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1 Market Analysis of Social Network Analysis Books Ines Mergel Harvard University Marin Hennig Humboldt-University Berlin PNG Working Paper No. PNG06-003(a) * : Social network analysis, market overview, workbooks, didactic and content analysis Abstract: We conducted a market analysis of existing books on social network analysis as a basis for a grant proposal submitted to the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG) in November The results of this analysis are included in this working paper format and open for discussion. We are eager to learn about alternative interpretation(s) or analysis dimensions and will be (are) happy to update this paper as soon as we receive valid comments or requests for changes. Kennedy School of Government Harvard University Cambridge, MA * German version PNG Working Paper No. PNG06-003(b) - 1/29 -

2 1. Goals Social network research and consequently social network analysis is a growing methodological research area, that is gaining impact and attention as an acclaimed social science research methodology. Much of current theory discussion, but also empirical research questions, are focusing on the individual as well as the conditions and consequences that underlie human behavior and interactions with other actors. Even though we noticed that there were a lot of publications covering the various aspects of social network analysis approaches and procedure, the network analysis is still inaccessible for most researchers. It seems to us that there is still a lot of ground to cover when it actually comes to the explaining part of how to actually conduct a social network analysis. Practical research is still focusing on textbooks, which only cover methodological or mathematical aspects. Moreover, it seems to be difficult to find technical and practical instructions on how to use the network analysis software programs and how to use them within the network analysis research process. Therefore, the following market analysis of existing textbooks on social network analysis aims to give an overview of the type of books which exist on the market and what their specific focus will be. We seek to understand how the books contribute to convey information and knowledge to academics and professionals without any previous knowledge about social network analysis. We do not seek to evaluate the existing textbooks covering this subject. On the contrary, we understand our assessment as a benchmark study to give an overview of what textbooks are offered and what textbooks are desirable to have. We try to supply a guide in order to give beginners guidance about the kind of information regarding social network analysis on the basis of our categorization scheme. This might help people find the right literature for their individual purposes. For authors of future textbooks on network analysis, the market analysis might help them because the analysis gives an overview of shortcomings in the literature when it comes to network analytical concepts and methods. The analysis only includes English and German textbooks Both authors are German native speakers. - 2/29 -

3 2. ology Using online libraries and online bookstores, we identified 14 books that were highest ranked and included them in our analysis. To support the importance and relevance of our list, we looked at different syllabi of network researchers and their recommended readings. Results are shown in the synopsis of chapter 4. The overview shows the books that are classified into analysis categories, which are type of publication, didactical composition and data analysis software. 3. Dimensions We derived a list of dimensions from the table of contents to be able to categorize the chosen books. This list was extended during the course of our research in addition to the content areas by dimensions such as data analysis software and didactical composition. First, we differentiated the list of books by their type of publication. Thereby we decided to differentiate the four main publication types into: Introductory text, edited volume, workbook and handbook. o Workbook: Course book that covers main topics and important theories, classic results and methods of a research field. Usually this is a very compact and dense presentation of the content; o Edited Volume: Different authors contribute a text, which focuses on one common area of interest and is usually edited by two or more lead authors. The contributing authors will follow a common set of guidelines, but are free in their content. They write their texts to show, for example, applications of social network analysis in their specific content domains; o Introductory Text: s are explained in more detail and practical applications are displayed by using real life examples. Usually, introductory texts are not making use of exercises, summaries or glossaries; o Handbook: Selected topics are presented and the methodological proceedings are shown step by step. The focus is laid on the scientific insights with respect to one specific method. After we were able to categorize the books by their type of documentation, the question that arises here is: How to systematize the books by their didactical format? We looked for instructions and assignments on how to analyze social networks, definitions of - 3/29 -

4 learning targets, examples for methods, models, concepts, exercises to strengthen the competences, chapter summaries, and references to additional literature.- Moreover, we categorized the books by their conceptualization level: do the authors include different network types, empirical evidence, or any other classification attributes? Static networks: include network measures that estimate quantitative attributes of network structures. Dynamic networks: include quantitative and qualitative changes in social networks. Empirical quantitative methods: with the help of empirical evidence quantitative methods are demonstrated to measure and to analyze social networks Empirical qualitative methods: Empirical evidence is provided to demonstrate qualitative approaches to collect measures and to analyze social networks. Ego-centric network types: Measurement and analysis of social networks focused on ego-centric networks, where the analysis looks at the connections of a focal actor to his/her surrounding alters. Whole network approaches: For a predefined network, the relationships of each actor within the overall network respectively to all other actors are collected and analyzed. Another dimension for the analysis of the books selected is the demonstration of software for social network analysis. We focused on the three main software applications used (Ucinet, Pajek, und SPSS/Stata) and therefore we summarized all additional tools with a far lower significance into the category Others. The last group of categories includes the content covered in the books selected. We included the following content areas: social science theories, social capital/social structure, rational choice, definition of network theories such as relationship, roles/positions, centrality/equivalence/cohesion/density, dyads/triads and groups, ranking/brokerage, clustering/block models, graphic approaches, visualization, diffusion and simulation. Moreover, we looked at the different research areas from which examples for the analysis of social networks are drawn. We divided them up as follows: social and political sciences, social psychology, ethnology, organizational behavior/theory and computer science. - 4/29 -

5 4. Synopsis: ations, Didactical set-up, ology Dimensions Type of Documentation Didactical Set-up Introductory Text Edited Volume Work book Handbook s (Brandes/Erlebach 2005) (Carrington/Scott et al. 2005) (de Nooy/Mrvar et al. 2005) (Degenne/Forsé 1999) (Freeman 2004) (Galaskiewicz/Wasserman 1994) (Hollstein/Straus 2006) (Jansen 2003) (Pappi 1987) (Schweizer 1996) (Scott 2000) (Trappmann/Hummell et al. 2005) (Wasserman/Faust 1994) (Weyer 2000) Instructions Learning Targets Examples Exercises Glossary Summary Additional Literature - 5/29 -

6 Synopsis: ology, Software for data analysis Dimensions ology Software for data analysis s Static Networks Dynamic Networks (Empirical) quantitative (Empirical) qualitative Ego-centric networks Whole networks UCInet Pajek SPPS/Stata Others (Brandes/Erlebach 2005) (Carrington/Scott et al. 2005) (de Nooy/Mrvar et al. 2005) (Degenne/Forsé 1999) (Freeman 2004) (Galaskiewicz/Wasserman 1994) (Hollstein/Straus 2006) (Jansen 2003) (Pappi 1987) (Schweizer 1996) (Scott 2000) (Trappmann/Hummell et al. 2005) (Wasserman/Faust 1994) (Weyer 2000) - 6/29 -

7 Synopsis: Content Dimensions Content* Social capital/ social structure Rational Choice Relations Roles/Positions Centrality/Equivalenc e/density/cohesion Dyads/Triads/ Groups s (Brandes/Erlebach 2005) (Carrington/Scott et al. 2005) (de Nooy/Mrvar et al. 2005) (Degenne/Forsé 1999) (Freeman 2004) (Galaskiewicz/Wasserman 1994) (Hollstein/Straus 2006) (Jansen 2003) (Pappi 1987) (Schweizer 1996) Ranking/ Brokerage Clustering, Block models (Scott 2000) (Trappmann/Hummell et al. 2005) (Wasserman/Faust 1994) (Weyer 2000) * = based on the table of contents of analyzed books. Visualization Diffusion Simulations Social and political science Social psychology Ethnology Organizational behavior/theory Computer science - 7/29 -

8 5. Results The analysis, of the books selection social network analysis, shows that most of the books are edited volumes, which focus on specific approaches or introductory texts, focusing on methodological aspects and their practical applications. With respect to the content, most books focus either on a) the analytical aspects, or b) the underlying network theories. The following subchapters show the results of the analysis in more detail: 5.1 Overlaps All analyzed books have in common, that they use static networks. Only five of the books include recent trends and introduce dynamic networks. Therefore, about 80% of all books include quantitative (empirical) methods. Except the Hollstein/Strauss (2006) book which focuses exclusively on qualitative approaches. With the exception of Schweizer (Schweizer 1996; Trappmann/Hummell et al. 2005), all books address whole networks and neglect egocentric network approaches. With respect to the content, all books show in detail the underlying sociological network theories. In addition they explain the main definitions and terms of network theory and its dimensions such as social capital, relationships, roles/positions, network measures, levels of analysis and partially also visualization. Examples are mainly drawn from the sociology, with some exceptions to political science (Galaskiewicz/Wasserman 1994; Weyer 2000), social psychology (Galaskiewicz/Wasserman 1994), ethnology (Schweizer 1996; Jansen 2003; Hollstein/Straus 2006) or computer science (Pappi 1987; Jansen 2003; Brandes/Erlebach 2005; Carrington/Scott et al. 2005). Examples from organizational theory/behavior are not included. 5.2 Missing Components To be able to understand social network and social network analysis, it is important to learn about social structure (patterns) and the analysis of the quality of relationships respectively (see: Wellman/Frank 2000). It is important to collect the perceptions of network actors and their intentions when it comes to their specific network relationships. - 8/29 -

9 Therefore, a social network analysis, in which the individual is the focal point of attention, needs to include the social environment and the context to understand why and how actors build their relationships ( Lebenswelt ) upon. By excluding the social environment from the analysis, we would get much better results that constitute and help us explain the relational and dynamic elements of interactions within the network. So far, there is no book that includes systematically all these aspects into a social network explanation. This becomes even more evident if we look at the presentation of the actual sequences within the social network analysis: all authors only show a reduced or small portion of the required analysis sequences with the help of network analysis software such as Ucinet, SPSS, or Pajek. We see an obvious advantage if it is possible to use examples or precise assignments in order to show students and learners how to conduct this task individually. With respect to didactical aspects, all books basically lack the inclusion of precise assignments for each step in the data analysis. None of the books includes learning targets or practice exercises. Some hints are given in Jansen (2003), Scott (2000) and Trappmann/Hummel et al. (2005). Only Trappmann/Hummel et al. (2005) De Nooy/Mrvar et al. (2005) and Wasserman/Faust (1994) include a glossary. Moreover, De Nooy/Mrvar et al. (2005) and Wasserman/Faust (1994) have a chapter summary. Astonishing is the fact that none of the books which are included in our market analysis come with a self-learners component. Instructions on how to approach the self-directed learning of the presented content are also not included. This would theoretically include practical examples, which allow the reader to reconstruct the research process step by step individually. 6. Summary Our analysis shows, that all reviewed books include the standard social theories and as well as terms to understand social network analysis. We think, that individual (ego-centric) network approaches are underrepresented. Surely it is true for dynamic networks both are important current trends. - 9/29 -

10 None of the books shows the concrete steps in its research process in form of a timely sequence including aspects such as data collection, data preparation, and data analysis. A minority of the books shows actual analysis steps using network analysis software programs such as Ucinet, SPSS, or Pajek. We conclude that there is not a single book on the market today, that systematically shows the social reference actors use in respect to their structural embeddedness in form of a concrete example so that academics and practitioners can intuitively understand the social network paradigm. This would also include desirable elements such as a website compendium, including prominent data sets, interesting exercises and assignments, frequently asked questions/answers, updates on data analysis programs, and innovative developments in the field. The following appendix includes a short description and bibliography of all analyzed books. - 10/29 -

11 Bibliography Brandes, U./T. Erlebach (2005). Network Analysis: ological Foundations. Berlin- Heidelberg. Carrington, P. J./J. Scott, et al. (2005). Models and s in Social Network Analysis. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. de Nooy, W./A. Mrvar, et al. (2005). Exploratory Social Network Analysis with Pajek. New York. Degenne, A./M. Forsé (1999). Introducing Social Networks London/Thousand Oaks/New Dehli, Sage Publications. Freeman, L. C. (2004). The Development of Social Network Analysis - A Study in the Sociology of Science. Vancouver, Empirical Press. Galaskiewicz, J./S. Wasserman (1994). Advances in social network analysis: Research in the social and behavioral sciences. Thousand Oaks. Hollstein, B./F. Straus (2006). Qualitative Netzwerkanalyse: Konzepte, en, Anwendunge. Wiesbaden, VS Verlag fuer Sozialwissenschaften. Jansen, D. (2003). Einfuehrung in die Netzwerkanalyse. Opladen, Leske + Budrich, UTB Pappi, F. U. (1987). Die Netzwerkanalyse aus soziologischer Perspektive. en der Netzwerkanalyse. F. U. Pappi. München, Oldenburg: Schweizer, Th. (1996). Muster sozialer Ordnung. Netzwerkanalyse als Fundament der Sozialethnologie. Berlin. Scott, J. (2000). Social Network Analysis: A Handbook. London. Trappmann, M./H. J. Hummell, et al. (2005). Strukturanlayse sozialer Netzwerke. Wiesbaden, VS Verlag fuer Sozialwissenschaften. Wasserman, S./K. Faust (1994). Social Network Analysis : s and Applications (Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences). Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Wellman, B./K. Frank (2000). Network Capital in a Multi-Level World. Getting Support from a Personal Communities. Social Capital: Theory and Research. N. Lin/R. Burt/K. Cook. Chicago, De Gruyter: Weyer, J. (2000). Soziale Netzwerke: Konzepte und en der sozialwissenschaftlichen Netzwerkforschung. Muenchen/Wien, R. Oldenbourg Verlag. - 11/29 -

12 Appendix German Books German Title Soziale Netzwerke: Konzepte und en der sozialwissenschaftlichen Netzwerkforschung. Editor: Weyer, Johannes References München: Oldenbourg S. Serientitel: Lehr- und Handbücher der Soziologie ISBN: Edited Volume; Handbook Summary in German "In modernen Gesellschaften ist der Gedanke weit verbreitet, dass soziale Netzwerk eine große Leistungsfähigkeit bei der Generierung von Problemlösungen besitzen und andere Formen der Handlungskoordination, beispielsweise der bürokratischen Organisation, oftmals überlegen sind. Netzwerke verknüpfen Flexibilität und Effizienz in einer einzigartigen Weise. Sie machen zudem das Risiko innovativen Handelns kalkulierbar, weil sich die kooperierenden Partner wechselseitig absichern. Das Werk liefert anhand unterschiedlicher gesellschaftlicher Handlungsfelder Einblicke in die Praktiken einer vernetzten Gesellschaft. Es präsentiert zudem Bausteine einer soziologischen Theorie sozialer Netzwerke. Aus dem Inhalt (Auswahl): en der Netzwerkanalyse; Strategische und regionale Netzwerke; Policy-Netzwerke; Forschungs- und Innovationsnetzwerke; die Akteur-Netzwerk-Theorie; system- und handlungs- und kulturtheoretische Analysen zum Netzwerkbegriff." (Autorenreferat) social network; network analysis; analysis procedure; research; method; philosophy of science; social capital; social relations; action theory; intercompany cooperation; regionalization; globalization; political system; innovation; technical development; economic relations; network; concept; system theory application-oriented; philosophy of science, basic research; documentation - 12/29 -

13 German Title Muster sozialer Ordnung: Netzwerkanalyse als Fundament der Sozialethnologie. Schweizer, Thomas Source Berlin: Reimer S. (Abb., Anh.) ISBN: Monograph Summary in German "Akteure sind in sozialen Beziehungen eingebettet und erzeugen mit ihrem Handeln soziale Ordnungsmuster: Die Netzwerkanalyse ist ein interdisziplinärer Forschungsansatz, der soziale, wirtschaftliche, politische und kommunikative Verflechtungen beschreibt und erklärt. An verschiedenen ethnographischen Beispielen (etwa Gabentausch der!kung in der Kalahari, kula-tausch in Melanesien, Rituale in einem javanischen Dorf, soziale Beziehungen kalifornischer Stadtbewohner) und in Auseinandersetzung mit älteren und neueren ethnologischen Richtungen (Strukturalismus, interpretative und postmoderne Ethnologie) erläutert dieses Buch Theorie und e der aktuellen Netzwerkanalyse. Es begründet damit eine Neuorientierung der ethnologischen Forschung über soziale Organisationen in traditionellen und modernen Zusammenhängen." (Autorenreferat) network analysis; method; social relations; analysis; ethnomethodology; ethnography; traditional society; social structure; action; social structure; pattern recognition basic research; empirical-quantitative; application of theory case study - 13/29 -

14 German Title en der Netzwerkanalyse Pappi, Franz Urban Koolwijk, Jürgen von Wieken-Mayser, Maria Source München: Oldenbourg S. Gesamttitel: Techniken der empirischen Sozialforschung, Bd. 1 ISBN: Edited Volume Summary in German Die Netzwerkanalyse in ihrer heutigen Form basiert auf den zwei Forschungstraditionen der Soziometrie und der Sozialanthropologie. Die verschiedenen Anwendungsgebiete - Kleingruppe einerseits, größere Sozialsysteme andererseits - sind geblieben, die Gemeinsamkeiten der e haben aber zur Herausbildung der Netzwerkanalyse als eines übergreifenden Forschungsparadigmas geführt. Teil 2 (Teilgruppenbildung in Netzwerken) und Teil 3 (Mikrostrukturen von Gesamtnetzwerken) dieses Sammelbandes behandeln die Hauptgebiete der enentwicklung auf dem Gebiet der Netzwerkanalyse in den letzten 15 Jahren. Diese en sind weitgehend anwendungsneutral, nämlich sowohl in der Sozialpsychologie als auch in der Soziologie, politische Wissenschaft und Sozialanthropologie einsetzbar. In einem Einleitungskapitel wird ein Überblick über die Netzwerkanalyse aus der Sicht des Soziologen gegeben. In Teil 4 wird eine geschlossene Darstellung der "Netzwerkanalyse in Kleingruppen" geboten. Abschließend wird die Durchführung von Netzwerkanalysen auf EDV-Anlagen behandelt. (GF) network analysis; social network; social relations; small group; group; social position; group cohesion; social structure; role distribution; method; analysis develompent of methods; basic research, application of theory - 14/29 -

15 German Title Einführung in die Netzwerkanalyse: Grundlagen, en, Forschungsbeispiele. Autor Jansen, Dorothea Source Opladen: Leske u. Budrich S. Serientitel: UTB : Sozialwissenschaften, 2241 ISBN: Monograph Summary in German "Das Lehrbuch vermittelt die Grundlagen und en der Netzwerkanalyse. Die statistischen Instrumente zur Erhebung und Analyse von Netzwerkdaten werden vorgestellt und in den Bereichen der Policy- und Eliteforschung, der Organisationsforschung und der Forschung sozialer Ungleichheit demonstriert. Neben der Darstellung des statistischen Instrumentariums wird die Netzwerkanalyse als Theorieperspektive vorgestellt, mit der sich Aussagen über die Handlungsmöglichkeit von Akteuren mit Theorien über Institutionen, Strukturen und Systeme verbinden lassen." (enreferat) network analysis; organizational analysis; statistical method; social structure; social capital; power; prestige; group; elite; social inequality application-oriented, basic research, documentation, research examples - 15/29 -

16 German Title Strukturanalyse sozialer Netzwerke: Konzepte, Modelle, en. Trappmann, Mark Hummell, Hans J. Sodeur, Wolfgang Reference Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften Serientitel: Lehrbuch ISBN: Monograph Summary in German "Dieses Buch führt in das Instrumentarium der Analyse sozialer Strukturen ein. Dabei orientiert es sich an der transdisziplinären Netzwerkanalyse, die durch vier Elemente definierbar ist: Eine strukturelle Sichtweise, die Verwendung systematisch gesammelter empirischer Beziehungsdaten, graphische Verfahren und mathematische Modelle. Im Einzelnen werden die Möglichkeiten der Untersuchung interindividueller Beziehungsstrukturen, der Identifikation von Teilgruppen ('Cliquen' u. ä.), von Positionen und von Rollen sowie der Überprüfung von Strukturhypothesen dargestellt. Saemtliche Analysen beziehen sich auf einen einheitlichen Datensatz und werden mit frei verfügbarer Software durchgeführt. Der Leser gewinnt damit ein grundlegendes Verständnis für die Anwendung der Netzwerkanalyse und eigene Erfahrung mit ihrer Durchführung. Das Lehrbuch richtet sich an Lehrende und Studierende fortgeschrittener Kurse in der empirischen Sozialforschung sowie der empirisch orientierten struktur-theoretischen Soziologie." (Autorenreferat) social network; analysis procedure; mathematical method; mathematical sociology; social relations; group; role; network analysis; dyad application-oriented, basic research, documentation, research examples - 16/29 -

17 German Title Qualitative Netzwerkanalyse: Konzepte en, Anwendungen Hollstein, Betina Straus, Florian Reference Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften Serientitel: Lehrbuch ISBN: Edited Volume Summary in German " Qualitative Netzwerkanalysen finden derzeit Eingang in unterschiedlichste Forschungsfelder. Das Handbuch bietet erstmalig eine Systematisierung der Forschungsstrategien und en, mit denen qualitative Netzwerkanalysen durchgeführt werden können. Neben systematisierenden und konzeptionellen Beiträgen werden anhand von exemplarischen Studien methodische Designs qualitativer Netzwerkanalysen vorgestellt und grundlegende Probleme der Durchführung, Erhebung und Auswertung von qualitativen Netzwerkstudien erörtert. Aus dem Inhalt Grundlagen - Zum Verhältnis von quantitativer und qualitativer Netzwerkanalyse: Möglichkeiten der Triangulation - Formierung und Dynamik von Netzwerke - Mobilität und Migration: Netzwerke im Raum - Netzwerke, Biographie und Lebenslauf - Resümee network analysis; qualitative method; empirical social research; methodology; social relations; triangulation, multi-level analysis; regional development; religious movement; horizontal mobility; family; friendship; life planning; documentation, handbook, application-oriented - 17/29 -

18 Englischsprachige Bücher: Social Networks English Title Network Analysis: ological Foundations. Brandes Ulrik (Universitaet Konstanz) Erlebach, Thomas. (TU München) Source Springer 2005, ISBN Serientitel: Tutorial ISBN: Edited volume Summary in English Network is a heavily overloaded term, so that network analysis means different things to different people. Specific forms of network analysis are used in the study of diverse structures such as the Internet, interlocking directorates, transportation systems, epidemic spreading, metabolic pathways, the Web graph, electrical circuits, project plans, and so on. There is, however, a broad ological foundation which is quickly becoming a prerequisite for researchers and practitioners working with network models. From a computer science perspective, network analysis is applied graph theory. Unlike standard graph theory books, the content of this book is organized according to s for specific levels of analysis (element, group, network) rather than abstract concepts like paths, matchings, or spanning subgraphs. Its topics therefore range from vertex centrality to graph clustering and the evolution of scale-free networks. In 15 coherent chapters, this monograph-like tutorial book introduces and surveys the concepts and s that drive network analysis, and is thus the first book to do so from a methodological perspective independent of specific application areas. applied graph theory, combinatorial optimization, complex systems, connectivity, evolving networks, graph algorithms, network algorithms, network design, network statistics, social network analysis documentation, application-oriented, basic research, Chapter Notes - 18/29 -

19 English Title Models and s in Social Network Analysis Carrington, P. J./J. Scott/Wasserman, S. Source 2005 Series: Structural analysis in the social sciences; 27 Cambridge; New York Cambridge University Press (hardback) (paperback) Edited volume Summary in English Recent developments in network measurement / Peter V. Marsden -- Network sampling and model fitting / Ove Frank -- Extending centrality / Martin Everett and Stephen P. Borgatti -- Positional analyses of sociometric data / Patrick Doreian, Vladimir Batagelj, and Anuška Ferligoj -- Network models and es for studying the diffusion of innovations / Thomas W. Valente -- Using correspondence analysis for joint displays of affiliation networks / Katherine Faust -- An introduction to random graphs, dependence graphs, and p* / Stanley Wasserman and Garry Robins -- Random graph models for social networks : multiple relations or multiple raters / Laura M. Koehly and Philippa Pattison -- Interdependencies and social processes : dependence graphs and generalized dependence structures / Garry Robins and Philippa Pattison -- Models for longitudinal network data / Tom A.B. Snijders -- Graphic techniques for exploring social network data / Linton C. Freeman -- Software for social network analysis / Mark Huisman and Marijtje A.J. van Duijin. Social networks -- Mathematical models. Social networks Research -- ology. documentation, application-oriented, basic research - 19/29 -

20 English Title Evolution of Social Networks Doreian, P./Stockman, F. N. Source 1997 Routledge 1 edition (April 1, 1997) ISBN: Paperback Edited Volume Summary in English Taken from a special issue of the journal Mathematical Sociology, Evolution of Social Networks answers the question of whether we can apply evolutionary theories to our understanding of the development of social structures. Social life emerges as soon as persons establish relations with each other. Regardless of the specific social processes, these relations evolve into networks with coherent structures, structures that provide some actors with opportunities for action while impeding the progress of others. Social networks have increasingly become the focus of many social scientists as a way of analyzing these social structures. While many powerful network analytic tools have been developed and applied to a wide range of empirical phenomena, understanding the evolution of social organization still requires theories and analyses of social network evolutionary processes. Researchers from a variety of disciplines have combined their efforts in what is an indication of some very promising future research; the work represented in this volume provides a basis for a sustained analysis of the evolution of social life. Simulation, dynamic networks, evolution, longitudinal behavior application-oriented, mathematical models, basic research - 20/29 -

21 English Title Introducing Social Networks. Degenne, A./M. Forsé Source 1999 (Introducing Statistical es series) Sage Publications London/Thousand Oaks/New Dehli Monograph Summary in English An accessible introduction to the study of social networks. More than just a technical manual, Social Networks is both a practical handbook and up-to-date review of the latest research. With technical jargon kept to a minimum, the reader will gain a thorough understanding of the empirical application of the s of social network analysis and the theory of social structures that underlie them. Real-life examples are used to illustrate the techniques and ideas explored. The book also includes a useful summary of the concepts needed for dealing with more advanced techniques and the main computer software packages used for social network analysis. Introducing Social Networks will be essential reading for students and researchers in a wide range of disciplines, including sociology, management science and public administration. Social network analysis, structural analysis application-oriented, basic research, documentation, research examples - 21/29 -

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