguous form of 'have' A -5

6 ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL in Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens & (Bernth 1998) based on KANT Bernth & MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 ) (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 16 Avoid the use of progressive verb participles. COGRAM 79: Avoid present participles in verb groups. 17 Do not use a pronoun The use of Do not use Rule 8. Minimize Repeat nouns or Suspicious or when the pronoun pronouns should pronouns, use of persona! noun phrases difficult does not refer to the be limited, since except "you" pronouns. instead of using pronouns; noun it immediately they increase the pronouns when follows. potential possible. ambiguity in syntactic analysis. 18 Do not use pronouns, The use of Do not use Rule 8. Minimize Repeat nouns or Suspicious or even when the pronouns should pronouns, use of personal noun phrases difficult pronoun immediately be limited, since except "you" pronouns. instead of using pronouns; follows the noun it they increase the pronouns when refers to. potential possible. ambiguity in syntactic analysis. A -6

7 ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL in Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens & (Bernth 1998) based on KANT Bernth & MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 ) (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 19 Do not use pronouns "It" must refer to a The u s of Do not use Rule 8. Minimize Repeat nouns or Suspicious or that have no specific preceding noun pronouns should pronouns, use of personal noun phrases difficult referent. be limited, since except "you pronouns. instead of using pronouns; they increase the pronouns when potential possible. ambiguity in syntactic analysis. 20 Do not use an The senses of ambiguous form of modal verbs, 'could' modais, and their interaction with negation must be clearly specified. 21 Do not use the slash The use of the Rule 22. Avoid to list lexical items. slash character using T as in ( V ) should be "and/or" and consistenly "user/system". specified. A -7

8 ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL in Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens & (Bernth 1998) based on KANT Bernth & MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 ) (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 22 Do not coordinate Coordination of Coordination verbs or verbal single verbs or phrases when the verb phrases is verbs do not have the not recommended same transitivity. for controlled English, since the arguments and modifiers of verbs conjoined in this manner may be ambiguous. 23 Do not coordinate Coordination of Coordination verbs or verbal single verbs or phrases that share verb phrases is the same object not recommended for controlled English, since the arguments and modifiers of verbs conjoined in this manner may be ambiguous. A -8

9 ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL in Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens & (Bernth 1998) based on KANT Bernth & MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 ) (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 24 Repeat the Authors are Prepositions are preposition, encouraged to often hard for MT conjunction, or repeat the to analyze for infinitive marker in preposition in scope when used coordinated conjoined in coordinated prepositional constructions expressions. It is phrases, subordinate where stylistically better clauses, or infinitive appropriate. and improves MT complements. results to repeat prepositions in coordinated expressions. 25 Two parts of a conjoined sentence should be of the same type. 4. Do not change constructions in midsentence. In controlled English, it is recommended that the twoparts of a conjoined sentence be of the same type. A -9

10 ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL rn Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens & (Bernth 1998) based on KANT Bernth & MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 ) (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 26 Avoid the ellipsis of 6. Avoid The use of ellipsis Rule 15. Avoid verb. elliptical should be ruled ellipsis. constructions out whenever possible in controlled English, since it introduces potential ambiguity which requires ellipsis resolution. A -1 0

11 ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL in Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens & (Bemth 1998) based on KANT Bernth & MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 ) (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 27 Avoid the ellipsis of 6, Avoid The use of ellipsis Rule 15. Avoid subject. elliptical should be ruled ellipsis. constructions. out whenever possible in controlled English, since it introduces potential ambiguity which requires ellipsis resolution. 28 Omit unnecessary words. 2, Omit redundant words. COGRAM 62: Avoid wordiness (A total of) 29 Place a purpose clause before the main clause. 3. Order the parts of the sentence logically. Start subordinate phrases with a conjunction. 30 Words such as "air, "one", or "none", may not appear alone. Words such as "all", "one", or "none", may not appear atone. A - 11

12 ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL in Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens & (Bernth 1998) based on KANT Bernth & MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 ) (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 31 Whenever possible, Interrogatives the use of "wh-" questions should be avoided 32 Start new sentences If a sentence is instead of using semi written with a colons. semicolon, break it into two sentences. 33 Use a comma before Rule 20. Commas Place a comma a coordinated clause. do make a before and" or difference in "but to introduce intelligibility for both an independent humans and MT clause. systems. 34 Use the serial comma Comma + and/or before last element in long enumerations A -1 2

13 ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL in Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens & (Bernth 1998) based on KANT Bernth & MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 ) (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 35 Avoid unusual Without clear and punctuation. correct punctuation, is it often possible to interpret a sentence in several ways. 36 The subject of a non- Rule 1. Avoid finite clause must be ungrammatical the same as that of constructions. the main clause. 37 Ensure that relative A third type of Keep subordinate pronouns or complex relative clause is clauses close to relative pronouns introduced by a the phrase they immediately follow complex relative modify, and their antecedent. expression, such delimit as with which or embedded for whom. (relative) clauses with commas. 38 Rewrite ing-words Rule 5. Rewrite ing- that are complements words that are of other verbs. complements of other verbs. A -1 3

14 ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL in Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens & (Bernth 1998) based on KANT Bernth & MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 ) (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 39 Always write "in order Rule 11. Always Use "in order to" Complement to" before an infinitive write "in order to" instead of "to if sentences in a purpose clause before an infinitive the subordinate instead of just "to". in a purpose clause clause begins instead of just "to". with an infinitive. 40 Avoid very short Rule 13. Avoid very Sentences that sentences (less than short sentences. contain, say, four 4 words) words or fewer can be more ambiguous because there is less context. A - 14

15 ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL in Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens & (Bernth 1998) based on KANT Bernth & MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 ) (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 41 Avoid embedded Avoiding Multiple Dependent and parenthetical Stacking: It is relative clauses. expressions often better to introduced by separate a very commas or dashes. long sentence into two sentences. This practice avoids the multiple stacking of main clauses and subordinate clauses. A -1 5

16 ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL in Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens & (Bernth 1998) based on KANT Bernth & MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 ) (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 42 Do not include Rule 19. Do not parenthesized include expressions in a parenthesized segment unless the expressions in a segment is still valid segment unless the syntactically when segmentis still valid you remove the syntactically when parentheses while you remove the leaving the parentheses while parenthesized leaving expressions. theparenthesized expressions. 43 Avoid using "(s)" to Rule 21. Avoid indicate plural. using "(s)" to indicate plural. 44 Avoid splitting infinitives, unless the emphasis is on the adverb. Avoid splitting infinitives unless the emphasis is on the adverb. A -1 6

17 ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL in Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens fit (Bernth 1998) based on KANT Bernth & MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 ) (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 45 Use only "because, never "since" in a subclause of reason. Because for reason Avoid ambiguous words. Do not use since when you mean because. 46 Do not use a participle to introduce an adverbial clause. 47 Move document names, error messages, or section titles to independent segments 48 Use a question mark only at the end of a direct question. 49 Do not use "this", "that", "these", or "those on their own Do not use a participle to introduce an adverbial clause. Use a question mark only at the end of a direct question. COGRAM 102: Avoid "this is", "these are", and so on. Nested participle A -1 7

18 ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL in Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens & (Bernth 1998) based on KANT Bernth & MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 ) (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 50 Keep both parts of a verb together 51 Avoid -ing words 10. Do not Rule 3. Use articles use ing with ing-words when unless the they are used as word appears nouns, or use thus in the infinitives instead of PACE ing-words, dictionary. depending on what you mean. A - 18

19 ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL in Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens & (Bernth 1998) based on KANT Bernth & MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 > (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 52 Use single-word English contains Rule 12. Use one- verbs many verb-particle word verbs instead combinations, of verb+particle where a verb is whenever possible. combined with a preposition or an adverb. Particles that are part of phrasal verbs are often ambiguous with prepositions, and controlled English should limit the ambiguity by choosing a single-word verb instead. A -1 9

20 ID Rule description PACE (1990) COGRAM/SECC Easy English CE principles CASL in Bernth & Gnadiec IBM guidelines Systran MT LOGOS (Adriaens & (Bernth 1998) based on KANT Bernth & MTtranslatability for Websphere guidelines Translatability Macken, 1995) CE (Mitamura, Gdaniec guidelines (2001) (2001 ) (2004) Index (Gdaniec, 1999) (2001) 1994) 53 Avoid ungrammatical Subjects must Number constructions agree with their disagreement, verbs sudi as between subject and verb, occurs when there is a prepositional phraseor more than one item or action in a sentence. 54 Check the spelling. Rule 23. Check your spelling. Spell-check your source. A -2 0

21 APPENDIX B. Available rules in custom version of acrocheck Check the spelling Make sure that verbs agree with their subjects Use the possessive "s" or its" consistently Avoid splitting infinitives, unless the emphasis is on the adverb Do not omit hyphens when noun and past-participles are used In adjectival position Avoid ambiguous coordinations by repeating the head noun or by changing the word order Do not use more than 25 words per sentence Do not omit the subordinating word 'that' after verbs or verbal nouns Do not omit relative pronouns Do not enclose parenthetical remarks or extraneous comments within clauses introduced by commas Use an article before a noun in specific cases Use the serial comma Use the active voice when you know who or what did the action. Avoid the use progressive verb participles to form complex verb forms Only use the slash in specific cases The particle of a two-part verb should immediately follow the verb Avoid -ing words in body text Do not use subjectless non-finite clauses at the start of sentences Do not use 'this' or 'that' when they are not followed by a noun Do not use 'could' unless the sentence contains 'if B -l

22 APPENDIX C. Penn Treebank Tag Set CC CD DT EX FW IN JJ JJR JJS LS MD NN NNS NNP NNPS PDT POS PRP PRP$ RB RBR RBS RP SYM TO UH VB POS Tag coordinating conjunction cardinal number determiner existential there foreiqn word preposition/subordinating conjunction adjective adjective, comparative adjective, superlative list marker modal noun, singular or mass noun plural proper noun, singular proper noun, plural predeterminer possessive ending personal pronoun possessive pronoun adverb adverb, comparative adverb, superlative particle Symbol to interjection verb, base form Description c-i

23 VBD VBG VBN VBP VBZ WDT WP WPS WRB POS Tag verb, past tense verb, gerund/present participle verb, past participle verb, sing, present. non-3d verb, 3rd person sing, present wh-determiner wh-pronoun possessive wh-pronoun Wh-adverb Description C -2

24 APPENDIX D. Examples of modifications of raw segments Raw segment Pre-processing Uncontrolled segment Linguistic phenomenon Controlled segment modification addressed by the CL rule Norton Optimization Wizard, Norton Registry Restore agreement mark Norton Optimization Wizard, Missing relative pronoun and form Norton Optimization Wizard, Norton Editor, and Norton Registry Tracker are only Norton Registry Editor, and of be in front of 'running1. Registry Editor, and Norton Registry available for computer running Windows 98 or Norton Registry Tracker are only Tracker are only available for Windows Me. available for computers running computers that are running Windows 98 or Windows Me. Windows 98 or Windows Me. Norton Optimization Wizard, Norton Registry Reduce subjects to one Norton Optimization Wizard is Missing relative pronoun and form Norton Optimization Wizard is only Editor, and Norton Registry Tracker are only element only available for computer of be in front of 'running'. available for computer that are available for computers running Windows 98 or running Windows 98 or Windows running Windows 98 or Windows Windows Me. Me. Me. If you still have the problem, then it can be Eliminate superfluous The problem can be caused by Missing relative pronoun and form The problem can be caused by an caused by an open driver or by an application conditional clause an open driver or by an of be in front of 'not responding'. open driver or by an application that not responding to the shutdown request. Reformulate application not responding to the shutdown request. is not responding to the shutdown request. SymNRT is a program designed to remove any Replace problematic SymNRT is a program designed Missing relative pronoun and form SymNRT is a program that was leftover components of previous Norton determiners to remove the leftover of be in front of 'designed' designed to remove the leftover programs. components of previous Norton components of previous Norton programs. programs. D -l

25 Raw segment Pre-processing Uncontrolled segment Linguistic phenomenon Controlled segment modification addressed by the CL rule On the Startup tab, verify that the item named Remove unnecessary PP Verify that the item named ccapp Missing relative pronoun and form Verify that the item that is named ccapp is checked. is checked of be in front of 'named' ccapp is checked. Fixes computer problems using DOS-based Reduce objects to one Fixes computer problems using Non-finite clause introduced by Fixes computer problems by using Norton AntiVirus, Norton Disk Doctor, element Norton AntiVirus. using. Norton AntiVirus. UnErase, UnFormat, and Disk Editor. The firewall inspects each packet of data Remove unnecessary The firewall inspects each packet Missing relative pronoun and form The firewall inspects each packet of entering or leaving your Computer and permits coordinated clauses of data entering or leaving your of be in front of 'entering' data that is entering or leaving your or denies the communication based off of a set of rules. Restore lower case computer. computer. To configure MSN Messenger 6.x to scan Remove problematic To configure MSN Messenger 6 Non-finite clause introduced by To configure MSN Messenger 6 to downloaded files using Norton AntiVirus tokens to scan downloaded files using using. scan downloaded files by using Norton AntiVirus Norton AntiVirus Verify that the item named ccapp is checked. If Remove unnecessary Verify that the item is checked. If Ellipsis of subject and form of be. Verify that the item is checked. If not checked, then check it. post-modifiers not checked, then check it. the item not checked, then check it While installing Norton Internet Security 2005, Remove error messages While installing Norton Internet Subjectless non-finite clause While you install Norton Internet you see the error message Security 2005, you see an error introduced by -ing word. Security 2005, you see an error "IDSERR_REGISTERWITHLIVEUPDATE." message. message. D -2

26 Raw segment Pre-processing Uncontrolled segment Linguistic phenomenon Controlled segment modification addressed by the CL rule In the first Registration window, in the drop-down Remove unnecessary In the first registration window, in Limit the use of slashes. In the first registration window, list, select the Country/Region from which you capitalization the drop-down list, select the select the country or the region are registering. Country/Region from which you from which you are registering. are registering. Skip to the section "To enable Ad Blocking and Turn lengthy most- Skip to the next section to undo Missing relative pronoun and form Skip to the next section to undo the Pop-up Blocking to undo the changes made modifying reference names the changes made above. of 'be' in front of 'made'. changes that you made above. above. into simple adjectives D -3

27 APPENDIX E. Transcript of the evaluation guidelines given to French and German evaluators (first study) Description: The Excel workbook contains 2 sheets, each of them containing a set of machine translated sentences: MT output A and MT output B. You need to assign a score to each MT sentence. In each sheet, the MT output in column C corresponds to the source text in column B. I would recommend that you complete the evaluation of MT output A, before starting the evaluation of MT Note: you should always read the WIT output first, and then read the source text. You should assign scores by using the following criteria: Excellent IWT output (E): Read the MT output first. Then read the Source Text (ST). Your understanding is not improved by the reading of the ST because the MT output is satisfactory and would not need to be modified: it is syntactically correct and it uses proper terminology, even though it may not be stylistically perfect. However, the MT output performs its primary function, which is to convey information accurately An end-user who does not have access to the ST would be able to understand the MT output. Good MT output (G): Read the MT output first. Then read the source text. Your understanding is not improved by the reading of the ST even though the MT output contains minor grammatical mistakes (word order/punctuation errors/word formation/morphology). You would not need to refer to the ST to correct these mistakes. An end-user who does not have access to the source text could possibly understand the MT output. Medium MT output (M): Read the MT output first. Then read the source text. Your understanding is improved by the reading of the ST, due to significant errors in the MT output (textual coherence/ textual pragmatics/ word formation/ morphology). You would have to re-read the ST a few times to correct these errors in the MT output. An end-user who does not have access to the source text could only get the gist of the MT output. Poor MT output (P): Read the MT output first. Then read the source text. Your understanding only derives from the reading of the ST, as you could not understand the MT output. It contained serious errors in any of the categories listed above, including wrong Parts Of Speech. You could only produce a translation by dismissing most of the MT output and/or re-translating from scratch. An end-user who does not have access to the source text would not be able to understand the MT output at all. For each sentence, put one of the four letters (E, G, M, or P) in the Score column. E -l

28 APPENDIX F Evaluation results for French Seg ID Rule ID Rule description Pre-CL M T output A 1A 2A 3A 4A Post-CL M T output B 1B 2B 3B 4B ES 1 1 Avoid am biguous If either the Subject or Author Si l'objet ou les cham ps Auteur If either the Subject field or the Si le cham p O bjet ou le cham p coordinations by fields contains a reference to contient une référence à Norton A uthor field contains a reference A uteur contient une référence à repeating the head noun, Norton or Symantec, click OK. ou à Symantec, cliquez sur OK. to Norton or Symantec, click OK. Norton ou à Sym antec, cliquez or by changing the word sur OK. order. 2 1 Avoid am biguous On the Schedule tab, fill in the Sur l'onglet Planification, On the Schedule tab, fill in the Sur l'onglet Planification, coordinations by Schedule Task, Start tim e, and com plétez le tem ps de tâche, de Schedule T a s k field, the Start com plétez le cham p Tâche repeating the head noun, Schedule Task Daily fields. D ém arrer de program m e, e t les tim e field, and the Schedule planifiée, le cham p Début, et le or by changing the word cham ps T â c h e quotidienne Task Daily field. cham p T âc h e quotidienne order. planifiée. planifiée. 3 1 Avoid am biguous On the Perm issions tab, confirm Sur l'onglet Autorisations, O n the Perm issions tab, confirm Sur l'onglet Autorisations, coordinations by that the Administrators, confirm ez que les that the Adm inistrators account, confirm ez que le com pte repeating the head noun, S Y S T E M, and C R E A T O R adm inistrateurs, le S Y S T E M E, et the S Y S T E M account, and the Administrateurs, le com pte or by changing the word O W N E R accounts have their les com ptes C R E A T E U R C R E A T O R O W N E R account S Y S T E M, et le com pte order. permissions set to Full Control. P R O P R IE T A IR E font placer leurs have their perm issions set to C R E A T E U R P R O P R IE T A IR E permissions à Contrôle total Full Control ont leurs perm issions réglées à Contrôle total. 4 1 Avoid am biguous Optim ization refers to the L'optimisation se rapporte au Optim ization refers to the L'optimisation se rapporte au coordinations by process of organizing directories processus d'organiser des process of organizing directories processus d'organiser des repeating the head noun, and subdirectories, program and répertoires e t des sous- and subdirectories, program répertoires e t des sous- or by changing the word data files, swap and other files répertoires, des fichiers de files, data files, sw ap files, and répertoires, des fichiers de order program m e et de données, other files. program m e, des fichiers de échange et d'autres fichiers données, des fichiers d'échange, et d'autres fichiers. F -l

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