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1 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE BIANNUEL DE LA REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE 202

2 2 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE 202 L A.L.I.A.I. dans l origine remonte à 897, et qui regroue lusieurs organismes aarentés, édite quatre fois ar an la Revue echnique, sa ublication rinciale, dédiée à des articles se raortant aux sujets traités ar les rofessionnels qu elle regroue. Pour l ALIAI la Revue echnique Luxembourgeoise et son site Internet sont des moyens de communication essentiels donnant à ses membres le contact immédiat avec l organisation à laquelle ils sont affiliés. Ces instruments offrent aux entrerises de résenter leur travail devant un ublic ciblé. La Revue echnique Luxembourgeoise ossède un assé restigieux qui lui confère une légitimité aurès des affiliés de l ALIAI. La Revue echnique Luxembourgeoise et le site Internet offrent aux Partenaires de la Revue echnique de l Association des Ingénieurs, Architectes et Industriels la ossibilité de faire connaître leurs roduits ou d informer de cette manière sur la structure de leur entrerise et de toucher un ublic ciblé de lecteurs intéressés. Le cahier scientifique, a our mission de romouvoir le déveloement de la recherche et de la culture scientifique, en contribuant à la diffusion et à la valorisation des connaissances et des méthodes scientifiques en vue de soutenir un dialogue entre la science et la société. Le cahier scientifique est ublié 2 fois ar an ar la rédaction de la Revue echnique. C est un instrument rofessionnel our scientifiques, techniciens, étudiants et intéressés rofessionnels dans le domaine de l ingénierie, de la technologie, de la recherche, des énergies renouvelables et de l industrie. Des articles sur des recherches arofondies ar nos collaborateurs des instituts, des artenaires ou industriels sont ubliés dans chaque exemlaire des cahiers scientifiques. REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE éditée ar L Association Luxembourgeoise des Ingénieurs, Architectes et Industriels L- 330 Luxembourg 6, boulevard Grande-Duchesse Charlotte t f Rédacteur en Chef Michel Petit Resonsable Revue echnique Sonja Reichert t Grahisme Bohumil Kostohryz

3 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE EDIO_ Environmental Research and Innovation, made in Luxembourg he Resource Centre for Environmental echnologies (CRE), a common structure of the Public Research Centre Henri udor and the Ministry for Sustainable Develoment and Infrastructures is a major layer in ublic environmental research and innovation in Luxembourg. Created in 998 with the rimary mission of suorting small and medium sized enterrises (SME) with the alication of Best Available echniques (BA) for the environment and Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) in roduction rocesses, it has develoed into an interdiscilinary research centre with more than fifty highly skilled scientists and engineers. CRE develos tools and methods in environmental assessment and modelling, caable of tackling a wide range of socio-economically relevant questions and suorts technological develoments, mainly in the energy and water sectors, with skills and cometences in environmental systems engineering. As a deartment of udor, CRE takes u the challenge of contributing to the three-fold mission of a Research and echnology Organisation (RO): scientific excellence in secific domains, environmental olicy suort and innovation, both in rivate and ublic activity sectors. he Cradle to Cradle (C2C) concet and its alication to business sites, as described in a contribution to this Cahier Scientifique, is a rominent examle for the three-fold mission, with the develoment and testing of sustainable business strategies, in collaboration with comanies and olicy makers. ROs lay as well an imortant role in the consolidation and transfer of knowledge, as illustrated by the case of Dr.-Ing. Katarzyna Golkowska, author of an article on energy roduction from biomass. After comletion of her PhD thesis at the University of Luxembourg, the researcher joined CRE to work on the valorisation otential of biogenic organic raw materials in North-West Euroe. he merger of the Public Research Centres Henri udor and Gabriel Limann will be a most imortant ste towards setting the roadma for environmental research and innovation within the coming years in Luxembourg. It will allow building u more critical mass in terms of cometences and infrastructures, aligning and focusing research agendas and thereby gaining even stronger international visibility through scientific excellence in selected domains. It will on the other hand boost collaboration with comanies and the University of Luxembourg, e.g. through the Ecoinnovation cluster animated by Luxinnovation, where the valorisation of biowaste in an urban environment has earned a articular attention. he common roadma should foster the develoment of a flexible, multidiscilinary research and innovation environment, integrating academic and alied research, with the ability of covering the comlete innovation cycle and roviding strong environmental olicy suort. Positioning Luxembourg and the Greater Region in a cometitive international research and innovation market asks, furthermore, for a good coordination of ublic funding schemes and their alignment with national strategies as well as intelligent and farsighted governance of the whole research environment. Dr. Paul Schosseler Director of CRE and member of the executive management board of CRP Henri udor

4 4 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE 202 _INDEX 6_ HENRI MULLER In memoriam 8_ SENSIBILISAION SUR LE CLOUD COMPUING EN PME Eric Miglioranzo, R&D Engineer 2_ Cradle to Cradle (C2C) Alina Beloussova 6_ GNSS MEEOROLOGY IN LUXEMBOURG Furqan Ahmed, Norman eferle, Richard Bingley, Jörg Bareiss 24_ MONOVERGÄRUNG VON MAISSILAGE UND ELLULOSE Dr.-Ing. Katarzyna Golkowska, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Manfred Greger 28_ HERMODYNAMISCHE USANDSÄNDERUNGEN REALER GASE Dr. homas ANDREAS, Leiter F&E, Rotarex 36_ HOL IN BESFORM Prof. Dr.-Ing. Peer Haller 40_ Camagnes de roduction Ing. dil. Henri Muller 47_ RESEARCHERS DAYS 202 Fonds National de la Recherche 48_ WIE VIEL ENERGIE VERBRAUCHEN NEUE UNERRICHS- UND BÜROGEBÄUDE IN LUXEMBURG? Prof. Dr.-Ing. S.Maas, Ass.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. F.Scholzen, Dr.-Ing. Andreas HEWES, Ass.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Danièle Waldmann 54_ CHERCHEUR DU SN REÇOI HARLAN D. MILLS AWARD 202 Lionel Briand _comité de lecture Ingénieur dil. Pierre Dornseiffer Rerésentant membre ALI Ing. Dil. Marc Feider Administrateur et chef de service Bâtiments / Ouvrages Schroeder & Associés Prof. Dr. Ing. Jean-Régis Hadji-Minaglou Université du Luxembourg, Unité de recherche: Ingénierie Faculté des Sciences, de la echnologie et de la Communication Informaticien dil. Patrick Hitzelberger Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Limann Déartement ISC Prof. Dr. Ing. Michel Marso Professeur en echnologie de élécommunications Université du Luxembourg, Unité de recherche: Ingénierie Faculté des Sciences, de la echnologie et de la Communication Dr. Paul Schosseler, Directeur CRE / CRP Henri udor

5 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE Bohumil KOSOHRY boshua revue ubliée ar_ artenaires de la revue_ BAA GENIE CIVIL CONSRUCIONS MOBILIER E INSALLAIONS DE BUREAUX revue imrimée sur du aier_

6 6 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE 202 Henri Muller naquit le 3 août 927 à Kleinbettingen dans une famille d industriels luxembourgeois; Il fréquenta l école rimaire locale, termina ses études secondaires à l Athénée Grand Ducal à Luxembourg, et obtint en 952 le dilôme d ingénieur civil métallurgiste à l Université de Liège. In memoriam HENRI MULLER_ Il débuta aussitôt sa carrière à Differdange à la Hadir (Hauts-fourneaux et Aciéries de Differdange, St.-lngbert et Rumelange). La HADIR était sécialisée dans la fabrication de outrelle Grey, des outrelles à larges ailes et à faces arallèles, roduction introduite ar Paul Wurth qui en avait achetée la licence en 898. La carrière de Henri Muller fut exemlaire. En 96, il fut nommé chef de service, uis romu ingénieur en chef de l usine de Differdange. Il devint ensuite, en 976, directeur adjoint de l Arbed ( Aciéries Réunies de Burbach-Eich-Dudelange) à Esch-Belval, qui avait reris la HADIR en 967 et qui dominait la roduction sidérurgique au Grand Duché. Arès une bref retour au bercail, à Differdange, comme directeur, il fut nommé, la même année, le er novembre 976, directeur général adjoint au comlexe maritime SID- MAR, en Belgique, dont l ARBED était l un des artenaires au moment de sa création, uis lus tard, en devint l actionnaire rincial. C était our lui un choix difficile, car il l obligeait de s éloigner de son cocon natal, de ses amis, de sa famille; il n avait as été le remier ressenti our ce oste, mais le seul à l acceter, et il ne le regretta jamais. En effet, en 973 survint la remière crise du étrole, son rix étant soudainement multilié ar 4. Ce choc étrolier déclenchât, en 974, une dernière flambée de la demande d acier mais la demande s effondra en 975. Ce fut, au niveau euroéen, le tems de la restructuration, orchestrée ar le commissaire euroéen Etienne Davignon, et, au niveau national, le début de la triartite; un accord de restructuration de la sidérurgie luxembourgeoise fut signé le 9 mars 979 dans le cadre de la Conférence triartite. Henri Muller vit artir à la retraite anticiée lus d un de ses amis luxembourgeois. Mais Sidmar résista mieux à la crise que les roducteurs d acier traditionnels, étant une aciérie récemment créée, disosant d une situation maritime avantageuse, et sécialisée dans les roduits lats à demande lus forte. René Brück, administrateur délégué, Alhonse Helfen, directeur général et Henri Muller ilotèrent avec succès Sidmar à travers le tumultueux marché de l acier dans les années 80 et c est récisément dans ces circonstances difficiles que ce dernier eut l occasion de déloyer tous ses

7 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE talents. Il arit très raidement le néerlandais, gagna la confiance de ses collaborateurs flamands, et fut à l écoute du ersonnel néerlandohone. Lors de la suression du moratoire, Sidmar entrerit une nouvelle vague d investissements, roulsant l entrerise à la ointe technologique armi les roducteurs d acier lat. À sa création en 962, les grands roducteurs d acier euroéens avaient convenu que l entrerise aurait le statut d aciérie maritime, et ils visaient surtout l exortation des roduits en dehors de l Euroe. Mais, dans les années 80, l automobile devenait un marché imortant our les roducteurs d acier. l Euroe ayant une industrie automobile florissante, il devint évident que Sidmar devait créer son rore service de vente, afin de conquérir sa art sur le marché euroéen. C est our cela aussi que l intérêt fut dirigé sur la roduction d acier galvanisé; Henri Muller en comris très vite l imortance et ris raidement des mesures our allier au manque de caacités de galvanisation à Sidmar. Comme les accords de Hanzinelle signés avec les autres industriels Belges de l acier interdisaient à SIDMAR de construire ce genre d installation endant 0 ans, on décida de conclure un accord de articiation avec un artenaire, en créant le groue «SEGAL», à Ivoz-Ramet. Sidmar acquit à artir de 983, /3 des caacités, ayant comme artenaires Cockeril-Sambre et les Hauts Fourneaux de IJmuiden. La volonté de maximiser la roduction aboutit entre 99 et 992 à la construction d une ligne de galvanisation électrolytique à Genk «SIKEL», en joint venture avec Klöckner Stahl Bremen, actuellement Arcelor Mittal Bremen. Dans la salle de réunion du comité des directeurs end un oster intitulé «Men of Mathematics», datant de la ériode où Henri Muller dirigeait l entrerise. En effet, Henri Muller n était as seulement un ingénieur, c était aussi un assionné des mathématiques; L une de ses réalisations les lus remarquables à cet égard, et dont il était le lus fier, était «l IPSO» ou «Integrated Production Scheduling Organisation», basé sur un modèle théorique de gestion intégrée de la roduction aboutissant à un échéancier rogrammable erformant. Il avait ublié ses réflexions en 2003 dans un des Cahiers de Gestion du Centre Universitaire de Luxembourg; Son modèle est toujours en usage à Sidmar en 202 et comme l a souligné le regretté Norbert von Kunitzki dans sa réface de la ublication récitée: «l analyse d Henri Muller a été endant une décennie, un des facteurs déterminant la gestion de SIDMAR, dont la roduction est montée de 3 à 5 millions de tonnes d acier endant cette ériode». Une autre de ses assions était les langues; il attacha beaucou d imortance à ce que les documents rédigés en néerlandais et en français que les resonsables réaraient our les conseils d administration le soient dans un style correct et soigné. Lui-même lisait énormément et aimait écrire des textes scientifiques sur des sujets divers qui le assionnaient; dans ses écrits, il veilla articulièrement à un langage clair et récis. Il est curieux que l un des derniers textes que cet homme rigoureux ait transmis à sa famille n avait rien de scientifique: Il s agissait d une descrition aux notes resque sirituelles et d une étonnante qualité littéraire, de ce qu il avait ressenti au cours d une intervention ohtalmique sous anesthésie. Henri Muller, ancien directeur général de Sidmar à Gand, aujourd hui Arcelor Mittal, s est éteint le 25 février 202 à Oglabbeek en Belgique, entouré de ses roches. Ses collaborateurs gardent de lui le souvenir d un homme sévère mais intègre et équitable, un homme à l esrit infatigable et extrêmement rigoureux dans ses actes et dans ses ensées. Ceux qui l ont connu dans sa vie rivée se souviennent aussi d un homme ratiquant un certain sens de l humour et caable d autodérision, un féru des discussions olémiques, un homme d une grande culture, généreux et d une sensibilité à fleur de eau qu il s efforça de toujours masquer. En hommage à une ersonnalité chatoyante. Marie-Louise Muller Verlanken

8 8 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE 202 Le concet «cloud comuting» n est effectivement as seulement une offre d externalisation de services. Le cloud comuting roose un modèle original de fournitures de services I qui s inscrit dans une logique d externalisation du système d information. L entrerise accède, à sa guise et le tems désiré, aux ressources et services mis à sa disosition, et sera facturé en conséquence. Qu il s agisse de services d hébergement, de fourniture d infrastructures à distance, de la fédération de services alicatifs à la demande, le «cloud comuting» est un concet qui offre une nouvelle façon de concevoir et de consommer l informatique. Le cloud comuting, un concet original de fourniture de services SENSIBILISAION SUR LE CLOUD COMPUING EN PME_ Eric Miglioranzo, R&D Engineer Comme le grand rincie du cloud comuting est de rerendre toutes les modèles d externalisations (mode hébergé, accès en réseau, mutualisation, usage à la demande, services associés), il englobe donc toutes les ressources I. Ainsi, quand une offre SaaS ne concerne qu un logiciel, le concet «cloud comuting» ermet de fédérer l accès à lusieurs services et à lusieurs logiciels SaaS, lesquels euvent être regroués en bouquets de services alicatifs. Par cet exemle, il s agit bien de souligner que le SaaS est une solution logicielle, alors que le cloud, lui, est une stratégie. htt://www.cegid.fr/le-cloud-comuting-definitions-etaroches/r-3464.asx Mais comme our la luart des concets, sensibiliser les décideurs de PME et PE aux enjeux du cloud comuting est tâche d autant lus ardue que leur quotidien consiste à imaginer des solutions concrètes à leurs réoccuations. Sensibilisation et stratégie d innovation de services ar le cloud Evolution des métiers, évolution des vigilances Grâce à l aort des IC, l entrerise gère lus facilement la multilicité de ses unités, de ses sites, voire de ses ays. Ses relations d affaires sont facilitées, ses échanges de données avec ses artenaires se multilient, et le nomadisme de ses commerciaux est favorisé. En contreartie, il convient d être vigilant et donc de suivre l évolution des comortements inhérente aux nouvelles oortunités de travail, comme ar exemle: _Le nomadisme imose à l information d être accessible deuis tout tye d outil mobile; _Les contraintes réglementaires de contexte (ar ex celui des PSF) auxquelles l entrerise doit satisfaire sont sujets à une réflexion arofondie our envisager toute initiative d externalisation de services ou de données aux fournisseurs de services Cloud; _Le oids croissant au fil des années des données, de la multilication des stockages souligne l imortance d un lan d anticiation. Ces quelques exemles our montrer que l entrerise se doit d être attentive et vigilante our anticier la mise en œuvre des exigences requises aux évolutions métiers qu elle considère comme incontournables our consolider son ositionnement marché et sa notoriété. Le Cloud ouvre le chemin de l innovation aux PME Le Cloud Comuting est un vecteur d ouverture aux évolutions. Et our chaque entrerise qui y souscrit, l enjeu du Cloud Comuting ne doit as être uniquement, comme dans toute stratégie d externalisation, comme une solution qui vise à réduire les coûts. Certes, les économies sont facilement et raidement mesurables. Ne serait-ce que arce que les services Cloud souscrits ermettent de minimiser l investissement des entrerises en rore matériel, logiciels, licences et en maintenance. Un autre intérêt non négligeable concerne la mise à niveau d un environnement de qualité suérieure. Mais le Cloud, eut-être, est une oortunité our les entrerises qui cherchent à assurer leur survie sur le long terme grâce à l innovation. Cette aroche donne aux PME les moyens ainsi que la ossibilité d innover en offrant un accès raide aux services technologiques externalisés en même tems que la réduction des déenses financières.. Ne as innover est source de recul dans la cométition que le marché anime. Et bien des entrereneurs soulignent articulièrement l imortance d innover endant une crise our assurer le succès à long terme. «Les entrerises qui continuent d innover endant une récession se seront adatées et mieux réarées lorsque le marché rerend à nouveau.» Que faut-il externaliser, et our quels bénéfices? Mais, externaliser tout ou artie d une alication métier, d une infrastructure, ou d une late-forme imose de considérer récautionneusement chacune des évolutions oérées sur les rocessus concernés. Les évolutions sont imortantes our chacun des acteurs imactés directement ou indirectement. Et les bénéfices attendus relèvent effectivement de l amélioration de l efficacité en termes de roductivité administrative, de réactivité, de raidité de décision, mais surtout en termes d amélioration de l accès aux données. De lus, il est démontré que les caractéristiques des services Cloud internalisés et l adatation individuelle influencent significativement la satisfaction, l utilisation et

9 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE la formation de ercetions ositives. Disoser d une stratégie d adatation favorise l adotion de ces nouveaux services au sein de l entrerise. outefois, dans certains cas, le Cloud n est as source de création de valeur. Par exemle, reconsidérer tout ou artie de son infrastructure informatique, surtout quand elle est conséquente, our évoluer vers le Cloud Comuting n aidera as forcément l entrerise, hormis s il est nécessaire de régénérer comlètement, le ortefeuille d alications. De fait, quelles que soient les oortunités Cloud suscetibles de favoriser l entrerise, élaborer sa stratégie d innovation de services ar le Cloud, ermettrait d aborder lus largement l aort de solutions Cloud, en ermettant aux utilisateurs finaux de s arorier les évolutions qui constitueront le lan d innovation de services ar le Cloud. Sensibilisation et Stratégie d innovation de services ar le cloud Bien des études confirment, que «les roblèmes majeurs d hébergement d un entreôt de données dans les nuages est le manque de confiance accordée aux fournisseurs du cloud comuting, de disonibilité de service et de sécurité de transfert des données vers le cloud comuting». Le thème de la sécurité autour des offres de Cloud Comuting est de loin la réoccuation la lus imortante des décideurs en entrerises en considération des sujets d inquiétude suivant: _Sécurité/Confidentialité _Déendance du réseau / facteurs liés au réseau _Perte de contrôle sur les données/externalisation vers un tiers Le Cloud Comuting oblige donc à reenser la sécurité informatique, et nécessite qu une démarche sécifique s attelant à ces freins soient menées our les désinhiber, otentiellement au travers d une sensibilisation des décideurs à l intérêt de considérer leurs lus grandes réticences comme des oortunités d innovation:. Evolution de la technologie Une des trois grandes réticences des décideurs est de ne as maitriser l évolution de la technologie. Mais le Cloud est un facteur intéressant à lusieurs titres : le niveau technologique de l entrerise eut être déloyé tactiquement à moindre coût our réondre à l évolution des besoins de l entrerise et our soutenir l innovation en ermettant un déveloement raide de nouveaux roduits et services, grâce à un nombre croissant de fournisseurs de technologie qui adotent le modèle du cloud comuting. Le réseau n a jamais été aussi imortant comme catalyseur our l innovation. 2. Le manque de maitrise de la demande clients La réticence envers les restataires de services est un thème récurrent : comment envisager ces nouvelles oortunités intentées ar des fournisseurs de services éloquents mais jugés eu réactifs à l exression des besoins ou des réoccuations? Pourtant, il est très imortant de réaliser que ces services sont hautement standardisés afin de concerner le lus grand nombre d entrerises. Or une ratique courante de l entrerise, notamment lors de l adotion de rogiciel, est de déveloer des sécificités afin de réondre au mieux aux besoins des métiers. Par exemle, avec le SaaS, cette ratique détruira ses rinciaux avantages en faisant exloser les coûts, les délais et la robustesse des services. Ce qui exlique que la sélection du fournisseur de services Cloud Comuting se fait rioritairement sur son exertise ressentie ou reconnue sur la solution à déloyer, les coûts, et s il est déjà résent ou non au sein de la société. 3. La erlexité à adoter une stratégie Elaborer sa stratégie d innovation ar le Cloud est l objet d une démarche eu coutumière en PME, mais qui aorterait une démarche structurante, un réalable objectif à l engagement our internaliser l externalisation. En effet, les réticences récitées deviennent alors des facteurs imortants de motivation our qu une entrerise envisage l innovation de services ar les ICS et engage une réflexion arofondie, ersonnalisée et ragmatique sur l intérêt du Cloud dans son organisation. Il y a un intérêt à mieux informer, mieux romouvoir les nouveaux modèles suortés ar les fournisseurs de services, et mieux disséminer sur l imortance et de l imact de l innovation de service ar le Cloud en PME.

10 0 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE 202 Aussi, décider d évoluer vers le Cloud relève d une décision de la direction, qui s inscrit dans le cadre d une stratégie globale de l entrerise, et our laquelle le lan d actions rend en considération, outres les asects technologiques, l imact sur l organisation et ses rocessus, et l accomagnement des acteurs concernés en vue d évaluer la satisfaction roduite. htt://www.cegid.fr/le-cloud-comuting- definitions-et-aroches/r-3464.asx Suggestions Pour suggestion, deux des initiatives ressenties en matière d accomagnement à l intégration de services externalisés en PME consistent à: _ Produire une analyse contextuelle sur le territoire national en vue d élaborer un lan de sensibilisation adaté _ Elaborer une démarche d élaboration d un lan d innovation de services ar l externalisation (Voire envisager une aroche basée sur un livre rédigé our accélérer l innovation de service ar la mise en œuvre dans l infrastructure de cateurs Cloud our accéder à des ressources et des cateurs our disoser de services cloud comuting. Ainsi le fournisseur de services réare des modèles de service et les demandeurs de service euvent raidement disoser des instances de service lorsqu ils ont besoin. Les demandeurs de service euvent utiliser des instances de service euxmêmes ou d étendre les instances de service our la création de nouveaux services et de nouveaux modèles de service. L innovation de service et ses scénarios d utilisation.) Cela justifie qu instancier une démarche d innovation de services ar les IC est une oortunité our l entrerise d aréhender une réflexion arofondie aux oortunités de services innovants suortés ar les technologies de l information et des télécommunications. Accomagnée et inscrite dans une démarche collaborative, l entrerise édifie sa stratégie à moyen terme en construisant notamment son lan d évolution de son système d information. Mais our aborder tous les asects fonctionnels, organisationnels mais aussi technologiques, il est indisensable, au réalable des réflexions qu une base de connaissances, des tendances et des ersectives d innovation, soit constituée et artagée avec les acteurs imliqués. Et le Cloud doit être un concet entendu, comris et considéré au titre d un des scénarios qui contribue à simlifier le fonctionnement de l entrerise, à lui ermettre de se concentrer sur son cœur de métier, et à améliorer sa caacité d innovation. Le Cloud comuting, garant de la bonne rotection de l information Disonibilité, intégrité, confidentialité Mettre en œuvre des solutions de CLOUD au sein de l entrerise, c est instancier dans les rocessus de traitement de l information des ratiques adatées au contexte de l entrerise et à son organisation qui garantissent la mise à disosition des données non altérées aux ersonnes autorisées : disonibilité, intégrité, confidentialité. Mais, le Cloud résente un double facteur de risque sulémentaire arce qu il s agit d externaliser ses services et son information aurès de fournisseurs externes. Ces deux oints requièrent une vigilance accrue our que soient assurés l intégrité et la confidentialité des informations, la disonibilité des données et des services, et l établissement de la conformité à une olitique ou réglementation. Or à ce jour, toutes les réoccuations de sécurité n ont as encore été soumises aux fournisseurs de services Clouds. Intégrer l externalisation en entrerise Pour comléter l exression des vigilances, il faut avoir conscience qu une des roblématiques imortante d entrerise est l intégration de nouveaux services dans les systèmes d information existants. Paradoxalement, externaliser devient alors une démarche d intégration qui ne se fait as aussi facilement qu il y arait car il faut, en effet, construire une couche intermédiaire our faire l intégration de qui était déjà intégré. Si la tendance d aujourd hui réconise l utilisation des «Web Services» our faire ces intégrations, il n en reste as moins qu une telle démarche est source de réoccuations comortementales basée sur la désaroriation technologique et organisationnelle. Les rinciales réoccuations sont intrinsèquement liées à l exloitation des services fournis ar d autres organisations et d y accéder via Internet. L entrerise a besoin de travailler en confiance De fait, la notion de confiance est une valeur imortante à considérer our chacun des acteurs intervenants à une

11 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE 202 externalisation qui se doit d être imérativement réussie. «C est un eu comme devoir laisser son enfant à la crèche, chaque matin, il faut avoir confiance en la structure d accueil our asser une journée concentré sur ses activités métier». Parce qu en PME les ressources sont limitées, il est très imortant que le fournisseur de services Cloud fournisse efficacement ses ressources, ce qui ar voie de conséquence, souligne la haute imortance de construire un modèle de confiance suffisant our la rédiction de la erformance et la stabilité du service.. Le Cloud sécurisé en PME ne s imrovise as Les recommandations ci-arès, et qui reflètent les bonnes ratiques générales en matière de sécurisation des Clouds, sont, comme, soulignées ar ses auteurs: «elles ne doivent as être vues comme une garantie de réussite.». Il convient donc de déterminer la meilleure aroche à adoter en raort aux besoins sécifiques de l environnement de l entrerise. De façon générique, mettre en lace et maintenir un rogramme de sécurisation c est: _construire et maintenir une infrastructure Cloud sécurisée; _assurer la rotection des données confidentielles; _mettre en œuvre une gestion solide des accès et des identités; _assurer le rovisionnement des alications et de l environnement; _mettre en lace un rogramme de gouvernance et de gestion des audits; _mettre en lace un rogramme de gestion des vulnérabilités informatiques et des intrusions; _tester et valider régulièrement l environnement. Basé sur htt://www-935.ibm.com/services/fr/gts/df/ cloud_security_guidance_redp464-frfr.df Evolution de la fonction RI Un lan d actions qui en dit long sur les cométences et les disonibilités des ressources internes et externes nécessaires. Les évolutions de cométences des forces résentes en entrerises sont assez conséquentes et arfois euvent être fatales. En effet, si les grandes entrerises ossèdent souvent une équie dédiée à la gouvernance de leur système d information, les etites et moyennes entrerises disosent, au mieux, d un resonsable informatique dont l activité est régentée ar les riorités technico-informatiques. L imact sur les fonctions internes est assez imortant our les acteurs des etites structures. L évolution de la fonction de resonsable informatique en PME eut être conséquente, et de fait se doit d être évalué au réalable. La démarche de la mise en œuvre en toute sécurité de services Cloud ne s imrovise as BIBLIOGRAPHIE Ashford, W. (2008). Cloud clears the way for SME innovation. Comuter Weekly, Bordeaux, C., Cleuziou, R. G., Labroche, N., & Lebbah, M. (202). 9ème Atelier sur la Fouille de Données Comlexes Comlexité liée aux données multiles et massives. Noûs. Buecker, A., & Moss, H. (2009). Redaer. Comuting, -22 Chang, W. Y., Abu-Amara, H., & Sanford, J. F. (200). ransforming Enterrise Cloud Services. Media ( ). Dordrecht: Sringer Netherlands. doi:0.007/ Comuting, C. (200). Cloud Comuting. Elie-Dit-Cosaque, C. (20). Caractéristiques et succès des I: l influence de l adatation individuelle Référence : (. ). 6e Colloque AIM-Saint-Denis (La Réunion). Geczy, P., Izumi, N., & Hasida, K. (202). Cloudsourcing: Managing Cloud Adotion. Global Journal of Business Research, 6(2), AIS. Retrieved from htt://www.theibfr.com/gjbr.htm Kim, H., Lee, H., Kim, W., & Kim, Y. (200). A rust Evaluation Model for QoS Guarantee in Cloud Systems *. Distributed Comuting, 3(), - Kloch, C., Petersen, E. B., & Madsen, O. B. (20). Cloud Based Infrastructure, the New Business Possibilities and Barriers. Wireless Personal Communications, 58(), doi: 0.007/s Mongan, K. (20). he storm is coming. Accountancy Ireland, 43(3), Poujol, M. (200). Le Cloud Comuting en France. Livre blanc, 9 Yuriyama, M.; Kushida,.; Itakura, M.., & IBM Res. - okyo, Yamato, J. (n.d.). A New Model of Accelerating Service Innovation with Sensor- Cloud Infrastructure ( ed., ). San Jose, CA: Retrieved from htt://ieeexlore.ieee.org/xl/freeabs_all. js?arnumber=59580

12 2 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE 202 Cradle to Cradle (C2C) is an innovation latform for designing beneficial economic, social and environmental features into roducts, rocess and systems, starting by determining the intended benefits of a roduct or service rather than minimizing negative environmental imacts. It was originally develoed by the German chemist and former Greeneace activist Michael Braungart and the American architect William McDonough back in the 990s in he Hannover Princiles 2, going mainstream with the ublication of the article he NEX industrial revolution 3. Cradle to Cradle - the book - was ublished in on a recyclable olymer to bring home the oint that books don t have to come from trees. CRADLE O CRADLE (C2C)_ Alina Beloussova he concet generated considerable interest in the Netherlands after the documentary Waste=Food 5 by director Rob van Hattum was shown on Dutch television. A number of C2C insired rojects and initiatives quickly srang u across the country, from traditional manufacturing comanies beginning to develo C2C roducts, to C2C buildings, C2C cities and C2C education in universities. However, desite the growing oularity of the concet, it has been, so far, mostly limited to roducts, less comlex, for which C2C certification has been develoed. Progress towards C2C in architecture is ongoing, but, desite some early examles, C2C alication on business sites can still be considered uncharted territory. In this context, a Euroean collaboration latform was formed in several countries in North West Euroe to aly C2C on the level of business sites, as well as sread the benefits to countries where the idea is not as established as in the Netherlands. Several key Luxembourgish actors involved in the roject will be at the vanguard of alying the C2C hilosohy in Luxembourg. What is Cradle to Cradle? Conventional roducts are designed to be thrown away at the end of their use, the so-called cradle to grave. Recycling comes in only as an afterthought, as a way of dealing with waste, a roduct that no longer has value. A traditional roduct contains hundreds of different materials all mixed together, often imossible to identify or searate. he materials recovered from such a roduct are mostly of oor quality, and have therefore limited use for recycling. hey can only be used to make lower quality roducts (for examle turning mixed lastics from ackaging into ark benches), instead of the same tye of roduct. he quality is degrading throughout the chain, until finally the material cannot be recycled anymore, a rocess commonly termed downcycling. Meanwhile, the same natural resources thrown away as waste are being deleted, while toxic chemicals are resent in everyday roducts and houses. Cradle to cradle design means that a roduct should be non-toxic or beneficial to humans and ecosystems during as well as after their use, with materials that can be searated, and comletely and safely biodegraded or recycled. Waste = food In natural systems, waste does not exist. he waste of one organism constitutes food for another, forming a continuous cycle of nutrients, in a biological rocess that contributes to the overall health of the ecosystem. Similarly, we can imagine and create a technical nutrient cycle, where synthetic nutrients circulate in a closed loo system, being recovered and reused at the same level of quality at the end of the roduct s life. Nutrient Cycles. Source: EPEA Internationale Umweltforschung GmbH. In order to make that ossible, roducts need to be designed secifically for the biological or technical cycle, with all ingredients in the roduct well defined, safe for eole and the environment, as well as enabling the roduct to be disassembled and its materials recovered and fed back into the technical cycle. Use current solar income Desite its name, this rincile involves using energy coming from the many forms of renewable energy that are all directly or indirectly derived from the sun. Current, in this case, means raidly renewable energy, as oosed to fossil fuels or nuclear ower. his might include solar ower, wind, geothermal or biomass, for examle, deending on the local circumstances. Energy-wise, the asiration of any C2C rocess should be to roduce more energy that it uses. Energy efficiency measures, when imlemented in combination with innovative renewable energy roduction and distribution can be an effective tool towards that goal.

13 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE Celebrate diversity Diversity makes ecosystems more resonsive and resilient in changing conditions. In C2C, the concet of diversity is commonly described as a combination of three comonents biodiversity, concetual diversity and cultural diversity. Biodiversity, in the classical sense, consists in an abundance and diversity of lant and animal secies. A C2C roject should contribute to enhance the natural diversity of the local environment, be it through, for examle, the introduction of lants that will imrove indoor air quality, a green roof that will rovide habitat for indigenous secies, or a constructed wetlands that treat water and enhance the ecological quality of an area. Concetual and cultural diversity entail being mindful of a variety of concets, uses and cultures, adating to the local environment, using local materials when designing any rocess that will suort human activity (be it a roduct, a building or a business site), enhancing the adatability and resilience of the design. raditional sustainability, the authors claim, is therefore a form of guilt management, focusing on minimization and the cost of environmental measures, which ultimately sends the consumer the message that not buying the roduct is the most environmentally friendly otion. he C2C model, on the other hand, sees quality imrovement as a benefit, one that brings financial rewards and invites the costumer to maximize ositive environmental imact by using C2C roducts. he revolutionary idea of C2C is that economic growth and business can be a constructive force, and, conversely, that C2C earns money and makes business sense. Desso, a caret manufacturer, has begun making C2C carets that can be comletely recycled, don t offgas toxic chemicals like regular carets and clean indoor air. Its rofitability greatly increased since it became C2C certified, and the comany went from being considered an old-fashioned comany to being on the cutting edge of innovation. Beyond sustainability Cradle to cradle tries to differentiate itself from traditional sustainability. C2C develoers are often affirming that C2C is not about sustainability, but about quality and innovation, a roduct that is unsafe for humans and the environment is simly a oorly designed one. According to this view, traditional sustainability is only focused on minimizing imacts and increasing efficiency. he aradox of efficiency is that any increases in efficiency will be outaced by the increase of consumtion 6. Furthermore, minimizing the toxic content of roducts will make it more difficult to recover that material from the roduct after its use. C2C rooses the alternative model of eco-effectiveness, insired by the abundance of nature. Instead of aiming to minimize the negative imact of human activity, we should aim to maximize the ositive imact of our resence on our surrounding environment. Instead of reducing industrial emissions, we want factories whose oerating rocess are urifies the water it uses, releasing it cleaner than it originally was. Desso recycling system. Source: Desso BV

14 4 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE 202 Another examle of a C2C roduct is Steelcase s hink chair, which was designed to be disassembled in five minutes and is 98% recyclable, as well as being designed with safe materials for good indoor air quality. Steelcase hink Chair. Source: EPEA Internationale Umweltforschung GmbH aking another examle from nature, a C2C building should behave like a tree. It should rovide a healthy, enjoyable environment for its occuants, quality materials, biodiversity, clean air and water, and roduce its own energy. It should also be comletely deconstructable and recyclable at the end of its life. Bionorica head office Neumarkt. Source: Bionorica Although a comletely C2C building does not yet exist, some examles of C2C imlementation in architecture already exist. One such examle is the Bionorica head office building in Neumarkt. It was designed, with the collaboration of Michael Braungart, to have a ositive imact on eole and nature. he building is energy ositive, building materials and furnishing were selected for their health and environmental safety, and a recovery guarantee was negotiated for its non-recyclable materials 7. C2C BI Interreg IVB roject In the INERREG IVB Project C2C BI (Cradle to Cradle in business sites), 0 Northwestern Euroean artners are, since 20, working together with the objective of enhancing the imlementation of C2C on new and existing business sites. Particiating artners include governmental agencies, knowledge institutions and rivate comanies from six Euroean countries (Netherlands, UK, Belgium, France, Germany and Luxembourg). In the 4 years of the roject, several ilot sites in the artnershi will be develoed or reconverted according to C2C rinciles. On each site, different asects of the transition towards C2C will be develoed and tested. he roject will count with the direct involvement of EPEA (Environmental Protection and Encouragement Agency), C2C s develoer founded by Michael Braungart, to ensure that the roject s outut is in accordance to the C2C hilosohy. In the Sustainable Industries Park in London material loos will be closed, by setting u a material database and enhancing the exchange of materials between comanies. At Ecoarc Windhof, one of the Luxembourg artners, sustainable energy will be generated for the whole business site. In the Lille metroolitan area, the former industrial site La Lainière will be revitalized with attention to the different forms of diversity. Luxembourgish Particiation hree national institutions are articiating in C2C BI reresent distinct and comlementary sectors of Luxembourg society, bringing together its very diverse interests into a fruitful collaboration. he Ministry of Sustainable Develoment and Infrastructure (MDDI-Ministère du Déveloement durable et des Infrastructures) reresents the govern-

15 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE mental ersective, Ecoarc Windhof the business angle, while the Resource Centre for Environmental echnologies (CRE Centre de Ressources des echnologies our l Environment) the scientific osition. he Luxembourg ilot site, located in Windhof, will have renewable energy as its main focus within the roject. he goal will be to roduce an energy generation rotocol for the site that can be alied to any business site in order to assess and develo the site s renewable energy otential. Additionally, a demonstration facility of continuous material loos will be built on the site, matching the material flows of different comanies. Solarwind, Ecoarc s flagshi building currently in construction, will integrate a variety of renewable energies that include solar hotovoltaic, solar thermal, wind, geothermal, and biomass in a best-ractice office building. he idea is to showcase the 4Ps concet: Peole, Planet, Profit, and Pedagogy, i.e. it suorts occuants well-being, rotects the lanet, creates return on investment, and offers educational tools. he building is also designed to reduce CO2 emissions from traffic congestion, as over 80% of tenants will be cross-border. In the C2C BI roject, MDDI will mainly be involved in develoing a C2C manual which describes lanning, realization and management of a C2C industrial area (best ractices). his should give concrete guidelines to users how to realize harmonious lanning, careful realization and management of industrial areas. he ambition is develo a set of C2C criteria that can be useable by governmental bodies and site management organizations as a tool for satial lanning and the sustaiable develoment of territory. CRE, with its exertise in environmental assessment, management and olicy suort, will contribute to the researches on continuous loos and energy and suort the local artners in Luxembourg with their demonstration rojects. In articular, the CRE will try to bring together the concets already tested in industrial ecology and the continuous loo aroach and energy solutions of the C2C concet. We have only begun to unlock the innovation otential of Cradle to Cradle. A series of national events and activities will be lanned in Luxembourg within the roject framework. hese will be oen to the general ublic as well as secific target audiences like businesses or ublic officials. his roject has received Euroean Regional Develoment Funding through INERREG IV B. References _ M. Braungart and D. Mulhall. (200). Cradle to Cradle Criteria for the Built Environment. 2_ W. McDonough, et al., he Hannover Princiles: Design for Sustainability: WMD Architects, _ W. McDonough and M. Braungart. (October 998) he NEX Industrial Revolution. he Atlantic Montly Available: htt://www.theatlantic. com/magazine/toc/998/0 4_ W. McDonough and M. Braungart, Cradle to cradle : remaking the way we make things. New York: North Point Press, _ R. v. Hattum, Waste=Food, in egenlicht/backlight, ed. he Netherlands: VPRO, _ J. Polimeni, et al., he Jevons Paradox and the Myth of Resource Efficiency Imrovements Earthscan, _ W. Debacker, et al., Sustainable building, materials use and Cradle to Cradle. A survey of current roject ractices, Mechelen 20 Solarwind building lan. Source: Ecoarc Windhof GIE

16 6 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE 202 Atmosheric water vaour is a rimary greenhouse gas and lays an imortant role in weather forecasting and climate monitoring. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals exerience a roagation delay, which is related to the amount of water vaour in the lower atmoshere. Hence GNSS observations can be rocessed to estimate this delay with millimetre-level accuracy and together with meteorological data can be used to comute the amount of atmosheric water vaour on various temoral and satial scales. GNSS MEEOROLOGY IN LUXEMBOURG_ Furqan Ahmed, Norman eferle, Richard Bingley, Jörg Bareiss he term Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) refers to a number of systems having a satellite constellation used to rovide osition, navigation and timing data. he Global Positioning System (GPS) of the US, the GLObal naya NAvigatsionnaya Sutnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) of Russia, Galileo of Euroe and the Comass/BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (CNSS) of China are examles of such GNSS. As of now, only GPS and GLONASS are fully oerational. A GNSS consists of three segments namely the sace segment, the ground segment and the user segment. he sace segment comrises of satellites distributed in various orbits, the ground segment is comosed of a number of globally distributed control stations and the user segment contains the GNSS receivers which can be ground-based, airborne or sace-borne deending on the user alication (Hofmann-Wellenhof et al., 2007). oday, GNSS dominate the fields of ositioning, navigation and timing, and have a wide range of alications including those in engineering, geosciences and meteorology. he term GNSS meteorology refers to the concet of assimilating GNSS derived information about the state of the atmoshere into Numerical Weather Models (NWM) for weather forecasting. As comared to conventional meteorological sensors, GNSS has some benefits such as higher temoral and satial resolutions, all weather oeration caability, lower cost, and often freely available data from national to worldwide networks of stations. All these characteristics make GNSS an efficient tool to detect and track extreme short-term weather events (Iwabuchi et al., 2009). Since the onset of GNSS many networks of continuously oerating GNSS stations have been established for engineering and scientific uroses and often the organizations owning and maintaining these, so called, GNSS reference networks, rovide their observation data free of charge for research. In Luxembourg and the Greater Region these organizations are the Administration du cadastre et de la toograhie and the Service ublic de Wallonie (WALCORS), resectively, and both rovide their service mainly for engineering and surveying uroses. For scientific alications the community has formed research organizations which collect GNSS data and rovide related services on an international to global basis. hese include the International GNSS Service (IGS) (Dow et al., 2009) and the Reference Frame Sub Commission for Euroe (EUREF) (Bruyninx et al., 2008). Over the last decade, various research rojects investigating the use of GNSS-derived water vaour estimates for meteorology have been conducted and some of them are still in rogress. he Euroean Cooeration in Science and echnology (COS) funded the COS Action 76: Exloitation of ground-based GPS for climate and numerical weather rediction alications from 999 to 2004 (Elgered, 200). Another roject argeting Otimal Use of GPS Humidity measurements in meteorology (OUGH) was conducted in Euroe from 2003 to 2006 (Huang et al., 2003). Currently, the EUMENE EIG GNSS water vaour rogramme (E-GVAP) is a series of research rojects since 2005 to study the use of near real-time (NR) GNSS data for numerical weather rediction (htt://egva.dmi.dk). Analysis centres located all over Euroe submit NR GNSSderived delay estimates to E-GVAP for validation, monitoring and research. he develoments from these rojects lead to a raid growth of GNSS meteorology and a number of Euroean meteorological institutes continue to foster this technique. Météo France (Moll et al., 2008) and the UK MetOffice (Bennitt et al., 2008) are currently using roducts from NR GNSS rocessing systems in their global, regional and local NWM. he Danish Meteorological Institute (htt://www. dmi.dk), the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute (htt:// and Royal Observatory Belgium (htt://www. gnss.be) are some other organizations with a current research emhasis on GNSS meteorology. Besides GNSS meteorology s use in oerational weather forecasts other benefits arise from its alication in climatology. As atmosheric water vaour is the rimary greenhouse gas, changes in it as monitored by GNSS can rovide imortant information for the study of climate variations (Nilsson et al., 2008, Stende, 2006). By analysing historical time series of GNSS-derived atmosheric water over longer time eriods, variations in climate can be monitored on annual to decadal time scales. With sufficient length in these GNSS-derived meteorological roducts, imortant redic-

17 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE tions of the future climate will become ossible which, in turn, can have consequences for the secifications of structures and other engineering rojects. In this article, we rovide an overview and some reliminary results of the research roject he Potential of Preciitable Water Vaour Measurements using Global Navigation Satellite Systems in Luxembourg (PWVLUX) which is funded by the Fonds National de la Recherche (FNR) Luxembourg and aims at studying the otential for the use of GNSS in oerational meteorology and climatology in Luxembourg and the Greater Region. Estimating Atmosheric Water Vaour using GNSS Observables On its way from the satellite to the ground-based receiver antenna, a GNSS signal travels through various layers of the Earth s atmoshere e.g. the ionoshere and the trooshere. Each of these has an effect on the signal which introduces a certain amount of error in the measured osition. When the received signal is rocessed, the corresonding amount of error induced by each of the layers is estimated and is corrected for. Ionoshere is the uermost layer of the Earth s atmoshere that starts at around 50 kilometres above the Earth s surface and contains charged articles due to solar radiation. he electromagnetic roerties of the ionoshere affect satellite signals travelling through it, which can result in case of GNSS in signal delays of over 00 meters. As the effect of the ionoshere can be largely removed by using a linear combination of the GNSS observables, it is not considered further in this study. he trooshere is the lowest layer of the Earth s atmoshere and has a thickness ranging aroximately from 9 kilometres to 6 kilometres above the Earth s surface at the oles and on the equator resectively. he rimary greenhouse gas, i.e. atmosheric water vaour constitutes about 0% of the total troosheric effect on the GNSS signals and due to its nature, is often termed as the wet art. As comared to the hydrostatic art, which constitutes 90% of the troosheric effects and is highly redictable using models, the water vaour content has a very high temoral and satial variability and hence lays a significant role in the formation and roagation of weather systems (Marshall et al., 2007). Delay in the trooshere he troosheric roagation delay in the signal is deendent on the refractivity of the trooshere which can be exressed as (hayer, 974) () where are the artial ressures of dry and wet air constituents in hpa, is the temerature in K, are the inverse comressibility factors for dry air and water vaour and are exerimentally determined coefficients in K/hPa. he ath followed by the signal in the trooshere is assumed to be zenithal and therefore, the delay between a oint at height and infinity is (2) where is known as zenith total delay ( ) in mm and can be exressed as the sum of zenith hydrostatic delay ( or ) and zenith wet delay ( or ) i.e. (3) can be aroximated by using the surface ressure and location values in the widely used Saastamoinen hydrostatic model (Saastamoinen, 972) i.e. (4) where is the surface ressure in hpa, is the station latitude in degree, is the height of the station in km above the ellisoid.

18 8 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE 202 he carrier signals are the rimary observables for high-recision GNSS ositioning and the can be estimated from the carrier hase observable. his observable can be observed as (6) where is the geometric distance between the satellite and the receiver antenna in meters, is the seed of light in vaccum in m/s, are the clock biases between satellite and receiver in seconds, is the ionosheric delay in meters, is the troosheric delay or the D in meters, is the wavelength in meters, is the integer hase ambiguity term (not to be confused with the refractivity in Equation ) and are the unmodelled hase measurement errors in meters. In this way, GNSS observations from a collection of groundbased receivers, in combination with auxiliary information (satellite and receiver ositions, corrections comuted from models of geohysical rocesses) are rocessed using various GNSS data rocessing software ackages to obtain the D estimates. Once the D has been estimated, HD is comuted using Equation 4, and the WD can be obtained from column of air above the GNSS receiver and is given by with the water vaour density such that the total density. he term IWV can be interchangeably used with the term Preciitable Water Vaour (PWV) which exresses IWV as the height of an equivalent column of liquid water in millimetres. he required meteorological data can be obtained either from observations, e.g. temerature and ressure sensors, or by interolation from models of ressure and temerature, e.g. the Global Pressure and emerature (GP) model (Boehm et al., 2007). Figure summarizes this rocess of estimating IWV from raw GNSS observations. (7) WD can then be combined with meteorological data i.e. ressure and temerature to convert it to a quantity known as Integrated Water Vaour (IWV) which is given in kg/m 2 (Bevis et al., 992, Bevis et al., 994). o convert the WD into IWV, the relation in Equation 8 can be used i.e. (8) where (9) In Equation 9, vaour and is the secific gas constant for water is the mean temerature of the vertical _ Estimating IWV from GNSS Observations Surface ressure values at the locations of the GNSS receivers can be obtained from either observations or models. Using the ressure values, HD is comuted and subtracted from the D estimates to obtain WD. Finally, WD is converted to IWV using the temerature values, again either from observations or from models. Although IWV is of rimary interest for weather forecasting and climate research, for consistency, it is only D which is usually assimilated into NWM before it is converted to IWV using homogeneous temerature values within the model.

19 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE Near Real-ime GNSS In order to assimilate the GNSS-derived D estimates into the NWM which oerate at high udate rates e.g. hourly, it is necessary to obtain the estimates with a low latency i.e. in near real-time (NR). Research has shown that assimilation of NR D in NWM has a ositive imact on the quality of weather forecasts (de Haan 20, Bennitt et al., 20). he University of Luxembourg in collaboration with the University of Nottingham has setu two NR GNSS data rocessing systems for estimating D and IWV. One of the systems (NRh) has an udate cycle of hour and the other (NR5m) one of 5 minutes. he develoment of these systems is art of the PhD roject PWVLUX. Both the NR systems collect GNSS data in Receiver Indeendent Exchange format (RINEX) from a distribution of GNSS stations sread all over Euroe, rocess the RINEX data with auxiliary information to estimate the D and convert the D into IWV using meteorological data. Figure 2 illustrates the oeration of the NR systems. he overall oeration of these systems is divided into four arts i.e. database management, data and roducts handling, rocessing and archiving. At the beginning of each session, the database management art is executed in which the databases containing information about available and required hourly (HD in Figure 2) and sub-hourly (SD in Figure 2) data, available and required roducts (OEDC, OEDCSH in Figure 2), and available and required meteorological data (ME in Figure 2) are maintained. he data and roducts handling art then downloads the required data and roducts onto the local server. After the data and roducts handling, the rocessing art is commenced which rocesses the downloaded raw data with the Bernese GPS Software 5.0 (Dach et al., 2007) and converts the obtained D to IWV. Finally, the archive art archives the raw data, roducts and rocessing results on the local server. he network of GNSS stations (Figure 3) has been selected with the aim of achieving good satial coverage of Euroe with a focus on Luxembourg and the Greater Region. he triangles reresent the GNSS stations roviding hourly data and circles reresent those roviding real-time streams. able shows the list of the GNSS networks used. he hourly NR system rocesses data from the stations that either rovide real-time streams or hourly data. On the other hand, the sub-hourly NR system only rocesses data from real-time stations. Network SPSLux (red) WALCORS (orange) RGP (gray) OSGB+Geonet (yellow) EPN (blue) IGS (black) Region Luxembourg Wallonie (Belgium) France UK Euroe Global 2_ Oerational diagram of the NR Systems able GNSS data roviders In both the hourly and sub-hourly NR systems, the comutation of D involves the formation of baselines between the neighbouring stations and therefore, the density and distribution of the network has an influence on the D estimates. Another imortant factor that influences the quality of the estimated D is the tye of GNSS satellite orbit roduct used as these are available with different accuracy

20 20 CAHIER SCIENIFIQUE REVUE ECHNIQUE LUXEMBOURGEOISE 202 3_ NR Network used for PWVLUX on scales of a) Euroe, b) the Greater Region and c) Luxembourg levels deending on their latency (Douša 200, Ge et al., 2002). Along with its benefits, NR rocessing imoses a requirement of large comuting ower and efficient data communication in order to timely rovide the results for assimilation into the NWM. For the climate variability analysis, it is ossible to combine the NR D estimates for long time sans by calculating the mean values at low samling intervals e.g. twice a day. A global set of GNSS data is available since 994 and ostrocessing of this data is ossible using the most accurate satellite orbit roducts and models. For the dense GNSS station distribution in Luxembourg and the Greater Region this is ossible for the eriod since 2006, and rovides, at the time of writing, an initial six year record of the regional variations in atmosheric water vaour. Preliminary Results During February 202, a warm front (i.e. a warm airmass moving towards a cold air-mass) moved over northern France, Belgium and Germany. A satellite icture of the cloud distribution, as taken by Meteosat second generation (htt://www.esa.int/specials/msg/), associated with this front at :00UC is shown below. stratiform reciitation was caused by riding of warm airmass over the cold air-mass and a light rainfall at 04:00UC was observed in Luxembourg. For this event it is ossible to comare the 2D IWV mas generated by the NRh system with reciitation information obtained from the weather radar (www.meteox.de) and this comarison is shown in Figure 5. Figure 5(a) shows the reciitation in millimetres at :00UC over Euroe as catured by weather radar whereas Figure 5(b) is a 2D ma of the IWV distribution over the same region at the same time. he black dots in Figure 5(b) reresent the ground-based GNSS stations which are included for rocessing in NRh. o generate the IWV mas like that in Figure 5(b) in the NRh system, IWV is first estimated over all the individual stations and then a grid with a resolution of 5 minutes is comuted by block averaging followed by an adjustable tension continuous curvature surface gridding algorithm (Smith et al., 990). herefore the density of the network of GNSS stations has an influence on the quality of these mas. It must be noted that at this oint the systems do not automatically detect and remove outlying D or IWV estimates. It can be seen that the zones with the largest gradients in IWV overla with the fore-front of the reciitation events caused by the warm front as identified by the weather radar. 4_ Satellite icture of cloud distribution at :00UC his front was associated with a low-ressure system situated over southern Scandinavia. Cloud formation and 5_ Comarison of weather radar (a) and IWV (b) at :00UC he outut of the NR systems has a samling interval of 5 minutes and hence the IWV mas are generated for every 5th minute. his makes it ossible to grahically observe the changes in the amount of IWV and comare these

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