Overview. Security. Type of attacks. Firewalls. Protocols. Packet filter

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1 Overview Security Type of attacks Firewalls Protocols Packet filter Joachim Zumbrägel 1

2 Security Security means, protect information (during and after processing) against impairment i and loss of confidentiality, integrity and availability. Given by: increasing of availability and storage strategies: Backup, Redundant Systems, Raid-Systems protection against unauthorized access: Firewalls, encryption algorithm, etc. Joachim Zumbrägel 2

3 Security requirements Confidentiality protects t confidential information against unintended d access. Integrity guarantees that the data are authentic and undamaged. Availability ensures that authorized persons are able to access data and communication services at every time. Joachim Zumbrägel 3

4 CIA Triad Joachim Zumbrägel 4

5 Threats Active attacks Intrusion of unauthorized persons Impairment and disturbance of networking Data modification Passive Attacks Password listening i Data listening Network traffic analysis Joachim Zumbrägel 5

6 Aggressor Who is aggressive Competitors Hacker/Cracker (Beginners, Professional) Professional Hacker (industrial espionage) Colleagues (approx. 70% of all attacks come from Colleagues) Joachim Zumbrägel 6

7 Examples Hacker stole around DIN-A-4 Pages with privacy information like credit card numbers, passwords, etc. from the server of the World Economic Forum. by use of so called trojans, hackers got access to passwords of Microsoft employees. So the hackers were able to stole the newest source code release of a Microsoft operation system. Yahoo was a victim of a Denial-Of-Service Attack. The Website of yahoo was more than 3 hours not available. Joachim Zumbrägel 7

8 Kind of attacks Password attack Data attack Malicious Code Scanner Spoofing FTP, MAIL, Telnet DOS-Attack Joachim Zumbrägel 8

9 Password attack 3 Methods Guess on base of known or speculated user accounts (names). Brute force attack on a password file by use of special applications, i.e. Crack. Listening on connections in order to find out user names and their passwords. Joachim Zumbrägel 9

10 Data attack Data attack are done by use of so called sniffers. Sniffer respectively network monitoring i tools are applications which are originally used in order to monitor and analyse network traffic. Usually a computer receives via its network interface card only these packages which are destined for itself. But it is possible to get access to all traffic. This could be done when the network interface card is running in a special mode, the promiscuous mode. Extremely dangerous: A sniffer is installed on a server Joachim Zumbrägel 10

11 Malicious Code Malicious Code is unauthorized code (could be in a legal l application) doing jobs which h are unknown by the user and usually undesired. Examples: Viruses Trojan horses Worms Joachim Zumbrägel 11

12 Scanner Scanner are security tools which are originally used in order to find out some weak points of a system. There are system scanner and network scanner. System scanner: scans its local host in order to find out security gaps or configuration problems. Network scanner: scans computer connected to a network. They check services and ports und deliver therefore information about possible security gaps. Joachim Zumbrägel 12

13 Spoofing Spoofing is used in order to outwit authentication and identification mechanism which h are basing on trustworthy addresses and/or hostnames. a distinction is drawn between: IP-Spoofing denotes the corruption of the sender-ip address. DNS-SpoofingSpoofing means the corruption of entries in DNS-servers. Joachim Zumbrägel 13

14 FTP, Telnet, Mail, FTP, Telnet: Authentication i by use of user name and password. No encryption of data and password. Mail:. Sending of big mails affects the mail servers availability (Mail bombing). Sending of mails with wrong sender information. Joachim Zumbrägel 14

15 Dos-Attacks DOS = Denial of Service. Most common attack (simple and fast). Goal is to knock out the attacked system or at least to interfere the access for valid users. Nt Not easy to intercept. it t Next step: DDOS = Distributed Denial of Service Several machines start an attack at the same time. Example: TCP-SYN Flooding, PING Joachim Zumbrägel 15

16 Firewall Basics A Firewall is a hurdle between to nets which must be cleared in order to allow communication from one net to the other. Each communication between the nets must be done over the firewall. Internet private, local net Firewall Joachim Zumbrägel 16

17 Firewall Definition A firewall consists of one or more hard- and software components. A firewall connects two networks in a way that all traffic between the networks must pass the firewall. A Firewall implements a security strategy, which realises access restrictions and if required attack recording. A Firewall let only pass those data packages which fulfil the security strategy. Joachim Zumbrägel 17

18 What a firwall can do Restriction of traffic between two networks. Access only to special machines or services. Network monitoring and recording => protocols. Manipulation of network traffic by use of special (i.e. traffic limitation, IP-Address replacement, etc.). Joachim Zumbrägel 18

19 What a firewall can t do Closing security gaps directly. Correction of configuration or installation mistakes. Find out viruses or Trojans. Making a network totally secure. Joachim Zumbrägel 19

20 Firewall-Concepts Packet filter Filtering on network layer (IP-Addresses and Ports). Proxy-Gateways Circuit Level Gateway Filtering on transport layer. Application Level Gateway Filtering on application level (protocol dependent). Graphical Firewall All internet t applications running outside of the protected t network. Only graphical information are delivered. Joachim Zumbrägel 20

21 Proxy-Gateway Proxy=lock keeper A Proxy firewall act as a server for the client and as a client for the server. HTTP Gateway FTP Gateway Internet private, local Net Firewall with application dependent Proxy-Services Joachim Zumbrägel 21

22 Proxy-Gateway Offers application specific services for clients. Control and observe functions for a specific application. Example: Avoid that a client uses ftp in order to transfer data in (via put put command) to an external ftp-server server. Access to special HTTP-Sites is forbidden In opposite to packet filters the connection is really interrupted. IP-Addresses of the internal net are invisible. Joachim Zumbrägel 22

23 Protocols HTTP FTP SMTP Application DNS SNMP RIP Transport TCP UDP Internet t IP Phys. Network Ethernet Token-Ring ATM Joachim Zumbrägel 23

24 IP It carries the transport protocols TCP and UDP. It builds IP-Packages P out of the data which h have to be transmitted. It adds additional information, the IP-Header. It contains source and destination address. Joachim Zumbrägel 24

25 TCP TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) confirms every received data package. TCP repeats each data package until its receiving is confirmed. TCP is reliable, that means the transmission is guaranteed. 32 BIT Joachim Zumbrägel 25

26 Port Communication Communication via TCP/IP operates by IP-Addresses and Ports. 16 Each IP-Address has 2 16 potential ports. The ports below 1024 are standardized (standard ports), which are allocated to dedicated services, i.e.: 23 telnet 25 smtp http 443 https Joachim Zumbrägel 26

27 Packet filter Filtering of Data packages: Sender/Destination IP-Addresses Sender/ Destination -Ports (Services) Protocols (TCP,UDP, ICMP) Separate Filtering of incoming Packages (INPUT) und outgoing Packages (OUTPUT). Different rules for Input-Filter and Output-Filter. List of rules are so called chains. A package is checked by one rule after the other until either one rule matches or the end of list is reached. Joachim Zumbrägel 27

28 Packet filter (Chains) network interface incoming packet IINPUT-CHAIN rule 1 matches no rule 2 matches no rule 3 matches rule 3 matches no rule 2 matches no rule 1 matches OUTPUT-CHAIN outgoing packet Joachim Zumbrägel 28

29 Packet filter (Policies) Every chain has a default setting for package treatment, the so called policies. The policies come into play after a data package were checked by all rules of a chain. If no rule matches the default policy applies. There are two different strategies: Deny every package. Only well defined kind of packages are allowed. (Better). Allow every package. Only well defined kind of packages are forbidden. Joachim Zumbrägel 29

30 Packet filter (Reject vs. Drop) Packet filters have two different methods to handle a non accepted package. Reject: The Package will be deleted and an ICMP-Error message is delivered to the sender. Drop: The Package will be deleted. Drop is the better choice, because: less traffic, the package could be part of a attack, even an error message could be an useful information for an aggressor. Joachim Zumbrägel 30

31 Filtering of incoming packets Filtering according to Sender- IP There a some groups of IP-Addresses which could be generally dropped. For example: IP-Addresses of the own Subnet, etc. Filtering according to Destination-IP Only packages addressing the own network are accepted. Filtering according sender/destination Port We have to distinguish between requests of external clients to our own servers and incoming answers of external servers destined for local clients. Joachim Zumbrägel 31

32 Filtering of outgoing packets Filtering according Sender IP Only packages with correct IP-Addresses of our own network are allowed to pass. Filtering according Destination IP Depends on requested services, i.e.: request to an external mail server. Filtering according Sender-Ports ots Client-Requests to external resources are usually done by ports above Local servers use well defined ports (below 1024) when they send an answer to external clients. Filtering according Destination-Ports All destination ports of external clients (accessing local servers) are above Internal clients will use well defined ports below 1024 for access to external servers. Joachim Zumbrägel 32

33 Stateful filtering Stateful Filtering means the capability to store the state and contextual information of a TCP network connection. =>Dynamic packet filter analyse the state of an TCP- Connection. Connection request of client: SYN Acknowledgement of server: ACK-SYN Acknowledgement of client: ACK Further transfer (from both sides): ACK Packages (containing a ACK-Flag) from outside to inside are only accepted if a package from inside to outside (containing a SYN-Flag) was sent before. Joachim Zumbrägel 33

34 Iptables Iptables (Packet filter under Linux) Three Chains: INPUT, OUTPUT, FORWARD. Routing decides if a package is delivered to the INPUT- Chain or to the FORWARD-Chain. Packages for the machine itself are checked at first by the INPUT-Chain. If the INPUT Chain accepts the packages it reaches the actual machine. Packets for foreign machines (in out local protected net) are running through the FORWARD-Chain. If the packages is accepted it is delivered to the appropriated network interface. Joachim Zumbrägel 34

35 IPTables (2) Routing Drop Forward- Chain Input- Chain Local Processes Output- Chain Drop Drop Joachim Zumbrägel 35

36 IPTables (some commands) Delete rules iptables --flush Drop all packages iptables policy INPUT DROP iptables policy OUTPUT DROP iptables policy FORWARD DROP Reject incoming packages coming from the IP-Address of our own external interface itbl iptables A input i eth0 s <myipadress> -j DROP Joachim Zumbrägel 36

37 Firewall example Joachim Zumbrägel 37

38 How can I protect my own PC Deactivate all services which are not required. Deinstall all programs which are not permanently used. Deinstall all programs with well known security gaps. (even when you need them). Inform yourself about security gaps and use updates. Install a virus scanner (Freeware: AntiVir). Install ore use your personal firewall (Freeware:ZoneAlarm). Joachim Zumbrägel 38

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