An insight into downstream developments: Energy efficiency in gas heating appliances

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1 An insight into downstream developments: Energy efficiency in gas heating appliances Werner Weßing, Head of Efficient Home and Building Technology Kraków, 24/25 May 2012

2 Contents 1. Requirements on the global energy market 2. Target in Europe: Increase share of renewable energies 3. Environmental targets in Germany 4. Market structure in Germany 5. Research subjects at E.ON Ruhrgas 6. Intercomparison of appliance technologies 7. Conclusion 2

3 Static lifetime in years Reichweite in Jahren Temperature deviation (relative to ) in K Global Unit Gas 1. Requirements on the global energy market CO2 reductions Primary energy reductions (e.g. improved thermal insulation) Increase in renewable energy use (e.g. appliances, biomethane, hydrogen) Predicted long-term rise in global temperatures caused by increasing levels of carbon emissions Reserve Reserve + Ressource Kernbrennstoffe Nuclear fuels Kohle Coal Natural Erdgas gas Erdöl Oil Static lifetime of (global) conventional energy sources Global warming according to IPCC scenario A1B: , Source: IPCC Source: BGR / EWI / Prognos 3

4 2. Target in Europe: Increase share of renewable energies Source: IE Leipzig Share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in 2008 and targets for

5 3. Political requirements in Germany 100% 80% % 40% 20% 20% 18% 40% 30% 55% 45% 70% 50% 60% 80% 0% Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Reduzierung Reduction in des primary Primärenergieverbrauchs energy consumption (Bezugsjahr (relative to ) levels) Bruttoendenergieverbrauch, Gross final energy consumption (renewable share) erneuerbarer Anteil CO2-Reduzierung reduction (Bezugsjahr (rel.to 1990 level) 1990) For the heat market in Germany (buildings and technology) from 2010 to 2050: total capital expenditure ~ 2,200 billion capital expenditure per year: 55 billion 5

6 Willingness to pay Global Unit Gas 4. 'New' customer groups Differentiated offers required Today Many different groups with very individual requests Lifestyle customers Ecologicallyminded customers Price-sensitive customers Yesterday Uniform group Personal commitment Source: SW Bonn Energie und Wasser 6

7 Anzahl [Stück] Quantity [units] Global Unit Gas 4. Building statistics Heat market is dominated by existing building stock 634 TWh 511 TWh Accumulated heating demand of new buildings until 2030: only 5%! existing buildings Very old boilers Source: Prof. Kleemann Total: 9.2 million boilers >14 years and und over älter Source: Chimney sweep statistics for 2009 (excl. condensing boiler systems) >100 alle 7 Leistung Rating [kw]

8 5. "Appliance technology" responsibilities of the Gas Utilisation Department at E.ON Ruhrgas Applications & Renewables Local Power Generation Condensing type Gas & Solar GHP Initiative MicroCHP Fuel Cell Smart Home Appliance tests: Laboratory tests Field tests to determine energy efficiency aspects environmental aspects gas property aspects economic aspects 8

9 5. Gas heat pump field tests 66 test sites in total 9

10 5. Micro-CHP field tests 176 test sites in total 10

11 6. Intercomparison of appliance technologies (Standard appliances for single-family homes) Gas-fired condensing appliance Gas-fired condensing appliance plus solar Electric heat pump (air/water) Electric heat pump (brine/water) η th : 0,92-0,98 *) η th : 0,98 1,02 *) SPF: 2,2 2,9 ~ 2,65 SPF: 3,2 4,0 ~ 3,70 *) H I,n Images: Viessmann, Vaillant, Buderus; data: ITG Dresden 11

12 6. Intercomparison of appliance technologies (New appliances for single-family homes) Micro-CHP Micro-CHP Gas heat pump Gas heat pump Sterling combustion engine Adsorption, <10kW Absorption, <40kW Adsorption Desorption η th : 0,80 0,82 *) η th : 0,60 *) Viessmann η th : 1,20 1,50 *) Robur η e : 0,11 0,13 η e : 0,23 Images: Viessmann, Vaillant, Robur; data: ITG Dresden 12

13 CO2-Emissionen in kg CO2/a Global Unit Gas 6. Intercomparison of appliance technologies (Standard and new appliances for single-family homes) CO2 COemissions 2 -Emissionen in SFH im EFH building Bestand, stock 2010 in 2010 Energieträger Energy sources bei gasbetriebenen for gas-operated systems: Systemen: natural Erdgas, biomethane Bioerdgas (20% and und 100% share) Anteil) Erdgas 20% Bioerdgas 100% Bioerdgas Minderung der CO 2 -Emissionen bis 2050 entsprechend dem Enrgiekonzept der Bundesregierung, Zeitschine Ausgangszustand bis 2020 bis 2030 bis 2040 bis 2050 Ausgangszustand Öl Ausgangszustand Gas - 40% approx. 36% reduction % % - 55% - 70% - 80% % 0 Öl-/Gas- Altkessel GBW GBWSOL GBWSOL,HMikro-KWKMikro-KWKMikro-KWK L/W-EWP S/W-EWP GWP 1 GWP 2 GWP 3 GWP 4 GWP 5 GWP 6 GWP 7 η th =0,99 η th =1,08 η th =1,18 η th =0,80 η th =0,82 η th =0,60 JAZ=2,65 JAZ=3,70 η th =1,20 η th =1,30 η th =1,40 η th =1,50 η th =1,60 η th =1,70 η th =1,80 η el =0,11 η el =0,13 η el =0,23 System * ) Bilanziell negative CO 2 -Emissionen, da Gutschrift für Stromerzeugung größer als Emissionen durch Biogasverbrauch Source: ITG Dresden * ) - 80% 13

14 6. Intercomparison of appliance technologies (Standard and new appliances for single-family homes) Non-renewable primary energy demand in SFH building stock Energy sources for gas-operated systems: natural gas, biomethane (20% and 100% share) approx. 35% reduction Source: ITG Dresden 14

15 Anteil erneuerbarer Energien Global Unit Gas 6. Intercomparison of appliance technologies (Standard and new appliances for single-family homes) Share Anteil of erneuerbarer renewable energies Energien in im SFH EFH building Bestand stock Energy sources for gas-operated systems: natural gas, biomethane (20% and 100% share) Energieträger bei gasbetriebenen Systemen: Erdgas, Bioerdgas (20% und 100% Anteil) Erdgas 20% Bioerdgas 100 % Bioerdgas Entwicklung des Anteils erneuerbaren Energien bis 2050 entsprechend dem Enrgiekonzept der Bundesregierung, Zeitschine 80% bis 2020 bis 2030 bis 2040 bis % 60% 60% 50% 40% 45% 30% 30% 20% 18% 10% 0% GBW GBWSOL GBWSOL,H Mikro-KWK Mikro-KWK Mikro-KWK L/W-EWP S/W-EWP GWP 1 GWP 2 GWP 3 GWP 4 GWP 5 GWP 6 GWP 7 η th =0,99 η th =1,08 η th =1,18 η th =0,80 η th =0,82 η th =0,60 JAZ=2,65 JAZ=3,70 η th =1,20 η th =1,30 η th =1,40 η th =1,50 η th =1,60 η th =1,70 η th =1,80 η el =0,11 η el =0,13 η el =0,23 System Source: ITG Dresden 15

16 CO2-Emissionen in kg CO2/a Global Unit Gas 6. Intercomparison of appliance technologies (Standard and new appliances for single-family homes) CO2 COemissions 2 -Emissionen in SFH im EFH building Bestand, stock 2020 in 2020 Energieträger Energy sources bei gasbetriebenen for gas-operated systems: Systemen: natural Erdgas, biomethane Bioerdgas (20% and und 100% share) Anteil) Erdgas 20% Bioerdgas 100% Bioerdgas Ausgangszustand Öl Minderung der CO 2 -Emissionen bis 2050 entsprechend dem Enrgiekonzept der Bundesregierung, Zeitschine Ausgangszustand bis 2020 bis 2030 bis 2040 bis Ausgangszustand Gas - 40% approx. 46% reduction % % - 55% - 70% - 80% % 0 Öl-/Gas- Altkessel GBW GBWSOL GBWSOL,H Mikro-KWK Mikro-KWK L/W-EWP S/W-EWP GWP 1 GWP 2 GWP 3 GWP 4 GWP 5 GWP 6 GWP 7 η th =0,99 η th =1,08 η th =1,18 η th =0,80 η th =0,65 JAZ=2,80 JAZ=3,90 η th =1,20 η th =1,30 η th =1,40 η th =1,50 η th =1,60 η th =1,70 η th =1,80 η el =0,15 η el =0,25 System * ) Bilanziell negative CO 2 -Emissionen, da Gutschrift für Stromerzeugung größer als Emissionen durch Biogasverbrauch Source: ITG Dresden * ) * ) - 80% 16

17 CO2-Emissionen in kg CO2/a Global Unit Gas 6. Intercomparison of appliance technologies (Standard and new appliances for single-family homes) CO2 COemissions 2 -Emissionen in SFH im EFH building Bestand, stock 2030 in 2030 Energieträger Energy sources bei gasbetriebenen for gas-operated systems: Systemen: natural Erdgas, biomethane Bioerdgas (20% and und 100% share) Anteil) Erdgas 20% Bioerdgas 100% Bioerdgas Ausgangszustand Öl Minderung der CO 2 -Emissionen bis 2050 entsprechend dem Enrgiekonzept der Bundesregierung, Zeitschine Ausgangszustand bis 2020 bis 2030 bis 2040 bis Ausgangszustand Gas - 40% Increased biomethane share required to reach target % % - 55% - 70% - 80% % 0 Öl-/Gas- Altkessel GBW GBWSOL GBWSOL,H Mikro-KWK Mikro-KWK L/W-EWP S/W-EWP GWP 1 GWP 2 GWP 3 GWP 4 GWP 5 GWP 6 GWP 7 η th =0,99 η th =1,08 η th =1,18 η th =0,80 η th =0,65 JAZ=3,00 JAZ=4,10 η th =1,20 η th =1,30 η th =1,40 η th =1,50 η th =1,60 η th =1,70 η th =1,80 η el =0,15 η el =0,25 System * ) Bilanziell negative CO 2 -Emissionen, da Gutschrift für Stromerzeugung größer als Emissionen durch Biogasverbrauch Source: ITG Dresden * ) - 80% 17

18 6. Intercomparison of appliance technologies (only gas ) (Standard and new appliances for single-family homes) Gas-fired condensing boiler +Low investment costs +Low total annual costs +Final and primary energy savings in comparison to old boiler - No integration of renewables if operated with natural gas Source: ITG Dresden Gas-fired condensing boiler + solar thermal energy +Tangible share of renewables +Higher final and primary energy savings in comparison to old boiler - Higher investment costs than for gas-fired condensing boiler - Higher total annual costs than for gas-fired condensing boiler Micro-CHP system +Credit for the electricity generated +Considerable primary energy savings in comparison to old boiler - Ecological benefits to become smaller with expected change of electricity generation structures - Higher investment costs than for gas-fired condensing systems - Higher total annual costs than for gas-fired condensing systems - No integration of renewable energies if operated with natural gas Gas heat pump +High share of renewable energies +Higher final and primary energy savings in comparison to old boiler +Lowest CO2 emission levels +Economic efficiency expected to improve for increasing levels of utilisation - Investment costs still high - Market presence currently low - Further technical improvements required 18

19 7. Conclusion New gas technologies (micro-chp, gas heat pumps) are about to come into the market in Germany on a major scale. These technologies meet environmental requirements in the long term. Compared with the current state of the art, some further technical developments and a reduction in capital expenditure are required and achievable. 19

20 Ökologische Bewertung von GWP (CO2-Emissionsfaktoren) Kohlendioxidemissionsfaktoren in kg CO 2 /kwh Energieträger Mittlerer CO 2 - Emissionsfaktor über 20 Jahre Strom 0,573 0,505 0,338 0,456 Erdgas 0,226 0,226 0,226 0,226 Bioerdgas, 100% Biogas 0,073 0,050 0,050 0,062 Bioerdgas, 20% Biogas 0,195 0,191 0,191 0,191 Bioerdgas, 25% Biogas 0,188 0,182 0,182 0,185 20

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