1 Annual Report 2012
2 Welcome 5 Background 6 The DBFZ in profile 7 Our mission 7 Ownership and decision-making structure 8 Research Advisory Council 9 Legal form and financing 10 Workforce trend 10 Representation on scientific bodies, advisory boards and committees 12 Location and structural development 13 Highlights of PR work 15 Scientific strategy of the DBFZ 17 Cooperation as a key pillar of applied high-end research 17 Research focus areas 19 DBFZ Competence Groups 20 Biomethane Competence Group 21 Background 21 Objectives 22 Reference projects 22 Evaluation of biomethane production, distribution and use in Germany based on market monitoring (BIOMON) 22 Federal metering programme for the advance of small-scale biomass gasification 25 Monitoring of the biomethane production process (MONA) 27 Demand-Driven Bioenergy Supply Competence Group 29 Background 29 Objectives 29 Reference projects 30 OptFlex Biogas 30 Honigsee 32 E-Cockpit 34 Catalytic Emissions Reduction Competence Group 36 Background 36 Objectives 37 Reference projects 37 Measures to reduce emissions from biogas plants (REMISBIO) 37 Novel low-emission stove (DBU-NEKO) 39 Emissions reduction by integrated and combined measures in small-scale biomass furnaces (BMU-Kat-II) 41
3 Contents Sustainability of Bioenergy Technologies Competence Group Background Objectives Reference projects Supporting research in TG 5 of the BioEconomy Leadership Cluster Co-gasiﬁcation of biomass Regional biomass potential Bioenergy Data Competence Group Background Objectives Reference projects Monitoring the market development of power production from biomass Biomass market launch instruments Monitoring of the biofuel sector Production of Solid Sustainable Energy Carriers by Means of TORrefaction (SECTOR) Organisational structure: the four research departments Bioenergy Systems Department Research focus of the working groups Research services Technical capacities of the Bioenergy Systems Department Biochemical Conversion Department Research focus of the working groups Research services Technical capacities of the Biochemical Conversion Department Thermo-chemical Conversion Department Research focus of the working groups Research services Technical capacities of the Thermo-chemical Conversion Department Bioreﬁneries Department Research focus of the working groups Research services Technical capacities of the Bioreﬁneries Department Networking National networking: business meets science International networking activities Contact Work and project results Directions / Imprint
5 Welcome Annual Report 2012 Dear Reader, the stated policy aim is for Germany s energy supply to be switched fully to renewables over the coming decades. Essential factors in attaining that goal are improvements in energy efﬁciency and fulﬁlment of sustainability criteria. Fig. 1: The Management of the DBFZ Our international team is working to optimise the use of biomass as an energy source all along the value creation chain. Our objective is to integrate bioenergy into present and future energy and bioeconomy systems in an efﬁcient and environmentally compatible manner. We have taken further steps towards that aim during The DBFZ employs some 200 people in numerous disciplines. With such a broad resource basis, we are well set up to provide answers to key questions relating to research into the production of energy from biomass. We share our know-how through our membership of national and international scientiﬁc bodies. A particular representative role we wish to highlight is the appointment of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Daniela Thrän to the Bioeconomy Council, an independent advisory body to the German Federal Government. We have also invested in our infrastructure during the past year, completing the renovation of ofﬁce block 6. All our technical test beds and the biogas pilot plant opened in July 2012 are state- of- the- art. They provide a vital foundation for the leading-edge applied research conducted by the DBFZ. We acquired a number of major research projects in the past year. As one example, in a nationwide competition the DBFZ was one of the winning bidders to run the BioEconomy Leadership Cluster project which will receive a total of 40 million in funding from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) over the coming years. We look forward to 2013 with conﬁdence, secure in the knowledge that our technical and infrastructure resources provide us with the ideal foundation to translate innovative ideas and energy into market reality. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Frank Scholwin left his post as Scientiﬁc Managing Director of the DBFZ in May We would like to take this opportunity to thank him for his outstanding contribution to the development of the DBFZ, and to wish him all the best as he takes on new career challenges. We look forward to engaging in constructive dialogue with you and to enjoying a continued fruitful collaboration in Michael Nelles (Scientiﬁc Managing Director) Leipzig, March 2013 Daniel Mayer (Administrative Managing Director) 5
6 6 DBFZ Background Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources humans have been using the longest. Renewables accounted for 12.5 % of Germany s total energy supply in 2011, with over. 8 % of this total originating from solid, liquid and gaseous biomass. Against that background, DBFZ s objective is to undertake applied leading-edge research in order to develop technical solutions and wide-ranging concepts for the economically, ecologically and socially sustainable use of biomass for energy production. It also investigates and predicts potential areas of conﬂict between the various goals associated with the development of bioenergy, setting forth plans as to how such conﬂicts can be avoided and eliminated. Examples of relevant issues include how bioenergy can be integrated into a changing energy system, improving energy efﬁciency, avoiding competing usage and preventing the pollution of soil, water and air. Fig. 2: From logging residues to industrial pellets: the recovery path of wood Scientiﬁc research projects relating to bioenergy and the associated development of new processes, techniques and concepts is carried out in close cooperation with partners in business, the scientiﬁc community, professional and trade bodies as well as NGOs based on jointly-procured national and international grant funding. We also maintain active links with researchers in the agricultural, forestry and environmental sectors. Cooperation links in those ﬁelds include with the Research Section of the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV); large-scale extramural research projects, in particular with the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ); state research establishments; selected universities; as well as German, European and other international biomass research institutes. Target groups are all stakeholders in the business, scientiﬁc and political spheres with an interest in bioenergy. Alongside the BMELV, other federal and state ministries across Germany are advised by the DBFZ in its role as a politically independent research institute, providing concepts for the utilisation of bioenergy on both a national and international scale. To that end, DBFZ scientists function as expert members on numerous national and international boards and committees. The research work of the DBFZ is also intended to beneﬁt other governmental and non-governmental organisations on a national and international level, speciﬁcally in the energy business, agriculture and forestry. It also seeks to beneﬁt linked industrial sectors with a direct and indirect interest in obtaining energy from biomass. In its work, the DBFZ seeks actively to shape knowledge relating to the potential possibilities of biomass as an energy source. It also aims to safeguard the leading position enjoyed by Germany in this sector for the long term.
7 Annual Report 2012 DBFZ Fig. 3: Visit of a US/Australian delegation as part of the ILA (11 September, 2012) The DBFZ in profile The DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH was established in Berlin on February 28, 2008 with the aim of investigating and illuminating the complex issues relating to the supply and use of bioenergy. Its mission, ownership and decision-making structures, legal form, ﬁnancing and workforce trends are set out brieﬂy below. Our mission The DBFZ was established by the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV) as a central scientiﬁc research institution to cover all the ﬁelds relevant to bioenergy and bring together the ﬁndings of the highly diverse German research community in the sector. The key scientiﬁc mission of the DBFZ is to provide wide-ranging support for the efﬁcient integration of biomass as a valuable resource for sustainable energy supply based on applied scientiﬁc research. The mission incorporates technical, ecological, economic, social policy and energy business aspects throughout the entire supply chain from production to supply and on to use. Working from this broad research base, the DBFZ is also tasked with devising scientiﬁcally-validated decision-making aids for government policy-makers which can be integrated into ongoing practice. 7
8 8 DBFZ Ownership and decision-making structure The German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV) is the sole shareholder in the DBFZ. The key policy and organisational decisions dictating the development of the DBFZ are made by its Supervisory Board. Meeting twice a year, and chaired by the BMELV, it also comprises representatives from the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development (BMVBS), the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), and the Saxon State Ministry of the Environment and Agriculture (SMUL) (Fig. 4). The Research Advisory Council, comprising bioenergy research scientists of national and international renown, provides advice on the scientiﬁc work of the DBFZ. The members of the Research Advisory Council are appointed by the Supervisory Board. Fig. 4: The decision-making structure of the DBFZ Supervisory Board members: Bernt Farcke (Chairman) Johannes Wien Berthold Goeke Karl Wollin Head of Directorate 52 Sustainability and Renewable Resources, Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV) Deputy Director General, Climate Policy Department, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) Subdepartment head, UI 40 Basic Questions of Energy, Climate and Environmental Protection, Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development (BMVBS) Head of section System Earth, Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) Anita Domschke Subdepartment head, Agriculture and Forestry, Saxon State Ministry of the Environment and Agriculture (SMUL) (as at 31 December, 2012)
9 DBFZ Annual Report 2012 Research Advisory Council The international members of the Research Advisory Council advise the DBFZ on its scientiﬁc activities. This ensures that the institutionally-funded research carried out by the DBFZ is scientiﬁcally sound and of maximum relevance to the future use of bioenergy as part of the energy system. Research Advisory Council members: Dr. Ausilio Bauen Dr. Marc Londo Prof. Dr. Albrecht Bemmann Prof. Dr. Bernd Meyer Imperial College London London, Great Britain Institute of Forestry and Forest Products of Eastern Europe, Dresden University of Technology Dresden, Germany Prof. Dr. Otto Carlowitz Clausthaler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH - CUTEC-Institut GmbH Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany Prof. Dr. David Chiaramonti (Deputy-Chairman) Research Centre for Renewable Energies (RE-CORD / CREAR), University of Florence Florence, Italy Prof. Dr. Olaf Christen Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg Halle (Saale), Germany Prof. Dr. Eckhardt Dinjus Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Campus Nord Institute of Catalysis Research and Technology Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany Prof. Dr. Mikhail Fedorov St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (SPbSPU) St. Petersburg, Russia Prof. Dr. José Goldemberg Instituto de Eletrotécnica e Energia (IEE/USP) da Universidade de São Paulo São Paulo, Brazil Dr. Hans Hartmann Technology and Support Centre (TFZ) within the Centre of Excellence for Renewable Resources Straubing, Germany ECN Petten Petten, Netherlands IEC - Department of Energy Process Engineering and Chemical Engineering, TU BA Freiberg Freiberg, Germany Prof. Dr. Miroslav Miller Wroclaw Research Centre EIT+ Wroclaw, Poland Prof. Dr. Michael Nelles (Chairman) Department of Waste Management and Material Flow, University of Rostock Rostock, Germany Dr. Ralph Overend Biomass & Bioenergy Journal Ottawa, Canada Prof. Dr. Georg Schaub Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engler-Bunte-Institute (EBI) Karlsruhe, Germany Prof. Dr. David Serrano IMDEA Energy Institute Madrid, Spain Prof. Dr. Georg Teutsch Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ Leipzig, Germany Dr. Armin Vetter Thuringian State Agricultural Agency (TLL) Dornburg, Germany (as at 31 December, 2012) 9
10 10 DBFZ Legal form and financing The DBFZ was established with the legal form of a gemeinnützige GmbH (non-proﬁt limited company). This provides it with the necessary ﬂexibility and transparency to obtain public research funding and also to carry out research and consulting operations on behalf of third parties. The DBFZ is ﬁnanced by institutional funding from the BMELV, public third-party research funding, and revenue from research contracts awarded by businesses, government agencies, scientiﬁc and professional bodies and NGOs. The BMELV provided the DBFZ with funding of approximately 6.3 million in 2012, of which 1.3 million was allotted to capital investment. Over 5 million in third-party funding was procured (Fig. 5). The slight decrease compared to 2011, down to approximately 5.3 million, resulted from delayed payments at the year-end. The value of projects handled stabilised around 2011 levels at 5.7 million. The proportion of total revenue from industrial contract research and services increased to approximately 1.3 million. The project revenues of the BMELV stem from research programmes of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.v. (Regrowable Resources Agency; FNR) and the Bundesanstalt für Landwirtschaft und Ernährung (Federal Ofﬁce for Agriculture and Food; BLE). The principal expenditure of the DBFZ is on staff, accounting for some 64 % of total expenditure, followed by operating expenses (25 %) and capital investments (11 %). Following the wide range of measures funded by the economic stimulus package in 2010 and 2011, the level of capital investment in 2012 (in research equipment and renovation of buildings) was much lower. Fig. 5: Schedule of sources of funds from 2009 to 2012 Workforce trend The workforce grew once again in 2012, to 196 people (as at 31 December, 2012). Of that total, 161 work in the scientiﬁc ﬁeld and 35 are administrative staff. Figure 6 shows the workforce trend in the four research departments and in administrative functions since the founding of the DBFZ in 2008.
11 Annual Report 2012 DBFZ Fig. 6: Workforce growth at DBFZ since 2008 In 2012, the DBFZ supervised a total of 49 practical and study projects as well as 51 dissertations for bachelor and masters degrees and diplomas. 17 visiting scientists, non-german practical trainees and grant-funded students also worked at the DBFZ (as at 31 December, 2012) Figure 7 shows the disciplines studied by DBFZ staff. It reveals that most staff are graduates in energy and environmental technology, with the next most prevalent qualiﬁcations being in economics, natural sciences (chemistry, physics, biology), humanities, mechanical/process engineering, geosciences, biotechnology, agricultural sciences and other subjects. Fig. 7: Disciplines of DBFZ scientiﬁc staff 11
12 12 DBFZ Representation on scientiﬁc bodies, advisory boards and committees The DBFZ seeks to maintain an intensive transfer of knowledge with other institutions and the scientiﬁc community at large. This is in keeping with its objectives of conducting applied research and utilising its results for practical beneﬁt. DBFZ scientists are members of a wide variety of national and international scientiﬁc bodies and committees. National (selection): aireg: Aviation Initiative for Renewable Energy in Germany (member of working groups and of the advisory board); Biogas Innovation Congress (member of the scientiﬁc management board); German Federal Government s Bioeconomy Council (member); BMBF Excellence Cluster Bioeconomy (board member); Bundesverband Bioenergie e.v. (member of the scientiﬁc advisory board); CEN Technical Committee Solid Biofuels (CEN TC 335) (German representative WG1); DENA working party Biogas partners (member); DGAW scientiﬁc congresses (event co-organiser); Deutsche Gesellschaft für Abfallwirtschaft e.v. (DGAW) (member); DIN Biogenic Solid Fuels (expert, Terminology ); DIN standardisation committee NA AA Solid Biofuels (member); DIN Sustainability (member); DECHEMA working group Regrowable Resources BioEconomy (member); Energy Advisory Board Saxony (member of experts board); Renewable Energy Initiative Saxony (EESA) (member of advisory board); ForNeBiK Research Network Biogenic Fuels (member); GDCh Working Party on Chemicals and Energy (member); ISO (ISO 238) (German representative WG1); KUP Network (associate partner); State Energy Council Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (member); Research Management Group of BMELV (member); Netzwerk Energie und Umwelt e.v. (board member); Bioenergy Network within Netzwerk Energie und Umwelt e.v. (management); project Anaerobic Path-ways to Renewable Energies and Carbon Sinks (APECS) (member of scientiﬁc advisory board); RAL Gütegemeinschaft Brennholz (member); Roadmap Bioreﬁneries of the German Federal Government (working group member); Senate working group Regrowable Resources (SAG-NR) (member); Senate working group Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions (member); VDI Biogas Standards Committee (member); VDI 3461 Emissions Reduction, Wood Gasiﬁcation Plants Fig. 8: Prof. Dr. Daniela Thrän (2nd from right) (member); VDI Biogas Conference (chair of conference at the German Federal Government s committee); Verein Energiecluster (member). Bioeconomy Council International (selection): Biotechnology Cluster of Tambov Oblast (expert for bioenergy, material ﬂows and agricultural aspects); DE-PL working group (member); German/Chinese Centre Environmental Technology & Knowledge Transfer (CETK) (director); EBTP European Biofuels Technology Platform (Resources working group); European Biomass Conference and Exhibition (international scientiﬁc committee); FESCO (Federal Energy Service Company and REA) (bioenergy expert); IEA Task 40 Bioenergy Trade (member of national team); Skolkovo Foundation (Russian Federation) (bioenergy expert).
13 Annual Report 2012 DBFZ Location and structural development The DBFZ is based in Leipzig, in the north-west of the Free State of Saxony in eastern Germany. Our research centre is located just to the north-east of Leipzig city centre. It is 15 minutes from the main railway station by public transport (tram 3/3E heading towards Taucha/Sommerfeld). We are also conveniently located for the A14 motorway, being close to the Leipzig Nord-Ost exit. The site owned by the DBFZ covers an area of some 35,000 m2 (Fig. 10). Fig. 9: Construction work on the DBFZ site in February 2013 Construction and development The new and renovated buildings funded by the economic stimulus package (2010 to 2011) were commissioned in The upgrade to the energy systems of building 6 signiﬁcantly reduced heating demand. In late 2012, the DBFZ began constructing an in-house crèche to provide support especially to its younger members of staff with children. The facility is scheduled for completion in June The budget for the planned new Technical Centre covering a total footprint of approximately 11,000 m² and offering some 7,000 m² of usable area was approved in 2012, and the competitive tender procedure in accordance with Germany s RPW planning regulations was then initiated. 13
14 14 DBFZ Fig. 10: Overview of the DBFZ site on Torgauer Strasse
15 Annual Report 2012 DBFZ Highlights of PR work Construction of the new biogas pilot plant and its ofﬁcial opening by Federal Minister Ilse Aigner on July 6, 2012 were among the year s keynote events which kept the DBFZ at the forefront of national media and public attention. In the presence of Secretary of State Dr. Fritz Jaeckel (SMUL), Mayor of the city of Leipzig Andreas Müller and the entire DBFZ workforce, Minister Aigner underlined the importance of biogas: Biogas has many talents, and as a key pillar of revised energy policy, will play a vital role in enhancing sustainability and climate protection. In order to utilise its potential to the full, it is important that we maintain our focus, and continue to search for further improvements. Fig. 11: Federal Minister Ilse Aigner, Saxon Secretary of State Dr. Fritz Jäckel and Mayor Andreas Müller at the unveiling of the plaque at the biogas pilot plant. Other politicians visiting the DBFZ in 2012 included member of the federal parliament Wolfgang Tiefensee (9 January 2012) as well as a delegation from the Die Linke party comprising some 15 federal and state parliamentarians and their staff (14 February, 2012). A number of international delegations and interested research groups also visited the DBFZ and its technical testing facilities during In September and October alone, we welcomed visiting groups from Estonia and Central America, China, southern Africa and Cameroon. Among other visitors to our facility were a delegation from the EU Commission, participants in the JuniorScience Olympiad, the winners of the Sustainability Dialogue initiative as well as trainee business journalists from the University of Leipzig. All of them were visibly impressed by the high level of enthusiasm and commitment of our staff, the development of the on-site infrastructure and the diversity of the technical systems operated by the DBFZ. As well as running an intensive visitor programme, the DBFZ and its staff also hosted, co-organised and took part in a wide variety of conferences, scientiﬁc forums and workshops. These included a workshop Fig. 12: Delegation from Cameroon visiting the DBFZ within the framework of the Fuels of the Future con(18 September, 2012) ference conducted in English on January 24, 2012 on the subject of Biomethane Trading: Status Quo & Perspectives. It provided a forum for experts to discuss possibilities for the improved use of biomethane and for knowledge transfer. The workshop was hosted jointly by the IEA Bioenergy Task 40, the funding programme Biomass Energy Use sponsored by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), 15
16 16 DBFZ the Regrowable Resources Agency (FNR), and the German Federal Bioenergy Association (BBE). From January 25 to 26, 2012 the DBFZ Bioenergy Systems research department hosted and played a key part in a workshop complementing the IEA Bioenergy Task 40 conference focusing on Biomass Trading. The DBFZ Biochemical Conversion research department in conjunction with the BMU funding programme Biomass Energy Use presented a variety of exhibits to an interested public as part of International Green Week in Berlin from January 20 to 29, On June 28, 2012 the DBFZ also participated with its own stand in the Long Night of Science event (Lange Nacht der Wissenschaften) held at the Cube of the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ). Among the features on display was a model of a wood gasiﬁcation plant demonstrating to visitors an innovative means of recovering bioenergy from biogenic wood-type residues. An experimental set-up and small-scale model also showed how energy can be generated in a biogas plant. The fourth Status Conference of the BMU funding programme Biomass Energy Use was held in Berlin from November 5 to 6, The focus of the event, which attracted over 200 participants, was on innovations in bioenergy technology and also featured the presentation of concepts for the bioenergy of the future as well as discussions on the requirements arising from the 2012 Renewable Energies Act (EEG) passed in Germany. Fig. 13: The DBFZ at the 2012 Long Night of Science
17 Annual Report 2012 DBFZ Scientific strategy of the DBFZ The DBFZ is becoming the key independent German institution working on the issue of how to utilise limited biomass resources to enhance present and especially future energy systems in a sustainable, efﬁcient way. In the course of its research activities, the DBFZ collaborates with scientiﬁc, industrial and public-sector partners to identify, develop, monitor, evaluate and demonstrate the most promising areas of application for bioenergy together with particularly outstanding examples of these areas. From this, we derive and assess visions of the contribution bioenergy can make within the energy mix in a range of scenarios depicting trends in the energy system and in underlying conditions. This includes the contribution of biomass to a sustainable energy system and economy (using biomass in key strategic sectors, maximising value creation from biomass, climate-neutral energy production, high-efﬁciency technologies) and the integration of biomass into a sustainable bioeconomic system. Cooperation as a key pillar of applied high-end research Owing to the complexity of the research issues surrounding bioenergy, most work is carried out in close cooperation and continuous exchange with other leading German and international research institutes, including the neighbouring Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) and many others. At the UFZ, a joint Bioenergy Department has been established to carry out the necessary basic research to deal with the assessment of bioenergy systems, and a joint Microbiology of Anaerobic Systems working group (MicAS) to look into the microbiological principles underlying biochemical processes. This bundles competences and enables the basic research required in these areas to be covered comprehensively by qualiﬁed staff. Close cooperation with industrial companies is also necessary to ensure that the research carried out has a practical application and provides an in-depth insight into the relevant mar- Fig. 14: Cooperation between DBFZ and UFZ 17
18 18 DBFZ kets. Independent collaboration with plant operators, plant and component manufacturers, energy and ﬁnance companies and consultants is a ﬁrmly embedded element of work at the DBFZ. This ensures that real practical questions and problems are assessed in a neutral and above all objective way. As a consequence, research will always incorporate those considerations, so the delivery of solutions to such issues in conjunction with cooperation partners, will safeguard the trust and respect for the work of the DBFZ within the sector. The ﬁndings obtained are regularly published by DBFZ staff, presented to national and international scientiﬁc bodies, and incorporated in recommendations for government policymakers. All this represents an active contribution to the sustainable, efﬁcient use of biomass, to the establishment of the necessary framework conditions and to the enhancement of research funding programmes. Findings from the DBFZ s own work are also disseminated beyond the borders of Germany and contribute substantively to the development of bioenergy use within the European Union and worldwide. As well as promoting knowledge transfer, this aids the development of research capacities in key international regions (primarily Eastern Europe and Brazil, and additionally in Africa and India) and supports the transfer of exemplary technologies. At the same time, ﬁndings from international sources must in turn be recorded and analysed in order to learn from them for the beneﬁt of bioenergy development and to utilise the limited resources of the DBFZ in an efﬁcient, focussed manner. Fig. 15: The agricultural by-product straw is becoming increasingly important as a source of energy
19 Annual Report 2012 DBFZ Research focus areas The DBFZ devises conceptual solutions and monitors them by concrete technical means and with a view to their future feasibility through its own applied research in order to integrate complex bioenergy technologies into the social environment and the energy system. Apart from research to optimise biomass production, the DBFZ s work covers the complete bioenergy supply chain from questions of availability, logistics, pre-treatment and conversion through to its use and its integration into the energy system taking account of technical, economic and ecological issues. Research work at the DBFZ focuses in particular on the key areas outlined below: Sustainability/Sustainability assessment Ongoing development of sustainability assessment techniques and provision of tools to establish sustainable bioenergy supply chains. Innovative bioenergy sources Development of efﬁcient, environmentally-friendly methods and technical approaches to ﬁnding innovative, marketable bioenergy sources with high energy density and high quality characteristics (e.g. torreﬁed, hydrothermally or mechanically-processed fuels, biomethane, motor fuels), taking special account of hitherto inadequately exploited biogenic residues and waste materials. Needs-driven technologies and master concepts for the supply of energy Development of innovative, sustainable (i.e. low-emission, environmentally compatible, competitive and socially acceptable) methods, technical components and concepts for converting bioenergy sources into power, heat/cold and mobility, aimed at achieving an increasingly needs-driven supply of energy. Monitoring Establishment of a monitoring system to track the development of biomass use for energy production, taking into account available resources and prevailing framework conditions, and to pick up potential problem areas (particularly with regard to availability of resources) at an early stage. The DBFZ is also increasingly carrying out monitoring by metering, such as in relation to biomethane plants and biomass gasiﬁcation. To realise these goals, the DBFZ produces and analyses the most reliable bioenergy data, models and scenarios in Germany and evaluates them as the basis for strategic decision-making aligned to the ongoing development of bioenergy use. In doing so, it deﬁnes and assesses expected developments in bioenergy technologies over the next ﬁve years and between 10 and 15 years ahead. This provides the foundation for developing consistent bioenergy strategies which the DBFZ will support through scientiﬁc work and advisory services. 19