COMPANIES ENGAGED IN ONLINE ACTIVITIES

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1 Flash Eurobarometer COMPANIES ENGAGED IN ONLINE ACTIVITIES REPORT Fieldwork: January-February 2015 Publication: May 2015 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Communication Networks, Content and Technology and co-ordinated by the Directorate-General for Communication. This document does not represent the point of view of the European Commission. The interpretations and opinions contained in it are solely those of the authors.

2 Project title Flash Eurobarometer Companies engaged in online activities Linguistic Version Catalogue Number EN KK EN-N ISBN DOI / European Union, 2015

3 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Flash Eurobarometer Companies engaged in online activities Conducted by TNS Political & Social at the request of the European Commission, Directorate-General for Communication Networks, Content and Technology Survey co-ordinated by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Communication (DG COMM Strategy, Corporate Communication Actions and Eurobarometer Unit)

4 FLASH EUROBAROMETER TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 3 KEY FINDINGS... 5 I. SELLING ONLINE Value of online sales in Means of selling online Regions in which companies sold online in Share of online sales that came from different regions Countries in which companies sold online Attitudes and experience of companies that don t sell online in other EU countries Difficulties when selling online to other EU countries Companies that sell online to other EU countries or used to do so in the past Companies that don t sell online to other EU countries but are trying to now Companies that don t sell online Share of traditional sales that came from different regions in Possible impact of the common e-commerce rules on online selling II. PURCHASING ONLINE Prevalence of online purchases in Means of purchasing online Share of online purchases that came from different regions in Attitudes and experience of companies that don t purchase online from other EU countries Difficulties when purchasing online from other EU countries Companies that purchase online or used to do so in the past Companies that don t purchase online but are trying to now

5 FLASH EUROBAROMETER III. SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE OF COMPANIES THAT SELL/PURCHASE ONLINE The company s number of employees Type of company Types of products and services delivered to different consumers Evolution of the company s turnover since ANNEXES Technical specifications Questionnaire Tables 2

6 FLASH EUROBAROMETER INTRODUCTION Digital is already an important economic sector for Europe, growing at seven times the rate of the rest of the economy 1. In spite of this, there is still no Digital Single Market in the European Union. Cross-border e-commerce is growing much more slowly than national e-commerce: consumers are often blocked from buying goods, services or content online from other Member States. In addition, many companies either do not sell across borders, or only sell certain items cross-border. In a true Digital Single Market the experience of buying and/or selling to other Member States should be the same as that of buying and selling in their home country, for both consumers and companies. To make this a reality, it is important to identify the obstacles most often encountered by companies when dealing with consumers or companies in another Member State. To gather this information, as well as broader background on the current digital commerce experience of retailers, the following survey was commissioned. It explores a range of areas, including: The proportion of retailers that sell or purchase online; The means used to sell and purchase online; The proportion of sales or purchases made nationally, or cross-border; Experiences with cross-border selling and purchasing, and particularly problems encountered such as issues with copyright, cross-border laws and copyright; Reasons for not selling cross-border online. In addition to analysing the results at a total level (all 26 Member States), cross-country comparisons will be included where possible. The results for different company characteristic, such as company size, sector and turnover will also be discussed. This survey was carried out by TNS Political & Social network in 26 Member States of the European Union 2 : Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Croatia, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Hungary, the Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom between the 19 th of January and the 6 th of February Some respondents from different social and demographic groups were interviewed via telephone (landline and mobile phone) in their mother tongue on behalf of the European Commission, Directorate-General for Communication Networks, Content and Technology Malta and Cyprus were not included in this study. The relatively small number of companies in these countries combined with the incidence of e-commerce activity and previously observed sample ratios, meant that a minimum country size of 100 could not be achieved. 3

7 FLASH EUROBAROMETER The methodology used is that of Eurobarometer surveys as carried out by the Directorate-General for Communication ( Strategy, Corporate Communication Actions and Eurobarometer Unit) 3.. A technical note on the manner in which interviews were conducted by the Institutes within the TNS Political & Social network is appended as an annex to this report. Also included are the interview methods and confidence intervals 4. Note: In this report, countries are referred to by their official abbreviation. The abbreviations used in this report correspond to: ABBREVIATIONS BE Belgium LT Lithuania BG Bulgaria LU Luxembourg CZ Czech Republic HU Hungary DK Denmark NL The Netherlands DE Germany AT Austria EE Estonia PL Poland IE Ireland PT Portugal EL Greece RO Romania ES Spain SI Slovenia FR France SK Slovakia HR Croatia FI Finland IT Italy SE Sweden LV Latvia UK The United Kingdom * * * * * We wish to thank the people throughout Europe who have given their time to take part in this survey. Without their active participation, this study would not have been possible The results tables are included in the annex. It should be noted that the total of the percentages in the tables of this report may exceed 100 when the respondent has the possibility of giving several answers to the question. 4

8 FLASH EUROBAROMETER KEY FINDINGS Selling online On average, 25.7 of a company s total sales value in 2014 came from online sales. o Companies in northern and central areas of Europe tend to have had the highest proportion of sales value in 2014 from online. 80 of companies sell online using their own websites or apps, while around one third use small (35) or large (33) commercial platforms and 22 use EDItype transactions. For companies that sell online, an average of 85.4 of their online sales in 2014 came from their own country, 10.3 were from other EU countries and 4.3 from countries outside the EU. o 20 of companies that sell outside their own country sold to the USA, and 18 to Switzerland, Norway or Iceland. Amongst companies that don t currently sell online to other EU countries, 21 are considering doing so at the moment; although most say they will probably never do this (58). The most common difficulties companies encounter when selling online are related to cost concerns that delivery costs are too high (51), that guarantees and returns are too expensive (42), or that resolving complaints and disputes crossborder are too expensive (41) are the most likely to be mentioned as problems. Companies that don t sell online, but are currently trying to do so, are also most likely to say that these issues relating to costs would be problems for them if they sold online: concerns that delivery costs are too high (62), resolving complaints and disputes cross-border are too expensive (62), or that guarantees and returns are too expensive (58). Companies that don t sell online are most likely to say that the fact that delivery costs are too high (57), guarantees and returns are too expensive (55), and that they do know the rules that have to be followed (54) are most likely to be problems for them if they were to sell online. For companies that made sales through traditional channels in 2014, the majority were made within the country where they are located (89.3), while 7.3 were to other EU countries and 3.4 to countries outside the EU. If the same rules for e-commerce were applied in all EU Member States, 57 of companies say they would either start or increase their online sales to other EU countries 23 of which who say they would definitely do this. 5

9 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Purchasing online On average, 23.3 of the value of a company s goods or services purchased in 2014 came from online purchases. o Companies in northern and central areas of Europe tend to have had the highest proportion of purchase value from online. Companies are most likely to buy online using the websites or apps of their suppliers (73), while 46 use small and 45 use large commercial platforms, and 20 use EDI-type transactions. For companies that purchase online, an average of 83.3 of their online purchases in 2014 were from their own country, 12.2 were from other EU countries and 4.5 from countries outside the EU. Amongst companies that don t currently purchase online from other EU countries 18 are considering doing so at the moment, although most say they will probably never do this (59). Companies that purchased goods and/or services online from another EU country in 2014, as well as those that either used to do so or tried to do so, are most likely to mention the fact that delivery costs are too high (57), that resolving complaints and disputes cross-border are too expensive (53), and that they are concerned their data are not well protected when purchasing abroad (44), are problems when purchasing online. Companies that do not purchase online but are currently trying to now are also most likely to be concerned about cost-related issues: that resolving complaints and disputes cross-border are too expensive (73), and that delivery costs are too high (71), while 60 say the fact that they lack the language skills to deal with foreign countries would be a problem. Profile of companies that buy/sell online Companies that sell online are slightly more likely than those that purchase online to have employees (16 vs. 14) or employees (4 vs. 2), and slightly less likely to have 1-9 employees (79 vs. 83). Companies that sell online are most likely to be independent (88), as are those that purchase online (90). Companies that sell online are more likely than those that purchase online to be selling to individual consumers either goods (76 vs. 63), digital services delivered entirely online (16 vs. 9), or selling services offline or online/offline (36 vs. 31). Companies that purchase online are slightly more likely to say turnover has remained the same (32 vs. 28), but there is little difference between these two groups in the proportion that say turnover has risen or fallen. 6

10 FLASH EUROBAROMETER I. SELLING ONLINE 1.1. Value of online sales in Just over one quarter of sales value in 2014 came from online - In 2014, online accounted for 25.7 of the total value of sales, on average. For the majority of companies, online sales represented 1-25 of sales (57). However it is worth noting that for 11 of companies, online accounted for at least 76 of their sales value in Base: Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) Companies in Northern and Central areas of Europe tend to have had the highest proportions of sales value from online sales. Businesses in Luxembourg 5 had the highest proportion (46.4), followed by those in Latvia (37.2) and Romania (36.0). At the other end of the spectrum, just 18.3 of sales value in Greece and 19.2 in Slovakia came from online sales in Care should be taken when interpreting the results for Luxembourg, due to low sample size. 7

11 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) Results from the analysis of company characteristics shows that those in the accommodation sector had the highest proportion of sales value from online in 2014 (37.4). This compares to 31.6 for the information and communication sector, 22.4 for wholesale and retail trade, and 17.7 for manufacturing companies. Companies established on or after 1 st January 2009 had a higher average proportion of sales value from online compared to companies established before 2009 ( vs. 23.4). In addition, companies with a turnover of less than 100,000 euros had a higher proportion of sales value from online when compared to companies with larger turnovers (37.0 vs ). Finally, companies whose turnover has risen since 2012 reported a higher proportion of sales value from online compared to those whose turnover remained the same, or fell in this time period (29.5 vs and 22.0 respectively). 8

12 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) 1.2. Means of selling online - Most companies sell online using their own website or apps - Companies that sell online were asked the means they use to do this. The large majority (80) use their own website or apps. Just over one third use a small commercial platform (35), while 33 use a large commercial platform. Almost one quarter (22) use EDI type transactions. Base: Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) 9

13 FLASH EUROBAROMETER The majority of companies in each surveyed Member State sell online using their own website or apps. This is also the most mentioned method in each country. Companies in Germany are the most likely to sell online using their own website or apps (90), followed by those in Belgium, Austria (both 89) and Hungary (88). In contrast, 55 of companies selling online in Sweden use their own website or apps, as do 61 in Slovakia. Companies in Spain are the most likely to sell using a small commercial platform, buy a considerable margin: 61 us this method, compared to 44 in Belgium and 40 in the Czech Republic. Small commercial platforms are least likely to be used by companies in Croatia (7), Denmark (11) and Slovenia (13). Companies in Poland (49), Spain (41) and the United Kingdom (40) are the most likely to say they use a large commercial platform, particularly when compared to those in Slovenia (8), Denmark (10) and Estonia (11). Companies in Spain (33) and Latvia (32) are the most likely to use EDI-type transactions, while those in Slovakia (5) are least likely to do so. 10

14 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) A review of company characteristics shows that companies in the accommodation sector are the most likely to use their own website or apps (88), or small (54) or large (46) commercial platforms. EDI-type transactions are most likely to be used by companies in the information and communication sector (27), closely followed by those in the accommodation sector (25).. And finally, companies established after 1 st January 2014 are the least likely to say they use their own website or apps (62), or small commercial platforms (27), but are the most likely to say they don t know what they use to sell online (20). 11

15 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) 1.3. Regions in which companies sold online in Share of online sales that came from different regions For companies that sell online, on average 85.4 of their online sales in 2014 were from their own country. A further 10.3 were from other EU countries, and 4.3 were from outside the EU. Base: Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) 12

16 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Companies in Poland (93), Finland (92.8), Hungary and the United Kingdom (both 90.7) had the highest proportion of online sales in their own country. In fact, in 18 countries at least 80 of online sales were in the company s own country. Companies in Luxembourg (52.6), Ireland (65.8) and Austria (66.6) reported the lowest proportion of online sales in their own country 6. These three countries had the highest proportion of online sales to other countries: Luxembourg 39.9, Austria 29.3 and Ireland Poland had the lowest at just 4.9. On average, companies in Ireland report 10.8 of their online sales were in countries outside the EU, while for companies in Greece the average is 8.9 and in Luxembourg 7.5. Just 1.1 of online sales by companies in Romania and 1.3 of those by companies in Slovenia were to countries outside the EU. Base: Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) 6 Results for Luxembourg should be interpreted with caution due to low sample size. 13

17 FLASH EUROBAROMETER The analysis of company characteristics shows that companies in the wholesale and retail trade sector report the largest average proportion of online sales from their own country (91.8), particularly compared to companies in the accommodation sector (67.5). Companies in the accommodation sector, on the other hand, reported the highest proportion of online sales to other EU countries (23.9 vs ). Moreover, companies that are part of an international group are more likely to have had a greater proportion of online sales to other EU countries when compared those that are part of a national group or to independent companies or (14.6 vs ). Base: Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) 14

18 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Countries in which companies sold online Companies that sold online outside their own country in 2014 were asked what countries they sold to. The large majority (90) sold to other countries within the EU. One in five (20) sold to the USA, with 18 selling to Switzerland, Norway or Iceland. Around one in twenty sold to Russia (7), China (6) or Japan (5). Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online outside of their country in 2014 (N=1647) All companies in Poland and Slovakia (that sold online outside their own country) sold to other countries within the EU (both 100) 7. In fact, in all but one of the countries studied, at least three quarters of companies sold online to other EU countries. The exception is companies in Bulgaria (63). At least one third of companies in the United Kingdom (43) and Ireland (33) sold to the USA, compared to 2 of those in the Czech Republic and Slovenia 8. At least one in ten companies in Portugal (14), Germany, Poland 9 (both 12) and Croatia (10) sold to China, while 12 of those in Croatia and 11 in the United Kingdom sold to Japan. Companies in Finland and Latvia 10 are the most likely to have sold to Russia (both 17), while those in Germany (52), France (31) and Austria (30) are the most likely to have sold to Switzerland, Norway or Iceland. 7 Results for Poland and Slovakia should be interpreted with caution due to low sample size. 8 Hungary and Estonia are not included in this analysis due to low sample size. 9 Results for Poland should be interpreted with caution due to low sample size. 10 Results for Finland and Latvia should be interpreted with caution due to low sample size. 15

19 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online outside of their country in 2014 (N=1647) The analysis of company characteristics illustrates that wholesale and retail companies are the least likely to have sold online to the USA in 2014 (14 vs ). Accommodation companies are the most likely to have sold to Russia (14 vs. 1-6), while information and communication companies are much more likely than those in other sectors to have sold to Switzerland, Norway or Iceland (28 vs ). Companies with employees are the most likely to have sold to the USA (42), while companies whose turnover has fallen in 2014 compared to 2012 are less likely to have sold to the USA than those whose turnover rose, or remained stable (14 vs. 22). 16

20 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online outside of their country in 2014 (N=1647) 1.4. Attitudes and experience of companies that don t sell online in other EU countries - Just over one in five companies are considering selling online in other EU countries - Companies that did not sell online to other EU countries in 2014 were asked if they had ever tried to, or considered doing so. The majority of companies say they will probably never sell their products or services online in other EU countries (58). However, 21 are currently considering it, while 8 are trying to sell online to other EU countries now. Almost one in twenty (4) say they tried but have given up, while 3 used to sell online to other EU countries but have stopped doing it. 17

21 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that did not sell any of their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 (N=1719) In 13 countries at least half of this group of companies say that they will probably never sell their products or services online to other EU countries. This is particularly the case for companies in Belgium (78), France (71), Sweden and the Netherlands (both 67) 11. At the other end of the scale 15 of companies in Slovenia and 26 in Croatia say the same. Half of all companies in Slovenia that did not sell online to other EU countries in 2014 say they are currently considering doing this (50), as do 38 in Poland, 37 in Finland and 34 in Romania. This compares to 7 of companies in Belgium and 8 in Sweden that say the same. Companies in Croatia (29) and Sweden (17) are the most likely to say they are trying to sell online to other countries in the EU now, compared to 1 of those in France and Ireland 12. Companies in Croatia are also the most likely to say they tried to sell online to other EU countries but have given up (10), while at least one in ten companies in Slovenia (13) and Austria (11) say they used to sell online to other countries in the EU but have stopped doing this. 11 Latvia and Luxembourg are not included in the analysis due to very low sample size. Results for Belgium should be interpreted with caution due to low sample size. 12 Results for Ireland should be interpreted with caution due to low sample size. 18

22 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that did not sell any of their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 (N=1719) When looking at the company characteristics, companies in wholesale and retail trade, as well as those in the accommodation sector, are more likely to say they will probably never sell online to other EU countries when compared to those in the information and communication or manufacturing sectors (62 vs. 48 and 49 respectively). Companies in the wholesale or retail trade sector are also less likely than those in other sectors to say they are considering selling online to other EU countries now (18 vs ). 19

23 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Companies established before 1 st January 2009 are the most likely to say they will probably never sell their products or services online to other EU countries (60). Companies that are part of an international group are the most likely to say they will probably never sell online to other EU countries (72 vs ), while those that are independent or part of a national group are more likely to say they are currently considering this (22 and 19 vs. 8). Companies that sell digital services online to companies (47) or individuals (40) are the least likely to say they will probably never sell online to other EU countries. Companies that sell digital services online to individuals are also the most likely to say they are currently considering selling online to other EU countries (37 vs ). Base: Companies that did not sell any of their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 (N=1719) 20

24 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 1.5. Difficulties when selling online to other EU countries Companies that sell online to other EU countries or used to do so in the past Companies that sell, used to sell, or tried to sell online to other EU countries were given a range of potential difficulties with selling online, and asked how much of a problem each of these issues had been for them 13. At least half of this group of companies say that delivery costs are too high when selling to other EU countries (51), with 27 saying this is a major problem. At least one in five say that the expense in resolving cross-border complaints is a major problem, while 20 say it is a minor problem. Almost the same proportion, 19, say the fact that guarantees and returns are too expensive is a major problem, while 23 say this as a minor problem. For almost one third of companies (32), slow Internet speeds are a problem when selling to other EU countries, and for 16 this is a major issue. For 17 of companies, the fact that their client s Internet connection is not fast enough is a problem, and for 9 of companies this is a major problem. For 15 the complications or costs of dealing with foreign taxation is a major problem, as is not knowing the rules that need to be followed, and a lack of language skills. Relatively few companies say that a lack of security for cross-border payments (29), or data protection concerns (31) are problems when selling online to other EU countries. In both cases just 12 say this is a major problem. Just one in ten companies say reasons of interoperability are a major problem (10). For the other possible difficulties, fewer than one in ten say these are major problems, with products and services specific to the local market, and product labelling needing to be adapted the most likely to be considered a problem to some degree (both 21). However, most companies (66) say that copyright preventing them from selling abroad, or making it too expensive to sell abroad is not a problem at all. Taking a broader view, issues relating to costs are the most likely to be considered problems overall, and they are also the most likely to be considered major problems. A lack of Internet speed also rates highly, as do problems relating to skills and information (language skills, complex foreign taxation). 13 Due to very low sample size, Luxembourg is not included in the discussion of country results. 21

25 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) Companies in Poland (73), Slovakia (69) and Hungary (61) that sell, used to sell, or tried to sell online to other EU countries are the most likely to say that high delivery costs are a problem to some degree, with those in Hungary the most likely to say this is a major problem (47) 14. Companies in France (41) and Slovakia (39) are the next most likely to say high delivery costs are a major problem. 14 Due to very low sample size, results for Luxembourg are not included in discussion of the country analysis for any options in this section of the report. In addition, results for Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Finland should be interpreted with caution for any options in this section of the report due to low sample size. 22

26 FLASH EUROBAROMETER This compares to 12 of companies in Finland and 14 in Sweden. In fact, companies in these two countries are the least likely to say high delivery costs are a problem to any degree (both 24), although Finland is the only country where at least half say this issue is not a problem at all. Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) Slovakia (56) and Sweden (52) are the only countries where at least half of all companies say the cost of resolving cross-border complaints or disputes is a problem to some degree. However, it is companies in Spain that are most likely to say this is a major problem (35), followed by those in Slovakia (34) and Italy (30). In contrast, no companies in Estonia, and just 2 in the United Kingdom say this is a major problem. Overall, the majority of companies in 11 Member States say this issue is not a problem at all. 23

27 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) Slovakia (55) and Spain (51) are the only countries where a majority of companies say expensive guarantees and returns are a problem when selling online to other EU countries, although companies in Portugal (31) are the most likely to say this is a major problem. This is on contrast to Sweden, where 2 say expensive guarantees and returns are a major problem, and 17 say it is a minor problem. Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) 24

28 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Overall, companies in France (58) and Spain (47) are the most likely to say that the costs or complications of dealing with foreign tax notification are a problem to some degree, with 30 of those in France saying this is a major problem when selling to other EU countries. However, in 17 Member States, at least half of all companies say the costs or complications of dealing with foreign tax notification are not a problem at all, and this is particularly the case for those in Estonia (76), Croatia and Finland (both 68). Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) Overall, companies in Slovakia (57), Poland and Spain (both 48) are the most likely to say that not knowing the rules to follow when selling to other EU countries is a problem to some degree. However, it is companies in Italy that are most likely to say this is a major problem (30), followed by those in Slovakia and Portugal (both 26). Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) 25

29 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Overall, companies in France (62), Ireland (43), Poland (41) and Greece (40) are the most likely to have at least some problems with their Internet connection not being fast enough when selling online to other EU countries. However, it is companies in Italy (27), Spain (26) and France (26) that are the most likely to report this as a major problem. At the other end of the scale no companies in Latvia, Sweden or Estonia report slow Internet connection as a major problem, and overall slow Internet is an issue for just 3 of companies in Estonia and 9 in Latvia. Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) More than one third of companies in Slovakia say that lacking the language skills to deal with foreign countries is a major problem (38), and a further 36 say this is a minor problem. At least one quarter of companies in Portugal (27) and Italy (26) say this is a major problem, compared to no companies in Slovenia. Overall, however, the majority of companies in all but three countries say that a lack of language skills is not a problem at all. 26

30 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) In all but one country, the majority of companies say concerns about data not being well protected when selling abroad is not a problem at all, and this is particularly true for companies in Finland (89), Estonia (88) and Croatia (87). The exception is Bulgaria, where 47 say this is not a problem at all. Companies in Bulgaria are the second most likely, after those in Portugal, to say that concerns about data not being well protected when selling abroad are a major problem (26 and 32 respectively). Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) 27

31 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Overall, Bulgaria (52) and France (50) are the only countries where at least half of all companies say that a lack of security in cross-border payments is a problem to some degree. In fact, one third of companies in Bulgaria say this is a major problem (33). At the other end of the scale, just 4 of companies in Estonia and 8 in Latvia think cross border payment security is a problem when selling to other EU countries. Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) Although 39 of companies in Spain, 36 of companies in Poland and 35 in Bulgaria have some degree of problems with interoperability, Bulgaria is the only country where at least one in five say these problems are serious (20). At the other end of the scale, just 3 of companies in Sweden and 10 of companies in Estonia say this issue is a problem to any degree. In fact 90 of companies in Estonia say this issue is not a problem at all. Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) 28

32 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Companies in Bulgaria (40), Italy, Portugal (both 33) and France (30) are the most likely to report at least some problems with clients abroad not having fast enough Internet connections when selling online to other EU countries. Companies in Italy and Portugal are also the most likely to say that this is a major problem (both 27). In spite of this, the majority of companies in each country say this issue is not a problem at all. Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) One in five companies in Italy (20) have a major problem with products and services being specific to their local market, as do 19 of companies in Finland and 15 in Greece and Portugal. At an overall level, however, it is companies in Lithuania (38), Latvia (36), and Poland (33) that are the most likely to report some degree of problem with products and services being specific to their local market. Once again, however, the majority of companies in each Member State say this issue is not a problem at all. 29

33 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) Companies in Spain (18) and Greece (16) are the most likely to say suppliers requesting they sell abroad at a different price is a major problem. However, from an overall perspective, companies in Greece (40), Slovakia (34) and Ireland (30) are the most likely to say they have at least some problem with suppliers requesting they sell abroad at a different price. Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) Companies in France (21) and Italy (19) are the most likely to say that suppliers not allowing them to use a third platform to sell is a major problem, while those in Poland are the most likely to say this is a minor problem (24). However, the majority of companies in each country say this is not a problem at all when selling online to another EU country. 30

34 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) The issue of product labelling having to be adapted draws a more varied response. In 17 Member States at least one in five companies have some problems with labelling, and this is particularly the case amongst those in Romania (37), Slovakia (32) and Croatia (31). However, it is companies in Italy (17) Portugal (16) and Bulgaria (15) that are the most likely to say they have a major problem with product labelling needing to be adapted when selling in other EU countries. Companies in Estonia (8) and Finland (9) are the least likely to report any level of problem in this area. Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) 31

35 FLASH EUROBAROMETER In each of the countries studied, companies are most likely to say that copyright preventing them from selling abroad or being too expensive is not a problem at all. This is particularly the case in Estonia (98), Finland (86), Sweden (81) and the Netherlands (80). Companies in Poland (31), Greece (29), Bulgaria and Slovakia (both 26) are the most likely to say copyright preventing them from selling abroad or being too expensive is a problem to some degree, with companies in Romania (17), Spain and Bulgaria (both 16) the most likely to say this is a major problem. Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) In general, a minority of companies in each Member State has problems with suppliers restricting or forbidding them selling abroad. Companies in Bulgaria are the most likely to report at least some problems (27), with 16 saying this is a major problem. At least one in five companies in Spain (23), France (21), Austria and the United Kingdom (both 20) report at least some problems with suppliers forbidding or restricting them when selling abroad. 32

36 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) The analysis of company characteristics highlights the following differences: By sector Manufacturing, and wholesale and retail trade companies are more likely than companies in the information or accommodation sector to say that high delivery costs, high costs of guarantees and returns, product labelling having to be adapted, and the cost of resolving complaints and disputes cross-border are problems for when selling online to other EU companies. For example, 67 of manufacturing companies, and 64 of wholesale and retail trade companies say high delivery costs are a problem, compared to 44 of companies in the information sector, and 23 of those in the or accommodation sector. Manufacturing companies are the most likely to say that not knowing the rules to be followed (46 vs ), and a lack of language skills (53 vs ) are problems. Information companies are the least likely to say insecure payments from other countries (22 vs ), or suppliers not allowing them to use a third platform (5 vs ) are problems. They are, however, the most likely to say the fact that their products or services are specific to the local market is a problem (28 vs ). Wholesale and retail trade companies are the most likely to say the fact that their suppliers restrict or forbid them to sell abroad is a problem (22 vs ). 33

37 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Accommodation companies are the most likely to say concerns about data protection (39 vs ), slow company Internet (47 vs ), or slow client Internet (27 vs ) are problems. Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that By company type used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) Companies that are part of an international group are the least likely to say the cost of guarantees and returns (34 vs ), a lack of language skills (29 vs ), or the cost of resolving cross-border disputes (30 vs ) are a problem when selling online to other EU countries. Independent companies are the most likely to say that not knowing the rules to be followed (38 vs ) is a problem. Companies that are part of a national group are the most likely to say the fact that copyright prevents you from selling abroad or is too expensive to sell abroad (32 vs ), that product labelling has to be adapted (31 vs ), concerns about data security (37 vs ), slow client Internet speed (28 vs ), or the cost of resolving crossborder disputes (46 vs ) are problems when selling online to other EU countries. They are, however, the least likely to say the fact that suppliers request they sell abroad at a different price is a problem (14 vs ). 34

38 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that By turnover used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) Perhaps not surprisingly, companies whose turnover has fallen since 2012 are more likely to say that delivery costs (58 vs. 50) and the costs of returns and guarantees (49 vs ) are problems. They are also the most likely to say copyright prevents them from selling abroad or is too expensive to sell abroad (24 vs ), a lack of language skills (49 vs ), suppliers expecting them to sell abroad at a different price (28 vs ) and data protection concerns are problems (40 vs ). Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=1903) 35

39 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Companies that don t sell online to other EU countries but are trying to now Companies that don t sell online, but are currently trying to do so, were also asked if this range of difficulties would be a problem for them. More than six out of ten say the fact that delivery costs are too high is a problem (62) and for 41 this is a major problem. More than six out of ten also say the cost of resolving cross-border complaints is also a problem (62), and for 37 this is a major problem. More than half (58) say the cost of guarantees and returns is a problem, and for 32 it is a major one. For 31 of companies, not knowing which rules to follow is a major problem when trying to sell online to another country, and a further 32 say this is a minor problem. More than half (54) say the costs or complications from dealing with foreign taxation is a problem (30 say this is a major problem). One in five say lacking language skills is a major problem, with a further 28 citing this as a minor problem. More than four in ten also think that data protection when selling abroad is a problem, with 18 saying this is a major problem. Almost one in five (18) say the fact that interoperability means they cannot provide their products/services abroad is a major problem, with a further 22 saying this would be a minor problem. For almost all of the other issues, at least one in ten companies say they would be major problems if they were to sell online to other EU countries. Companies are least likely to say that the fact that their products or services are specific to the local market, or that suppliers request they sell abroad at different prices would be major problems for them. As was the case for companies that currently or used to sell online, issues relating to cost are perceived as the most likely to cause problems, and particularly major problems. Companies are more likely to have problems with product-related issues than with the supplier issues discussed above. It is, however, interesting to note that companies that are considering or trying to sell online are more likely to see these issues - such as high delivery costs, the costs of returns and the cost of resolving cross-border complaints - as major problems, when compared to companies that currently or used to sell online. 36

40 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that did not sell any of their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 but are trying to do it or considering it now (N=501) Due to low sample size, a full country level analysis could not be performed 15. However, the following differences are observed amongst countries with sufficient sample 16 : High delivery costs are most likely to be a problem for companies in Greece (84), with 57 saying this is a major problem when trying to sell to other EU countries. Slovenia (39), Denmark (43) and the Czech Republic (46) are the only countries where fewer than half of all companies say this would be a problem. 37

41 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Expensive guarantees and returns are most likely to be considered a problem by companies in Romania (71) and Poland (70), but least likely to be considered a problem by those in Slovenia (21). Nine out of ten companies in Bulgaria say not knowing the rules to follow would be a problem (90), compared to 23 in Slovenia. Spain (63) and Bulgaria (56) are the only countries where at least half of this group of companies say that a lack of security for payments from other countries would be a problem. This compares to 16 of those in both Croatia and Slovenia. Companies in Bulgaria (49) and Spain (45) are also the most likely to say copyright would be a problem for them selling to other EU countries, and they are also the most likely to mention the cost or complication of dealing with foreign taxation (64 and 71 respectively) and concerns about data protection (49 and 58 respectively). Meanwhile, companies in Spain (63) and Greece (54) are the most likely to mention issues of interoperability Companies in Spain (48), Greece (45) and Croatia (43) are the most likely to say the need for product labelling to be adapted would be a problem. This compares to 19 of those in Finland. Companies in Spain (72), Poland (60) and Bulgaria (56) are the most likely to say a lack of language skills would be a problem, compared to 19 in Slovenia. Almost half of this group of companies in Bulgaria say the fact that suppliers restrict or forbid selling abroad would be a problem (47); just 15 in Poland say the same. Companies in Bulgaria are also the most likely to say the fact that suppliers don t allow them to use a third platform to sell would be a problem (52). This compares to 9 of companies in Finland. Companies in Denmark are the most likely to say suppliers requesting them to sell at a different price abroad would be a problem (30) although most say this would be a minor (24) rather than major (6) one. In contrast, 26 of companies in Bulgaria say this would be a major problem. 45 of companies in Lithuania, and 41 in Spain say the fact that products/services are specific to their local market would be a problem when trying to sell to other EU countries. Just 9 of companies in the Czech Republic and Slovenia say the same. 15 Due to very low sample size, the following countries were not considered in the country analysis: BE, DE, EE, IE, FR, IT, LV, LU, HU, NL, AT, PT, SK, SE, UK. 16 Results for all countries except Slovakia should be interpreted with caution, due to low sample size. 38

42 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Companies in Greece (46) and Spain (42) are the most likely to say slow company Internet connection would be a problem, compared to 5 in Denmark. Bulgaria is the only country where at least half of these companies say that clients slow Internet connection would be a problem when trying to sell to other EU countries (52), although 42 in Greece and 40 in Spain say the same. Companies in Bulgaria (73), Spain and Poland (both 64) are the most likely to say the cost of resolving cross-border disputes would be a problem when trying to sell to other EU countries. Those in Slovenia (38) and Croatia (39) are least likely to say this would be a problem. Due to low sample sizes only a few company characteristics could be compared: Companies that sell to individuals (whether it is goods, digital services delivered online, or services delivered online and offline) are more likely than those that sell to other companies and organisations to say the fact that delivery costs are too high is a problem. For example 68 that sell goods to consumers say this, compared to 60 that sell goods to companies or organisations. The same pattern applies for the issue of reasons of interoperability and concerns about data protection when selling abroad. Companies that sell digital services online are less likely to say guarantees and returns are too expensive is a problem, compared to those selling offline services (40-47 vs ). Companies that sell digital services online to consumers are more likely than those that sell digital services to companies to say the fact that dealing with foreign taxation is too complicated or to costly (63 vs. 53), copyright prevents them from selling abroad or is too expensive to sell abroad (45 vs. 39), payments from other countries are not secured enough (55 vs. 48), they don t know the rules to be followed (58 vs. 49), suppliers do not allow them to use third platform to sell products and/or services (30 vs. 21), concerns their data is not well protected when selling abroad (49 vs. 36), interoperability (41 vs. 26), products and services are specific to the local market (40 vs. 31), and slow company Internet (37 vs. 30) are problems. 39

43 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that did not sell any of their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 but are trying to do it or considering it now (N=501) Companies that don t sell online Companies that don t currently sell online were asked which issues they thought would be a problem if the company was to sell their products or services online. As was the case for companies currently selling online, or those that have tried or are considering selling online, issues relating to cost are the most likely to be considered problems. Overall more than half of this group of companies say that the fact that delivery costs are too high, or that guarantees and returns are too expensive would be a problem (57 and 55 respectively). In both cases around one third of companies say these would be major problems (33 and 32 respectively). At least half of these companies also say that not knowing the rules to be followed would be a problem (54), with 29 of the opinion this would be a major problem. Along with the cost issues mentioned above, these are the only issues that at least half of the companies considered would be a problem to some degree. More than one quarter of these companies say a slow Internet connection (29) or the risk that online sales would bring prices of their products down (27) would be major problems if they were to sell online, while 24 say this about the fact suppliers charge higher prices for products sold online and 23 say the fact they don t have the necessary digital skills would be a major problem. 40

44 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Only a minority of companies say the risk that online sales would damage the overall image of the company and trademarks, that suppliers restrict or forbid them from selling online, or the fact that suppliers do not allow the use of third party platforms to sell would be a problem to any degree, and fewer than one in five say these issues would be major problems. Base: Companies that don t sell online (N=5122) The majority of companies in Italy that do not sell online say high delivery costs would be a major problem if they were to sell online (53), and 46 of companies in Portugal and 45 in Slovakia agree 17. Overall, companies in Slovakia (72), France (70) and Spain (69) are the most likely to say this issue would be a problem to some degree. 17 Results from Slovakia in the rest of this section should be interpreted with caution, due to low sample size. 41

45 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Estonia (52), Finland and Denmark (both 50) are the only countries where at least half say this issue would not be a problem at all. Base: Companies that don t sell online (N=5122) Overall, companies in France (72) and Spain (63) are the most likely to say that the fact that guarantees and returns are too expensive would be a problem if they sold online, although it is companies in Italy that are the most likely to say this would be a major problem (51). This compares to Estonia where just 4 consider this would be a major problem, and 21 that it would be a problem to some degree. Base: Companies that don t sell online (N=5122) 42

46 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Once again it is companies in Italy that are the most likely to say the fact that not knowing the rules to be followed would be a major problem if they were to sell online (52). They are also amongst the most likely to say that this would be a problem to some degree (65), along with companies in Slovakia (66) and Spain (64). In contrast, the majority of companies in Slovenia (72), Finland (58) and Lithuania (52) say this would not be a problem at all. Base: Companies that don t sell online (N=5122) In five Member States, the majority of companies say the fact that their Internet connection isn t fast enough would be a problem to some degree: Italy (71), France (58), Bulgaria (55), Spain (53) and Slovakia (51). In fact, more than half of the companies in Italy say this would be a major problem. This is a large contrast with Estonia and Slovenia, where 9 and 11 of companies respectively think their Internet connection speed would be a problem to some degree. Base: Companies that don t sell online (N=5122) 43

47 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Overall, companies in France are the most likely to say that the risk that online sales would bring the prices of their products down would be a problem to some degree (68), with 40 saying this would be a major problem. This compares to 21 of companies in Estonia that say this would be a problem to some degree. Base: Companies that don t sell online (N=5122) There are only four countries where at least half of companies say the fact that suppliers charge a higher price for products sold online would be a problem for their company selling online: Italy (57), Poland (52), France and Spain (both 50). In the case of Italy and Spain, most of these companies think this would be a major problem, rather than a minor one. Once again, companies in Estonia are the least likely to say this issue would be a problem to any degree (11). Base: Companies that don t sell online (N=5122) 44

48 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Although companies in Italy (41) and Portugal (39) are the most likely to say the fact that they do not have the necessary digital skills would be a major problem, it is companies in France that are, overall, most likely to consider that this issue would be a problem (66). This compares to Slovenia, where 76 say a lack of digital skills would not be a problem at all. Base: Companies that don t sell online (N=5122) France (53) and Italy (52) are the only Member States where at least half of companies that don t sell online say the risk that online sales would damage the overall image of their company and trademarks would be a problem. Indeed, at least three out of ten say this would be a major problem if their company was to sell online (France: 34, Italy: 31). In Slovakia 34 of companies say this would be a major problem. At the other end of the scale, at least seven out of ten companies in Finland (78), Estonia (72), Slovenia (71) and Romania (70) say this issue would not be a problem at all. 45

49 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that don t sell online (N=5122) Once again companies in Italy (49) and France (41) are the most likely to say suppliers restricting or forbidding them from selling online would be a problem, and they are also the most likely to say it would be a major problem (31 and 25 respectively). However, in almost all countries the majority say this issue would not be a problem at all. Base: Companies that don t sell online (N=5122) 46

50 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Companies in Italy are the most likely to say suppliers not allowing them to use third party platforms to sell products and/or services would be a major problem (28), and are also the most likely to say that this would be a problem to some degree (46), followed by those in Poland (44). Just 3 of companies in Estonia say the same. Base: Companies that don t sell online (N=5122) The analysis of company characteristics reveals the following differences: Information and communication companies are the least likely to say the following issues would be a problem to some degree: high delivery costs, expensive guarantees and returns, not knowing the rules to be followed, Internet connection not being fast enough, suppliers charging a higher price for products sold online, not having the necessary digital skills and the risk of online sales damaging the company image and trademarks. For example, 44 of information and communication companies say the fact that delivery costs are too high would be a problem to some degree, compared to 58 of companies in the accommodation sector, 59 of manufacturing companies, and 64 of wholesale and retail companies. Accommodation companies are the most likely to say the fact that their Internet connection isn t fast enough (56 vs ), or that suppliers charge a higher price for products which are sold online (49 vs ) would be problems to some degree. Wholesale and retail trade companies are the most likely to say the risk that online sales would bring prices of their products down would be a problem to some degree (55 vs 42-47). 47

51 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that don t sell online (N=5122) The smaller the company, the more likely that high delivery costs, not knowing the rules to be followed, the risk of online sales bringing down the price of products or suppliers charging a higher price for products which are sold online would be considered problems to some degree if they were to sell online. For example, 59 of companies with 1-9 employees say delivery costs being too high would be a problem, compared to 40 of companies with employees. Base: Companies that don t sell online (N=5122) Companies established after 1 st January 2014 are more likely than older companies to say the following would be problems: delivery costs too high, not knowing the rules to follow, the risk online sales would bring prices of their products down, suppliers charging a higher price for products which are sold online, the risk online sales would damage the overall image of their company and trademarks and suppliers not allowing the use of third party platforms to sell their products and/or services. 48

52 FLASH EUROBAROMETER On the other hand, they are the least likely to say a lack of digital skills would be a problem (39 vs ). Base: Companies that don t sell online (N=5122) 49

53 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 1.6. Share of traditional sales that came from different regions in Just over 10 of traditional sales in 2014 came from outside a company s own country - Companies that made sales through traditional channels in 2014 were asked about the source of these sales. As was the case for online sales, the majority of traditional sales were in the country where the company was located (89.3), while 7.3 of sales came from other EU countries, and 3.4 were from countries outside the EU. Base: Companies that sell their products/services offline (N=8525) In all but one country at least 80 of traditional sales in 2014 came from the company s own country. This was particularly the case in Finland (93.5), the United Kingdom (92.6), Romania (91.2) and France (91.0). The exceptions were companies in Luxembourg, where on average 71.4 of traditional sales were in the company s own country. On average, at least one quarter of traditional sales by companies in Luxembourg were in other EU countries (24.5), while in Austria the proportion was 15.1 and in Slovakia Companies in Sweden (5.9), Ireland (5.2) and Denmark (5.0) had the highest average proportion of sales to companies outside the EU. 50

54 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that sell their products/services offline (N=8525) Analysis of company characteristics shows the pattern that the smaller the company, the higher the proportion of traditional sales from the company s own country. For example for companies of 1-9, 90.7 of traditional sales were from their own country, compared to 61,7 for companies with employees and 65.7 of sales for companies with 500+ employees. Companies that are part of an international group had a higher proportion of sales in other EU countries than those who are independent, or part of a national group (17.4 vs. 7.0 and 5.8 respectively). 51

55 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that sell their products/services offline (N=8525) 1.7. Possible impact of the common e-commerce rules on online selling More than half would start or increase online sales to other EU Member States if there were common rules for e-commerce Almost one quarter of companies that either sold online to other EU companies in 2014, who used to do this, or who are currently considering or trying this, say they would definitely start or increase online sales to other Member States if there were common rules for e-commerce across the EU (23). A further 34 said they would do this to some extent. Almost one in five (16) said they definitely would not do this, while 21 said they would not really start or increase sales to other EU Member States if there were common rules. 52

56 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do it, tried to do it, are trying to do it or are considering it (N=2423) At least three quarters of this group of companies in Bulgaria (82), Greece (80) and Poland (79) say they would definitely or to some extent start or increase online sales in other EU countries if there were common rules for e-commerce across all Member States. In fact, in Bulgaria 64 would definitely do this, as would 44 of companies in Romania and 36 in France. Companies in Finland (8) and the United Kingdom (9) are the least likely to say they would definitely start or increase online sales to other EU countries in these circumstances. Companies in the Czech Republic and Germany (both 44) are the least likely to say they would definitely or to some extent start or increase online sales in other EU countries if there were common rules for e-commerce across all Member States. Companies in the Czech Republic, along with those in Estonia, are also the most likely to say they definitely would not start or increase online sales to other EU countries in these circumstances (both 25). 53

57 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do it, tried to do it, are trying to do it or are considering it (N=2423) A review of company characteristics shows that companies in the information and communication sector are less likely than those in other sectors to say they would definitely start or increase online sales in other EU countries if there were common rules for e-commerce across all Member States (18 vs ). Companies established after 1 st January 2014 are the most likely to say they would definitely or to some extent start or increase online sales in other EU countries if there were common rules for e-commerce across all Member States. For example, 33 would definitely do this, compared to of companies that were established before 1 st January Companies established prior to 1 st January 2014 are the most likely to say they definitely would not start or increase online sales to other EU countries in these circumstances (16 vs. 5). Base: Companies that sold their products and/or services online in another EU country in 2014 and those that used to do it, tried to do it, are trying to do it or are considering it (N=2423) 54

58 FLASH EUROBAROMETER II. PURCHASING ONLINE 2.1. Prevalence of online purchases in On average, 23.3 of the value of total goods/services purchased in 2014 came from online purchases - Companies that purchased online and/or used EDI-type transactions were asked the approximate value of the goods or services bought online in On average, online accounted for 23.3 of the total value of purchases. Almost two thirds (63) said the value was between 1 and 25, while 10 said the value was between 26 and 50. For one in ten companies (10) online accounted for between 76 and 100 of goods and services purchased by the company in Base: Companies that purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) The map illustrates that online had the largest proportion of total value of goods and services purchased in companies in Central and Northern areas of the EU. In Denmark online represented on average 40.5 of companies total goods and services purchases in In Austria the figure was 33.5, followed by Croatia (32.6), Germany (32.4) and Finland (32.3). At the other end of the scale online represented just 11.1 of these purchases by companies in Greece, and 15.3 for those in Italy. 55

59 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) The analysis of company characteristics illustrates that companies in the information and communication sector had by far the largest proportion of value from online purchases (36.3), followed by those in wholesale and retail trade (22.9), manufacturing (15.2) and accommodation (13.2). Companies established after 1 st January 2014 had a higher average proportion of total value of purchased goods and services from online than older companies (35.5 vs ). Companies that sell digital services online to other companies also made a larger proportion of purchase online than those selling digital services to individuals online (34.2 vs. 28.7). Companies whose turnover rose, or stayed the same compared to 2012 spent a greater proportion online compared to those whose turnover fell ( vs. 19.2). 56

60 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) 2.2. Means of purchasing online - Most companies that buy online use the websites or apps of their providers - Companies are most likely to sell their own goods and services via their own websites and apps, so it is perhaps not surprising that when buying online companies are also most likely to use the apps or websites of their suppliers (73). At least four in ten use small (46) or large (45) commercial platforms, while one in five (20) use EDI-type transactions. Base: Companies that purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) 57

61 FLASH EUROBAROMETER In all but two of the countries studied, companies are most likely to use the websites or apps of their providers to purchase products or services online. This is particularly the case for companies in Denmark (89), Austria (87) and Luxembourg (86), but is also the case for at least half of the companies in 24 of the 26 countries studied. The exceptions are Latvia (38) and Hungary (43). In Latvia, companies are most likely to buy online using a small commercial platform (62), although at least six out of ten companies in Spain (67) and France (65) also use these kinds of sites to purchase online. In contrast, 16 of companies in Denmark buy online from small commercial platforms. At least half of the companies in the United Kingdom (62), Spain (58), France (55), Poland (53) and Germany (52) that buy online do so using large commercial platforms just 15 in Denmark, 16 in Slovenia and 17 in Sweden do the same. In ten countries at least one in five companies use EDI-type transactions to buy online, and this is particularly the case for companies in Germany (28), France, the Czech Republic and Ireland (all 26). At the other end of the scale just 3 of companies in Slovakia purchase online using this method. 58

62 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) 59

63 FLASH EUROBAROMETER The analysis of company characteristics showed the following differences: Companies in the information and communication sector are the most likely to say they use suppliers websites or apps (80 vs ), large commercial platforms (58 vs ), and EDI transactions (25 vs ). They are also the second most likely, after those in the accommodation sector (54), to purchase via small commercial platforms (54 and 53 vs ). Companies established after 1 st January 2014 are the most likely to buy online using websites or apps of suppliers (80 vs ), or large commercial platforms (56 vs ), but are the least likely to use EDI-type transactions (14 vs ). Independent companies are less likely to use EDI-type transactions compared to those that are part of a national or international group (19 vs. 27 and 28 respectively). Base: Companies that purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) 60

64 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 2.3. Share of online purchases that came from different regions in The large majority of online purchases made by companies were within their own country - Companies that purchased online, or used EDI-type transactions, were asked what their proportion of purchases were that came from countries outside the EU. This proportion was small (4.5), with an average of 12.2 coming from other EU countries. The largest proportion of purchases in 2014 were made in the country where the company was located (83.3). Base: Companies that purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) In all but one of the countries studied, companies bought the largest proportion of goods or services from companies in the country where they are located. This is particularly true for the United Kingdom (94.1), Poland (92.6), France (89.2) and the Czech Republic (88.9). Companies in Luxembourg are the exception (24.8). The major proportion of their purchases came from other EU countries (71.2). Furthermore, Luxembourg is the only country where the proportion purchased from other EU countries is at least one third. Companies in Croatia (9.5), Bulgaria (9.3) and Portugal (9.2) had the highest average proportions of online purchases from countries outside the EU. Companies in Poland and the United Kingdom had the lowest proportions (both 2.3). 61

65 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) The results from the analysis of company characteristics show that: In 2014, companies in the accommodation sector had the highest proportion of purchases from within the country where the company was located (90.9 vs ), and the lowest proportion of purchases from other EU countries (7.2 vs ) or from countries outside the EU (2.0 vs ). Companies that are part of an international group had the highest proportion of purchases from another EU country (18.7 vs ). 62

66 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Companies that sell digital services online to other companies have the lowest proportion of purchase from within their own country (77.1 vs ), and the highest proportion of purchases from other EU countries (16.3 vs ), or from outside the EU (6.6 vs. 3.6 vs. 4.9). Companies with the highest turnover had the lowest proportion of purchase from the country where the company is located (70.5 vs ), and the highest proportion of purchases from other EU countries (25.1 vs ). Base: Companies that purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) 63

67 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 2.4. Attitudes and experience of companies that don t purchase online from other EU countries - Most companies that do not currently buy from other EU countries probably will not do so in future - Companies that did not purchase any goods and/or services online from another EU country in 2014 were asked if they had done so in the past, or had considered doing so. The majority (59) say they will probably never buy products or services online from other EU countries. Almost one in five (18) say they are currently considering doing this, while 7 have done so in the past but have now stopped. One in twenty (5) tried but have given up, while 3 are currently trying to buy goods or services online from another EU country. Base: Companies that did not purchase any goods and/or services online from another EU country in 2014 (N=3937) In 21 of the 26 Member States studied 18, companies are most likely to say they will probably never buy products or services online from other EU countries. This is particularly the case for companies in the United Kingdom (76), Sweden (74) and Austria (73). Companies in Croatia (21), Slovenia (32), Romania, Lithuania and Estonia (all 34) are the least likely to say this 19. Companies in Estonia (48), Croatia (43), Bulgaria (37), Romania and Slovenia (both 35) are most likely to say they are currently considering buying products or services online from other EU countries. This compares to just 12 of companies in Germany and Denmark. 18 Due to very low sample size, Luxembourg is not included in the discussion of country results. 19 Results from Estonia should be interpreted with caution due to low sample size. 64

68 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Companies in Finland (14), Germany (13) and Croatia (12) are the most likely to say they used to buy online form other EU countries but stopped doing this, while 15 of those in Romania and 11 in Latvia and Slovenia say they tried to do this but gave up. Companies in Croatia are the most likely to say they are currently trying to buy online from other EU countries (16). Base: Companies that did not purchase any goods and/or services online from another EU country in 2014 (N=3937) 65

69 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Results from the analysis of company characteristics reveal the following: Companies in the information and communication sector are the least likely to say they will probably never buy online from another EU country (43 vs ), but are the most likely to say they used to do this but have stopped (17 vs. 4-5). Accommodation companies are the most likely to say they will probably never buy online from another EU country (73). Independent companies are more likely than those that belong to groups to say they are currently considering buying online from another EU country (20 vs. 3-13), but are less likely to say they will probably never do this (58 vs. 65). Base: Companies that did not purchase any goods and/or services online from another EU country in 2014 (N=3937) 66

70 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 2.5. Difficulties when purchasing online from other EU countries Companies that purchase online or used to do so in the past Companies that purchased some goods and/or services online from another EU country in 2014, as well as those that either used to do so or tried to do so, were given a list of difficulties and asked how much of a problem each had been for the company when purchasing, or trying to purchase online from another EU country. As was the case when selling online, issues relating to costs are the most likely to have been problems when purchasing online. There are only two issues that have been a problem for the majority of these companies: high delivery costs (57) and the expense of resolving cross-border complaints and disputes (53). Companies are, however, most likely to say that the expense of resolving cross-border complaints was a major problem (32), while 28 say this about delivery costs being too high, and 22 say concerns about data protection when purchasing abroad were a major problem. Almost one in five said a lack of language skills was a major problem (19), while payments to other countries not being secure enough was a major problem for 18, and 16 said foreign suppliers refused to deliver to their country. The majority of these companies said copyright restrictions, product labelling having to be adapted, and interoperability were not a problem at all when trying to purchase online form another EU country. 67

71 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that purchased some goods and/or services online from EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=3859) In 11 Member States, at least half of these companies said that the expense of resolving complaints and disputes cross-border was a problem when purchasing online from another EU country, and this is particularly the case for companies in Slovakia (73), Spain (66), Czech Republic (65) and France (62).. However, companies in Slovakia and Bulgaria are the most likely to say this issue was a major problem (47 and 45 respectively). At the other end of the scale 17 of companies in Estonia and 20 in Latvia said this issue had been a problem to some degree Caution should be used when interpreting the results for Estonia throughout this section, due to low sample size. 68

72 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that purchased some goods and/or services online from EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=3859) In Bulgaria, half of these companies said delivery costs being too high had been a major problem (50), followed those in Portugal (48) and Italy (44). Overall, however, it is companies in Slovakia (73) that are most likely to say this has been a problem to some degree. This compares to 26 in Denmark. Base: Companies that purchased some goods and/or services online from EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=3859) Companies in Portugal (64), Bulgaria (60) and Spain (59) are the most likely to say concerns about data not being well protected have been a problem when purchasing from another EU country, and those in Portugal and Bulgaria are also the most likely to say this has been a major problem (49 and 48 respectively). 69

73 FLASH EUROBAROMETER At the other end of the scale 14 of companies in Denmark and 15 in Slovenia say this issue has been a problem to some degree. Base: Companies that purchased some goods and/or services online from EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=3859) In five Member States, at least half of all companies say that lacking the language skills for dealing with foreign countries has been a problem to some degree: Italy (61), Slovakia (57), Spain (56), France and the Czech Republic (both 51). Companies in Italy (42) and France (32) are the most likely to say this has been a major problem, compared to no companies in Sweden and 1 in Estonia and Slovenia. Base: Companies that purchased some goods and/or services online from EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=3859) 70

74 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Portugal is the only country where more than one third say the fact that payments to other countries are not secure enough has been a major problem (36), although 33 in Italy and France say the same. This compares with no companies in Estonia, and 2 in Denmark. Base: Companies that purchased some goods and/or services online from EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=3859) A minority of companies in each country say that foreign suppliers refusing to deliver to their country has been a problem to some degree. Companies in Romania (47) and Bulgaria (44) are the most likely to say this, although those in Bulgaria are the most likely to say this has been a major problem (38). Companies in Sweden (81), Finland (79), Denmark and the United Kingdom (both 78) are the most likely to say this issue has not been a problem at all. Base: Companies that purchased some goods and/or services online from EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=3859) 71

75 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Companies in Bulgaria and Portugal are the most likely to say copyright has been a major problem when trying to purchase from another EU country (39 and 35 respectively). This compares to just 2 in Sweden and 3 in Denmark and Finland. Base: Companies that purchased some goods and/or services online from EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=3859) Along with those in Italy (37), companies in Bulgaria and Portugal are also the most likely to say the fact that product labelling has to be adapted is a major problem (32 and 24). Companies in Estonia, Slovenia (both 2) are the least likely to say this has been a major problem. Base: Companies that purchased some goods and/or services online from EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=3859) 72

76 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Companies in Italy are the most likely to say that reasons of interoperability have been a problem to some degree (45), although it is companies in Portugal that are the most likely to say this has been a major problem (27). At the other end of the scale, 86 of companies in Slovenia, 79 in Estonia and 78 in Finland say this issue has not been a problem at all when purchasing online from another EU country. Base: Companies that purchased some goods and/or services online from EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=3859) An analysis of company characteristics highlights the following: Manufacturing companies are the most likely to say the fact that delivery costs are too high has been a problem when purchasing or trying to purchase online from other EU countries (66 vs ). Companies in the manufacturing and accommodation sectors are the most likely to say concerns about data protection (52 and 51 vs ), payments to other countries not being secure enough (43 and 44 vs ), foreign suppliers not delivering to their country (34 and 33 vs ) have been a problem. Information and communication companies are the least likely to say a lack of language skills (32 vs ), product labelling needing adapting (25 vs ), or interoperability issues (26 vs ) have been problems. 73

77 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that purchased some goods and/or services online from EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=3859) Companies with employees are less likely than smaller companies to say payment security (26 vs ), or product labelling needing adapting (30 vs ) have been problems. Companies that are part of a national group are the most likely to say data protection (53 vs ), payment security (47 vs ), copyright (44 vs ), product labelling having to be adapted (43 vs ) or interoperability issues (43 vs ) have been problems. Base: Companies that purchased some goods and/or services online from EU country in 2014 and those that used to do so or tried to do so (N=3859) 74

78 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Companies that don t purchase online but are trying to now Companies that do not purchase online from other EU countries, but are currently trying to do, so were asked how much of a problem each of these issues might be for their company. Once again cost-related issues are the most likely to be considered a problem. Almost three quarters (73) say the expense of resolving cross-border complaints would be a problem, and 46 say it would be a major problem, while 71 say delivery costs being too high would be a problem (42 say it would be a major problem). A majority of companies also say that a lack of language skills (60), as well as concerns about data protection (59) would be problems to some degree. In fact in both cases 29 say these issues would be major problems. A majority also say the fact that product labelling has to be adapted (55), and payments to other countries not being secure enough (55) would be problems. In both cases around one quarter consider these to be major problems (25 and 24 respectively), but they are more likely to be considered minor rather than major problems. Companies are least likely to say that reasons of interoperability would be a major problem (18). These companies are more likely than those that have purchased online or have tried to do so to consider each of these issues to be problems in general, and they are also more likely to say they would be major problems. 75

79 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Companies that did not purchased any goods and/or services online from EU country in 2014 but are trying to do it or considering it (N=842) 76

80 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Due to low sample size, a full country analysis could not be performed for this question; however the following interesting differences can be noted 21 : Companies in Italy and France are the most likely to say that the cost of resolving cross-border complaints (90 and 87 respectively) would be a problem. Companies in Italy, and in Spain, also see a lack of language skills (80 and 76 respectively) as a potential problem. High delivery costs are most likely to be mentioned as a problem by companies in Spain (89) and Portugal (86), and least likely by those in Slovenia (40). Companies in France (84) and Poland (79) are the most likely to say concerns about data protection would be a problem, with 42 in France saying this would be a major problem. Companies in Latvia (63), Poland (62) and Italy (60) are the most likely to say foreign suppliers refusing to deliver to their country would be a problem in fact 54 in Italy say this would be a major problem. Companies in Portugal (74), France (73), Poland and Spain (both 71) are the most likely to say the fact that product labelling has to be adapted would be a problem to some degree, with 56 in Portugal saying this would be a major problem. Copyright issues are most likely to be considered a problem by companies in Portugal (75) and Poland (62), with 58 in Portugal saying this would be a major problem. Companies in France (77), Spain and Greece (both 71) are the most likely to say the fact that payments to other countries are not secure would be a problem, although companies in France and Spain are more likely to consider this a major problem than those in Greece. Companies in Italy and France are the most likely to say reasons of interoperability would be a problem (75 and 61 respectively), with 51 in Italy saying this would be a major problem. Companies in Slovenia are generally the least likely to say each of these issues would be a problem. 21 Due to very low sample size, the following countries are not included in this discussion: BE, BG, DK, DE, EE, IE, LU, HU, AT, and SK. Results from the following countries should be interpreted with caution due to low sample size: EL, ES, FR, IT, LV, NL, PT, SI, SE, UK. 77

81 FLASH EUROBAROMETER III. SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE OF COMPANIES THAT SELL/PURCHASE ONLINE 3.1. The company s number of employees Overall, a large majority of companies have 1-9 employees (82), 14 have employees, 3 have employees, and just 1 have 250 or more employees. Companies that sell online are slightly more likely than those that purchase online to have employees (16 vs. 14) or employees (4 vs. 2), and slightly less likely to have 1-9 employees (79 vs. 83). Base for Total : Total number of respondents (N=8705) Base for Companies that sell online : Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) Base for Companies that purchase online : Companies that purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) Overall, companies that sell online and purchase online have similar profiles, with the majority of companies having 1-9 employees or employees, although there are some variations between companies. In Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Italy and Sweden, companies that purchase online are much more likely to have 1-9 employees when compared to those that sell online. For example, in Bulgaria 80 of companies that purchase online have 1-9 employees, compared to 68 of companies that sell online. In Slovenia, the Netherlands, Latvia and Germany, companies that sell online are more likely to have 1-9 employees than those that purchase online, but the differences are small; in Latvia 91 of companies that sell online have 1-9 employees, compared to 88 of companies that purchase online. 78

82 FLASH EUROBAROMETER In Bulgaria, Italy and Sweden, companies that sell online are much more likely to have employees than companies that purchase online. For instance, in Italy 24 of companies that sell online have employees, compared to 12 of companies that purchase online. In Luxembourg and Estonia, companies that sell online are more likely than those that purchase online to have employees. In Luxembourg 16 of companies that sell online have employees, compared to 6 of companies that purchase online. In Estonia the proportions are 10 and 2 respectively. Base for Sell online : Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) Base for Purchase online : Companies that company purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) 79

83 FLASH EUROBAROMETER A review of company characteristics illustrates the following: Companies in the accommodation sector that sell online are less likely to have 1-9 employees that those that purchase online (76 vs. 82). The same applies for wholesale and retail trade companies (81 vs. 87). Companies that sell online and are part of a national group are less likely to have 1-9 employees than those that buy online and are part of a national group (62 vs. 71). Base for Sell online : Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) Base for Purchase online : Companies that company purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) 80

84 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 3.2. Type of company Overall, 90 of companies are independent, while 6 belonging to a national group and 4 to an international group. There is little difference in this profile between companies that sell online and who purchase online. Base for Total : Total number of respondents (N=8705) Base for Companies that sell online : Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) Base for Companies that purchase online : Companies that purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) In Sweden, France and Portugal companies that purchase online are much more likely than those that sell online to be independent. In Sweden 85 of independent companies purchase online, while 72 sell online. In France the proportions are 90 and 79 respectively, while in Portugal they are 93 and 86 respectively. In Italy, on the other hand, companies that sell online are slightly more likely to be independent than those that purchase online (91 vs. 86). In most countries there is little difference between the proportion of companies that are part of a national group and sell online and those that purchase online. The exceptions are Sweden, Portugal, Estonia and Italy. In Sweden and Portugal, companies that sell online are more likely to be part of a national group than those that purchase online (Sweden 18 vs. 7, Portugal 12 vs. 6). The reverse is true in Estonia and Italy. In Italy 12 of companies that purchase online are part of a national group, compared to 6 of those that sell online. In Estonia the proportions are 5 and 0 respectively. Finally, companies in France that sell online are more likely to be part of an international group than companies that purchase online (12 vs. 5). 81

85 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base for Sell online : Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) Base for Purchase online : Companies that purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) The analysis of company characteristics shows that: Independent companies that purchase online are more likely to be in the information and communication sector compared to those that sell online (91 vs. 84). Independent companies that purchase online are more likely to have a turnover of more than 50 million euros compared to independent companies that sell online (69 vs. 50). 82

86 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base for Sell online : Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) Base for Purchase online : Companies that purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) 3.3. Types of products and services delivered to different consumers The chart below illustrates that for most types of sales, companies are more likely to be selling to other organisations or companies than to individual consumers. For example 69 of companies sell goods to other companies or organisations, compared to 64 who sell to individual consumers. Companies are also more likely to be selling services offline or online/offline to other companies (40) than they are to consumers (30), and the same pattern applies for digital services delivered wholly online (14 vs. 10). In addition, companies that sell online are more likely than those that purchase online to be selling to individual consumers either goods (76 vs. 63), digital services delivered entirely online (16 vs. 9), or selling services offline or online/offline (36 vs. 31). 83

87 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base for Total : Total number of respondents (N=8705) Base for Companies that sell online : Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) Base for Companies that purchase online : Companies that purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) At a country level, companies that sell online are generally more likely to be selling goods to individual consumers compared to those that purchase online. For instance, in Italy 77 of companies that sell goods to consumers sells online, compared to 56 that purchase online. The exception is Slovakia, where companies selling goods to individual consumers are slightly more likely to purchase online than they are to sell online (77 vs. 74). There is more variation across countries for companies that sell goods to other companies or organisations: in 12 Member States these companies are more likely to purchase online than sell online. For example in Greece 81 of companies that sell goods to other companies purchase online, compared to 70 that sell online. The same pattern is also true for companies in Bulgaria, Ireland, France, Italy, Latvia, Portugal, Romania, and Slovenia. 84

88 FLASH EUROBAROMETER In Belgium, Greece, Spain, Croatia, Hungary and Portugal, companies that sell online l are much more likely to sell digital services delivered online to consumers sell online than those that purchase online. For instance, in Croatia 35 of companies that sell online sell digital services delivered online to consumers, compared to 16 that purchase online. A similar difference exists in Croatia for companies that sell digital services delivered online to other companies: 32 sell online compared to 17 that purchase online. Differences of this magnitude are also observed amongst companies in Belgium, Poland, Portugal, Finland and Sweden. Companies in Greece that sell online are more likely than those that purchase online to sell services to consumers delivered offline, or not entirely online (60 vs. 33). The same pattern exists for companies in Belgium (44 vs. 32), Ireland (59 vs. 43), Latvia (58 vs. 41), Austria (56 vs. 44) and Portugal (34 vs. 20). However, the reverse is true in Poland and Estonia, companies that purchase online are more likely to be in this category that those that sell online (Poland: 44 vs. 37), Estonia (38 vs. 25). In the case of companies that sell services to other companies that are delivered offline, or not entirely online, there a more variable pattern across countries. For example, in Ireland 56 of companies that purchase online are in this category, compared to 29 that sell online. In Latvia the reverse is true, with 60 selling online and 55 purchasing online. In other countries there is little difference: in Finland 53 sell online and 52 buy online. 85

89 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base for Sell online : Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) Base for Purchase online : Companies that purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) The analysis of company characteristics highlights the following: Companies that sell online and sell goods to consumers are more likely to be in the manufacturing, wholesale or retail trade, or information and communication sectors compared to companies in this group that purchase online (73 vs. 58, 84 and 75 and 61 vs. 36 respectively). The reverse is true for accommodation companies. Companies that sell online and are in the information and communications sector are less likely to sell services delivered offline or not entirely delivered online to companies and other organisations when compared to those that purchase online and are in this sector (51 vs. 67). 86

90 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Companies that sell online and are part of an international group are more likely to sell goods to consumers compared to those that purchase online and are part of an international group (3 vs. 49). The same pattern applies when comparing companies that belong to a national group, or to independent companies. These patterns are also repeated for companies that sell digital services delivered online to consumers, and services delivered offline or online/offline. Base for Sell online : Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) Base for Purchase online : Companies that purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) 3.4. Evolution of the company s turnover since 2012 For around one third of companies (32), turnover has remained the same since January For more than one third turnover has risen: 25 of companies have seen their turnover rise by between 5 and 25, while for 11 it have risen more than 25. For almost one in five (18) turnover has declined between 5 and 25, while 7 say turnover has declined more than 25. The chart illustrates few differences between companies that sell online and those that purchase online, with the most notable being companies that purchase online are slightly more likely to say turnover has remained the same (32 vs. 28). 87

91 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base for Total : Companies established before 1 st January 2014 (N=8534) Base for Companies that sell online : Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) Base for Companies that purchase online : Companies that company purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) For most countries there are few large differences in the turnover profile between companies that sell online and those that purchase online, however there are some notable exceptions. In Estonia, companies whose turnover has risen by more than 25 since January 2012 are more likely to sell online (33) than to purchase online (17), and the same pattern can be seen amongst companies in Latvia (20 vs. 14). In Belgium, Bulgaria and Luxembourg, companies whose turnover has risen between 5 and 25 are more likely to purchase online than to sell online. In the case of Luxembourg 40 of companies that purchase online are in this group, compared to 27 of those that sell online. In contrast, 48 of companies in Ireland that sell online have seen turnover rise by 5-25, compared to 35 of companies that purchase online. In Slovakia, companies that purchase online are more likely than those that sell online to say turnover has remained the same (27 vs. 13), and the same is true for companies in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Latvia. In the Netherlands, companies that sell online are more likely than those that purchase online to say turnover has fallen between 5 and 25 (23 vs. 15). 88

92 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base for Sell online : Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) Base for Purchase online : Companies that company purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) The analysis of company characteristics reveals the following: Companies that sell online and are part of a national group are more likely to say turnover has risen, compared to companies that purchase online and are part of a national group (48 vs. 39). Companies that sell online and have a turnover of less than 100,000 euros are more likely to say turnover has risen since 2012 compared to companies that purchase online and have this level of turnover (32 vs. 26). 89

93 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base for Sell online : Companies that sell online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=3566) Base for Purchase online : Companies that company purchase online and/or use EDI-type transactions (N=7463) 90

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