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1 die bedeutung von ikt für zivilgesellschaftliches engagement am Beispiel von Nichtregierungsorganisationen (NRO) in Sub-Sahara Afrika Sascha Czornohus Carsten Friedland Stefan Alexander Haffner Hartmut Ihne Winnie Kandie November 6 Gutachten im Auftrag des Deutschen Bundestages vorgelegt dem Büro für Technikfolgen-Abschätzung beim Deutschen Bundestag (TAB) im Rahmen des TA-Projekts: Internetkommunikation in und mit Entwicklungsländern Chancen für die Entwicklungszusammenarbeit am Beispiel Afrika

2 Ein Kooperationsprojekt von: ZEFConsult Zentrum für Entwicklungsforschung Walter-Flex-Str., Bonn Deutschland SAP Research CEC Pretoria Persequor TechnoPark Pro Park 9 de Havilland Crescent Scientia Pretoria South Africa Titelphoto: Carsten Friedland, Servicestation für Mobilfunk in einer informellen ländlichen Siedlung km östlich von Mogwase, North West Province, Südafrika

3 Die Autorin und die Autoren Sascha Czornohus Politikwissenschaftler, ist seit 6 Mitarbeiter bei ZEFConsult. Schwerpunkte: IKT, entwicklungspolitische Potentiale der deutschen Wirtschaft und PPP im Rahmen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit. Carsten Friedland Wirtschaftsinformatiker, ist als Softwareentwickler tätig. Daneben absolviert er eine berufsbegleitende Promotion am Zentrum für Entwicklungsforschung (ZEF) der Universität Bonn. Die Schwerpunkte seiner Forschungsarbeit beinhalten diverse Fragestellungen zur sozioökonomischen Auswirkung von IKT in einem entwicklungspolitischen Kontext. Stefan A. Haffner Geograph, ist seit 6 wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter bei ZEFConsult. Schwerpunkte seiner bisherigen Arbeit waren Selbsthilfegruppen im Kontext der Armutsbekämpfung, HIV/AIDS, Institutionen im Bereich Wasser und Ressourcenmanagement, IKT, Private Public Partnerships im entwicklungspolitischen Kontext. Dr. Hartmut Ihne Politikwissenschaftler, ist seit Direktor von ZEFConsult. Schwerpunkte: Menschenrechte, Minderheitenrechte, ethische Prinzipien, Entwicklungsethik, globale Entwicklungsthemen, kollektive Identität, Regierungsführung, Rechtsstaatlichkeit in Entwicklungsländern, IKT und Medien in Entwicklungsländern. Winnie Kandie Wirtschaftsinformatikerin, ist Doktorandin bei SAP Research, CEC Pretoria, Südafrika. Schwerpunkte: sozioökonomische Wirkungen und Folgen von Informationssystemen und -technologien, wie auch die Einführung von IKT in Organisationen. Sie ist zertifizierte SAP Business One Beraterin und forscht über Zivilgesellschaft und IKT

4 Das Interviewteam Eine empirische Studie steht und fällt mit der Datenerhebung. Dabei ist ein einheitliches, strukturiertes und objektives Vorgehen bei der Befragung ebenso wichtig wie eine umfassende Kenntnis des abgefragten Themas. Darüber hinaus war im Rahmen der vorliegenden Studie ein schnelles Einfühlungsvermögen und solides Verständnis der soziokulturellen Hintergründe der Befragten notwendig. Nur so konnten die Befragten adäquat an die Fragen herangeführt und Missverständnisse schon in Vorfeld vermieden werden. Diese Studie wäre nicht möglich gewesen ohne das Fachwissen und das Engagement unserer Interviever: Simon Didszuweit (cand. phil.) studiert Politische Wissenschaft, Philosophie und Neuere Geschichte an der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms Universität Bonn. Schwerpunkte: Entwicklungspolitik, Philosophie der Menschenrechte, Gerechtigkeitstheorien. Paul Maina Guthiga ist Doktorand am Zentrum für Entwicklungsforschung (ZEF) der Universität Bonn. Er erlangte seinen Bsc. (Agric) und Msc. (Agric. Econ) an der Universität von Nairobi in Kenia. Schwerpunkte: Natürliche Ressourcen und Umweltökonomie, speziell: Erhaltung von Biodiversität. Morapedi Motjale ist Praktikant bei SAP Research und steht kurz vor seinem B Com (Hons) Abschluss in Informatik an der Universität von Pretoria. Christoph Pannhausen studiert Geographie und Politische Wissenschaft an der Universität Bonn. Er beschäftigt sich insbesondere mit Fragen der Entwicklungspolitik und der Internationalen Zusammenarbeit. Diesbezüglich unternahm er Arbeitsund Studienaufenthalte in Ghana, Tansania (Universität Dar es Salaam), Malawi und Simbabwe. Seine Diplomarbeit wird er Mitte 7 beginnen.

5 Das Interviewteam Anna Schriefl arbeitet derzeit an ihrer Promotion im Bereich Antiker Philosophie. Sie hat in München Philosophie studiert, war ein Jahr lang in einem Sozialprojekt in Liverpool/England tätig und hat weitere praktische Erfahrung bei NGOs in den Bereichen Frauenrechtsarbeit und zivile Konfliktlösung gesammelt. Martin William Stappen hat vor seinem Bonner Studium der Politikwissenschaft und Vergleichenden Religionswissenschaft an Medienkampagnen und in der Administration eines Radiosenders in Bosnien gearbeitet. Seine Erfahrungen mit statistischen Erhebungen entstammen hauptsächlich seiner mehrjährigen Tätigkeit am Institut für angewandte Sozialwissenschaft, sowie der Mitarbeit an einer internen Evaluation des Freiwilligendienstes der Vereinten Nationen, UNV. Nile Voigt studiert Politische Wissenschaft, Geographie und Volkswirtschaft an der Universität Bonn. Sie war als studentische Hilfskraft beim Sozialforschungsinstitut Infas sowie beim Zentrum für Entwicklungsforschung beschäftigt. absolvierte sie einen neunmonatigen Freiwilligendienst in einer indischen NRO. Ulrike von Aschwege Studiert in Bonn im Rahmen des North American Studies Program. 7 plant sie ihren Abschluss zum Thema Korruptionsbekämpfung in Brasilien. Sie war Praktikantin bei der IHK.

6 Inhaltsverzeichnis. EINLEITUNG...7. DANKSAGUNG.... DIE ROLLE VON IKT FÜR NICHTREGIERUNGSORGANISATIONEN (NRO)..... NGO ACTIVITIES Program Management Internal Communication External Communication..... NGO RESOURCES Finance Infrastructure Human Resources Information and Knowledge.... IKT UND ENTWICKLUNG QUERSCHNITTSTHEMA FÜR POLITIK UND GESELLSCHAFT..... IKT ALS THEMA DES DEUTSCHEN BUNDESTAGES..... IKT IN DER INTERNATIONALEN POLITIK DER BUNDESREGIERUNG WSIS I UND II FORSCHUNGSANSATZ UND METHODIK..... KONZEPTIONELLER RAHMEN Kriterien der NRO-Selektion Kriterien der Länderselektion Forschungsfragen..... METHODIK DER DATENERHEBUNG Art der Befragung Grundpopulationen und St ichprobenverfahren Anzahl an angestrebten Antworten pro Land EMPIRISCHE AUSWERTUNG GRUNDDATEN ZU DEN BEFRAGTEN NRO Stichproben und Gesamtpopulationen Charakteristika der befragten NRO IKT-NUTZUNG VON NRO IN ÄTHIOPIEN, KENIA UND SÜDAFRIKA Zugang, Verfügbarkeit und bedingende Infrastruktur Organisation und Management Interne Kommunikation Externe Kommunikation Wissen und Informationsbeschaffung Human Resources Finanzielle Aspekte Übergreifende Themen zu IKT und NRO SCHLUSSFOLGERUNGEN UND EMPFEHLUNGEN SCHLUSSFOLGERUNGEN EMPFEHLUNGEN ABBILDUNGSVERZEICHNIS ABBILDUNGEN SCHAUBILDER LITERATURVERZEICHNIS ANNEX..... QUESTIONNAIRE..... DATENDIAGRAMME..... ABKÜRZUNGEN...7

7 . Einleitung Die vorliegende Studie Die Bedeutung von IKT für zivilgesellschaftliches Engagement am Beispiel von Nichtregierungsorganisationen (NRO) in Sub-Sahara Afrika (SSA) beschäftigt sich mit einem wichtigen Teilaspekt der Förderung von demokratischen und zivilgesellschaftlichen Strukturen in SSA im Kontext der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit (EZ). Neue Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien (IKT) wie Computer, Internet, , Mobiltelefone etc. sind längst auch in den ärmsten Entwicklungsländern verbreitet und stellen dort wichtige Instrumente bei der Bekämpfung von Armut, für die Förderung von sozialer und wirtschaftlicher Entwicklung, von Demokratie und Good Governance, Bildung und Gesundheit dar. Sie erlauben einen verbesserten Zugang zu Wissen für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung und schaffen neue Formen der Einbindung von Zivilgesellschaften in politische Gestaltungsprozesse. Sie schaffen die Möglichkeit, über die lokalen und nationalen Grenzen hinaus an der Ausgestaltung der globalen Wissensgesellschaft teilzuhaben. Zivilgesellschaftliche Organisationen sind als aktive Mediatoren gesellschaftlicher Interessen in besonderem Maße auf funktionierende Informations- und Kommunikationskanäle angewiesen. IKT sind für sie von vitalem Interesse für die Erreichung der jeweiligen Ziele und bieten ein vielfältiges Potential unterschiedlicher Nutzung. Die Studie setzt bei diesem vitalen Interesse und dem Potential von IKT an und untersucht deren Bedeutung für die Organisation sowie für die interne und externe Kommunikation von zivilgesellschaftlichen Institutionen. Im Mittelpunkt der Studie steht eine empirische Umfrage zu den bestehenden Ressourcen und Wirkungen von IKT für die Arbeit von NRO. Sie verfährt in folgenden fünf Schritten: Darstellung ausgewählter Aspekte des nationalen und internationalen entwicklungspolitischen Referenzrahmens für IKT, Auswertung der relevanten Diskussion (Literaturbericht), Die Studie versteht den Begriff "Nichtregierungsorganisation" im folgenden Sinne: Eine NRO ist eine Organisation, die privat finanziert (vorwiegend durch Spenden der Öffentlichkeit) und unabhängig von Regierungen und ihren Politiken ist. Der Begriff der Zivilgesellschaft wird allerdings manchmal auch weitergefasst und bezieht die Wirtschaft bzw. Teile der Wirtschaft mit ein. Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien (IKT) umfassen im weitesten Sinne alle Technologien zur Datenverarbeitung, zur Weiterleitung von Informationen und zur Ermöglichung von Kommunikation. Die Europäische Kommission beispielsweise versteht unter IKT "alte und neue Technologien" wie Radio und Fernsehen, Telefon und Internet (European Commission ). ZEFConsult/SAP Research - IKT für NRO in Sub-Sahara Afrika 7

8 Analyse der Ist-Situation: Einsatzbereiche, Wirkungen und Rahmenbedingungen von IKT für NRO in SSA, Bewertung der Ist-Situation in Bezug auf Förderbedarfe und bestehende entwicklungspolitische Zielsetzungen, Schlussfolgerungen und Empfehlungen für die deutsche Entwicklungspolitik (bi- und multilateral). Methodisch wird ein qualitativ-quantitativer Ansatz verfolgt. Eine kritische Literaturrecherche und die statistische und bewertende Analyse von zuvor erhobenen Daten bilden die Grundlage. Für die Datengewinnung wurden sowohl Online-Befragungen (Questionnaire mit Fragen) als auch telefonische Interviews mit ausgewählten sub-sahara afrikanischen NRO durchgeführt. Als Nichtregierungsorganisationen wurden diejenigen definiert, die privat finanziert (vorwiegend durch Spenden der Öffentlichkeit) und unabhängig von Regierungen und ihren Politiken sind. Aus heuristischen Gründen wurden der Erstellung des Fragebogens Interviews mit NRO- Repräsentantinnen und Repräsentanten in Deutschland vorgeschaltet. Die Literaturrecherche beinhaltet keine vollständige Analyse der auf IKT bezogenen wissenschaftlichen und politischen Dokumente, sondern wählt die für den NRO-Zusammenhang wichtigsten Positionen aus. Es wurden drei Länder beforscht (Südafrika, Kenia, Äthiopien), die insgesamt ein repräsentatives Bild für Sub-Sahara Afrika ergeben. Die Auswahl der Länder erfolgte über eine Kombination zweier Performance-Indices: politisch-bürgerrechtliche Performance und IKT-Performance. Der politische Performanceindex unterscheidet zwischen hoher, mittlerer und schwacher politischer Performance. Er beruht auf den gängigen Indices des DAC, der Weltbank, von UNDP und der Bertelsmannstiftung. Zudem sind nur Länder berücksichtigt, die Partner der deutschen EZ sind. ZEFConsult/SAP Research - IKT für NRO in Sub-Sahara Afrika 8

9 Political freedom and civil liberties 7 6 Chad Ethiopia Mozambique Madagascar Zimbabwe Benin Cameroon Nigeria Mali Uganda The Gambia Tanzania Kenya Namibia Ghana Botswana South Africa Mauritius Networked Readiness Index Partner country Potential partner country Partner country investigated No partner country Abbildung : Länderverteilung Die Studie unterscheidet methodisch zwischen zwei grundsätzlich differenten Merkmalen am Forschungsgegenstand und deren Bedeutung bei der und für die Nutzung von IKT: den Aktivitäten von NRO (in einem weiten Verständnis zählen dazu. Organisation/Administration/ Programmmanagement,. interne Kommunikation,. externe Kommunikation), und den Ressourcen, die materielle Bedingungen für diese Aktivitäten sind (. Finanzen,. Human Capacity,. Infrastruktur,. Wissen und Information). ZEFConsult/SAP Research - IKT für NRO in Sub-Sahara Afrika 9

10 . Danksagung Für das Zustandekommen der Untersuchung konnten wir auf vielfältige Unterstützung durch Kolleginnen und Kollegen aus Wissenschaft, Politik und Entwicklungspraxis zurückgreifen. Ihnen danken wir für Anregungen, Kritik, Kontrolle und technische Unterstützung. Ganz besonders danken wir Holger Seebens (ZEF) und Professor Dr. Ulrike Grote (ZEF und Universität Hannover) für die verlässliche methodenbezogene Supervision und wissenschaftliche Qualitätssicherung unserer Arbeit. Danie Kok (Director, SAP Research CEC Pretoria, South Africa) danken wir für seine motivierende Präsenz bei den zweiwöchentlich stattfindenden Konferenzen zwischen Bonn und Pretoria. Dr. Danie Smit (SAP Research CEC Pretoria, South Africa), Professor Carina De Villiers (University of Pretoria, South Africa), Dr. Jackie Phahlamohlaka (CSIR, South Africa) danken wir für die geduldige wissenschaftliche Begleitung von Teilen der Studie. Professor Dr. Volkhard Hundsdörfer danken wir für seine kenntnisreiche Mitarbeit. Christopher Coenen und Ulrich Riehm vom Büro für Technikfolgenabschätzung (TAB) beim Deutschen Bundestag gilt unser Dank für die gute Betreuung während der Beantragung und Durchführung des Projekts. Den Kolleginnen und Kollegen Dr. Ulla Mikota (VENRO e.v.), Karin Döhne (EED), Dr. Karl Pfahler (Kindernothilfe), Dr. Christoph Dietz (CAMECO), Helmut Hess (Brot für die Welt), Dr. Normann Steinmaier (Deutsche Welthungerhilfe), Dr. Gerold Kier (Germanwatch), Gudrun Steiner (Kindernothilfe), Michael Benz (DED), Balthasar Seibold (InWEnt), Dr. Olaf Nielinger (Detecon), Herman Bosman (Department of Social Development, South Africa), Henry Ochido (NGOs Coordination Board, Kenia), Zamani Kibwana (NGOs Coordination Board, Kenia) danken wir für manches konstruktive Gespräch aus NRO- und Praktikersicht und manchen erhellenden Mailaustausch. Monika Muylkens (BMZ) und Dr. Romeo Bertolini (BMZ) verdanken wir Einblicke in die BMZ-Sicht der Fragestellung. Wichtige Beiträge zum Verstehen der Positionen der Fraktionen im Deutschen Bundestag verdanken wir Dr. Sonja Strobel (MdB-Büro Dr. Georg Nüßlein), Diana Labschies (MdB-Büro Dr. Sascha Raabe), Dr. Karl-Heinz Stecher (MdB-Büro Thilo Hoppe), Dr. Frank Renken (MdB-Büro Hüseyin-Kenan Aydin), Sonay Atac (MdB-Büro Hüseyin-Kenan Aydin), Dr. Karl Addicks (MdB), Axel Klüsener (Sekretariat des Ausschusses für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung). ZEFConsult/SAP Research - IKT für NRO in Sub-Sahara Afrika

11 Bei den politischen Stiftungen gilt unser Dank Keren Ben-Zeev (Heinrich Böll Stiftung), Annette Schwarzbauer (Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e.v.), Dieter Petzolt (Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e.v.) und Rosina Esmail (Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung). Harry De Backer vom European Development Fund gab uns einen wegweisenden Hinweis. Ohne das informationstechnische Engagement unserer Kollegin Anja Giese (ZEF) hätten wir uns schwer getan, einige technische Probleme zu lösen. Katrin Dobersalske (ZEFConsult) danken wir für ihre Unterstützung bei der Auswertung der Ergebnisse. ZEFConsult/SAP Research - IKT für NRO in Sub-Sahara Afrika

12 . Die Rolle von IKT für Nichtregierungsorganisationen (NRO).. NGO Activities Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) play a significant role in developmental issues for example poverty eradication, social services, educational and political empowerment of the disadvantaged or deprived individuals; healthcare and access to ICT. They implement various programs /projects aimed at improving the quality of life of people, which they undertake with numerous challenges and very limited resources. As a result it becomes even more critical for NGOs to perform effectively and efficiently. In order to achieve their core mission, NGOs perform various activities. This includes program management, communication internally within the organization and externally with various stakeholders. With ICT being central to many organizations globally, NGOs are trying to keep pace with ICT developments while concurrently managing daily operations. This however is a challenging task for many NGOs. The sections below give an overview of the activities undertaken by NGOs to fulfil their goals.... Program Management NGOs operate in so many contexts and many different levels that generalization may not be realistic NGOs work in the field, adapting to local situations, and are able to develop integrated projects based on local needs. The core of NGOs is the primacy of their mission which defines at a general level the goals of the organization to which all programs/projects, activities, processes, actions have to be coordinated with. Resource allocation, both financial and human resources, have also to be allocated in respect with the mission and its sub goals (Sheehan 996). Internal functions or processes vary from organization to organization with administration, finance, human resource management, project management and fundraising. These functions are mainly manual governed by various policies and procedures. Monitoring and evaluation of projects or programs is mainly done through a range of meetings, e.g. management subcommittee meeting and periodical reporting. External monitoring and evaluation by donor/funding organizations is mainly annual reports and program/project reports. The reports are usually automatically generated using various software applications and are either contracted to external organizations or developed internally. However, many NGOs in Africa suffer for lack of capacity in management and administration as well as in program monitoring and evaluation (Jackman/Jones ). Schiavo-Campo (Schiavo- Campo/Sundaram ), states that some NGOs do not have the time and expertise to manage all the funded programs, even to ensure full involvement by all the communities as it is normally claimed. Small NGOs spend little time on this aspect of organizational development ZEFConsult/SAP Research - IKT für NRO in Sub-Sahara Afrika

13 (Jackman/Jones ). They add that this may be attributed to the inaccurate perceptions of the state of their internal affairs mainly the indirect relations between the ICT and the NGO s mission The work of NGOs is much more difficult and demanding as they are expected to deliver with limited resources. ICT provides important resources for NGOs to function more efficiently for example more efficient proposal writing, financial record keeping and information sharing. Spreadsheets and databases have allowed more NGOs to track budgets and accounts in-house, manage client service records, volunteer and donor database records. NGOs can more effectively analyze their services and outcomes, and interface more easily with other agencies within a networked environment. Increased financial resources are required to develop systems that strengthen their work. Too often limited budgets force organizations to choose between technology and other activities, whereas technology is a tool that can support a range of activities. The ICT juggernaut will continue to destabilize the administrative structures of the NGO-community, disrupting the delicate balance between effective service delivery and modernization (Jackman/Jones ).... Internal Communication Most NGOs in Africa have formal organizational structures based on certain programs and functions they undertake as well as some form of documented management policies and systems. However, such systems do not always translate into effective practices (CAFS ). They generally have a governing body (i.e. boards, trustees etc.) that provide strategic direction, whose effectiveness differ from active to inactive largely due to lack of management or technical capacity to contribute significantly. While there are growing networks throughout Africa that link NGOs to various stakeholders, many NGOs remain relatively isolated largely constrained by the shortcomings in national communications infrastructure as well as the high cost and relative limited access to technology in Africa. Decision-making in many NGOs in Africa is still a oneperson show and lacks transparency and internal democracy (CAFS ). This is largely attributed to management practices that are too bureaucratic and are adopted from the public sector. As a result communication with other staff is limited; this in turn contributes negatively to the effectiveness and efficiency of the day to day running of the organization. NGOs have increasingly sophisticated skills in mobilizing public opinion using various communication channels such as newspapers, television, radio, and especially the Internet, but due to the lack of interorganizational communication and coordination they tackle their chosen causes without a clear understanding of the broader social and economic context. In a study conducted by APC in, it was clear that even those NGOs with good access and skills, felt that they were not utilizing ICT effectively. For example, most NGOs felt that they were strong in the ZEFConsult/SAP Research - IKT für NRO in Sub-Sahara Afrika

14 areas of internet access and use (average rating of 7. / 9). However, most organizations felt that they were weak in areas such as holding online meetings and running internet advocacy campaigns (average rating of./9), (APC ). Besides and the web, a number of other information and communication technologies are increasingly becoming popular for internal communication in NGOs. Online chat and instant messaging are useful for linking parent organizations with their branches. Intranets and VPNs are also commonly used by bigger NGOs for collaboration, document sharing and storage. Examples include Project Literacy s intranet which connects its offices in South Africa and Green Peace s virtual private network which connects its offices around the world.... External Communication The focus of ICT is not the technology itself, such as internet access or networked databases, but its ability to enable the interactions necessary for representation of multiple stakeholders in decision-making processes through collaborative tools such as online communities, remote conferencing, and other knowledge-sharing means (UNECE 988). The digital divide in Africa has a significant bearing on the quality of networking among the NGOs and their interaction with various stakeholders. The disparity in access regulates the extent to which NGOs do their business and network among each other and their support to and relationship with other institutions or stakeholders. NGOs have always made attempts to band together; the past ten years have seen an increased level of excitement about ideas like collaboration, coalition building and partnership (Anheier / Themudo ). As noted in Surman & Reilly (Surman/Rielly ), Maja van der Velden states that the lack of understanding of the role of ICT in NGOs as well as in their external communication and networking activities affects their ability to appropriate this technology in support of the successful implementation of the organizations strategies and fulfillment of goals. Despite the potential of ICT in NGOs and the technology gaps experienced, there are many NGOs setting up websites to communicate with various stakeholders, provide information and lobby for funds. The sections below examine external communication in NGOs by giving an overview on the interactions of NGOs to donors, governments, civil society, business and international stakeholders.... Relations with Governments With the increasing demands on governments by the citizens, governments can no longer be the sole provider of goods and services. The support and interest in NGOs grew as a result of failure by governments to deliver services. Thus, with the role of complementing governments, NGOs act ZEFConsult/SAP Research - IKT für NRO in Sub-Sahara Afrika

15 as the implementers of development activities, while governments become more of an enabler and as result, as pointed out by Thomas (99), NGOs fill the gaps left by the public service. Besides this some NGOs act as watchdogs and holding government accountable through severable methods including lobbying or even overtly supporting groups which are adversely affected by the policies of the government (Thomas 99). Clark adds that NGOs can complement reform and/or oppose the government (Clark 99). As stated above, it is clear that the relationships between government and NGOs are complex and diverse and are likely to affect the management of NGO activities, the behavior of donors and the nature and character of the regime (Turner/Hulme 997). However this differs from country to country with some having favorable conditions and others antagonistic. Governments establish the legal and political contexts within which development NGOs work, as a result NGO relations with the government may take many forms (Tandon 988). In many countries, governments are deeply suspicious of NGOs as competitors in delivering services, as agents of international donors, or as critics of state programs (Bratton 989) and as a result they may curtail the space within which NGOs act. In still other situations, NGOs have carried out policy influence campaigns to influence governments on behalf of grassroots constituents (Bratton 989 / Miller 6). Gomez (Gomez ) adds that NGOs are also important partners in policy dialogue and without the participation of organized civil society, policy formulation is incomplete since not all initiatives that contribute to human development are economically profitable (as the private sector would like) or politically attractive (as the governments would wish). Furthermore, the high cost of ICT in general is preventing NGOs from collaborating in local ICT policy processes and specialising in IT-based issues and services (Barnard 6). Siochru notes that the future of NGOs is likely to be influenced more and more by internal dynamics, as it internalizes struggles with government and private sector (Siochru ). He adds that national level activities are critical in Sub-Saharan Africa where governments need to be faced with informed advocacy groups that exert pressure on them to speed up access to communications and information and to comply with international standards. In order for NGOs to realize their potential contribution and to efficiently manage their activities, a good relationship between governments and NGOs is a necessity.... Relations with Civil Society NGOs relate to each other in different ways for example through alliances, partnerships, and synergistic networks. Information and communication technology helps this process along by enabling interaction and communication. Going well beyond , NGOs in Africa link with northern NGOs, disseminate technical information, and offer support for scattered organizations and volunteers. Barnard states that the importance of blogs and wikis are an affordable medium that can help NGOs formulate cohesion and progress among each other to counteract the negative ZEFConsult/SAP Research - IKT für NRO in Sub-Sahara Afrika

16 trends that are emerging. He adds that through online networking, NGO groups have a chance of meeting and learning on a regular basis, creating progress (Barnard 6). For example the lack of awareness of open source software solutions and applications in the NGO sector is also a problem, but could be reversed through organized discussion forums. NGOs also foster broader perspectives on development issues and cohesive strategies to influence government agencies and donors through a cohesive voice impossible to single NGOs. Examples of such associations include SANGONET and SANGOCO in South Africa and the NNGOC of Kenya who bring together members to discuss issues facing the sector, such as national regulatory legislation. Probably due to their perceived powerlessness and isolation, a majority of NGOs have grouped together in such associations and through electronic networks, like the World Wide Web with a focus on specialized fields. Examples of such networks include Women s Net, Relief Net amongst others.... Relations with Business The rise of the business sector and its potential role in economic development has been highly visible to many civil society actors. Some NGOs have challenged business practices that exploit marginalized groups, as in the campaign against Nestlé s marketing of infant formula to clients without access to safe drinking water (Johnson 986). Although this critical focus continues to dominate some business-ngo relations, other relationship possibilities have emerged in recent years. Some NGOs have mobilized resources from business to implement programs that provide outputs valued by both NGO and business. Experience suggests that such alliances are difficult, but not impossible, to create and maintain (Ashman ). With the competition for scarce resource i.e. financial resources by NGOs, collaboration and cooperation with various institutions may be inhibited. This may be attributed to the fact that many feel they must protect their own information and constituents. NGOs foster for trusted relationships with other NGOs just as business foster competition relationship with other businesses. However the right incentives must be there for both to occur. NGOs need to work with businesses around the physical access gaps in and appropriation of ICT issues through analyzing different information and communication technologies such as print, electronic, radio and TV and facilitating links between traditional media and new media. Different models of access, use and adoption of ICT like open source, low cost computes etc. should be examined guided by the understanding of the role of ICT for socio-economic development and its impact on the activities of NGOs. This however, leads to the examination of fundamental issues for example language, content and culture amongst others, which NGOs should address. ZEFConsult/SAP Research - IKT für NRO in Sub-Sahara Afrika 6

17 ... International Relations For African NGOs, international actors are a major source of ideas, financial resources, and political legitimacy. Alliances with international actors enable activities and impacts, including influence with their own governments or with actors like the World Bank (Florini / Keck/Sikkink 998). Such alliances may also subject NGOs to being seen as agents of foreign cultural, political, and religious interests (Bratton 989), and it is easy to become dependent on resources that cannot be sustained locally. Dependence on external resources and values can undermine NGO identities and legitimacy in their own eyes as well as in the eyes of sceptics and so undermine their effectiveness as catalysts for development. International cooperation has been a persuasive force that shaped the direction of ICT development in Africa including NGO access and utilization of ICT. International cooperation has many forms and roles in the ICT arena in Africa. While some international institutions provided direct support to ICT development by making financial and equipment aid, building human resources and providing technical assistance, others included ICT support in their funding of other development projects like construction of roads and management of water resources and environment (Hafkin/Kate ). Besides the improved participation of NGOs in major international cooperation efforts, NGOs are unable to tap into resources made available through development aid agencies and other funding organizations to provide ICT support. Donor or funder expectations come from a number of influences and motivations (Chapin ), which, in turn, may influence the direction of NGO programs/projects that may not be appropriate to the program s/project s local context. With the burden experienced by bureaucracy from some donors, NGOs do not have direct control of the allocation of funds. Funding received from donors who have limited understanding of the context in which the NGO operates is also a major problem. For example, with ICT, large western companies tend to donate old computing equipment to schools in Africa. This however can be problematic as few people in some of these areas have the technical knowledge to administer the machines, deal with software related problems and provide other basic maintenance. With the existence of donor needs for short-term impact, easily quantifiable success measures have become increasingly important (Stem et al. ) for example with reference to ICT, this may imply that the number of internet connected computers is the key measurement for project success rather than successful community derived development projects enabled by ICT (Stem et al. ). It is easier to quantify the former but the real impact may be seen in the latter. NGOs have institutional challenges of contextual understanding, technical capacity, and financial resources which are escalated by the lack of sufficient funding. This may lead to some NGOs ZEFConsult/SAP Research - IKT für NRO in Sub-Sahara Afrika 7

18 altering their plans or reshape their areas of expertise in order to meet the funder s need. The problem goes further beyond funding with many NGOs in Africa having unskilled staff. Core funding, ICT or non-ict related that facilitates general NGO management and administrative activities is also very scarce and if addressed might alleviate the credibility of NGOs to funders which in turn may enhance project/program discretion... NGO Resources. In order for NGOs to carry out their activities, they require certain resources, namely, financial, ICT and non-ict infrastructure, human resources and information and knowledge. One of the additional inherent limitations of the NGO sector is the difficulty it encounters in generating resources on a scale that is both adequate and reliable enough to cope with the range of human problems it seeks to address (Billis / Howard 998 / Fowler 99 / Kramer 98 / Ostrander 989). The competition amongst the NGOs for resources in an evermore tightly constrained funding environment is characteristic of NGO sectors in all countries. Much NGO advertising, media work and lobbying are driven by the need to gain a higher profile in the marketplace in order to ensure a continued flow of resources from donors. Donor requirements drive many of the changes that are being made in systems and procedures, passed down the aid chain. Although NGOs talk constantly of partnership, control over funds and decision-making remain highly unequal (Fowler 998). The resources used in organizations provide both an instrument and a constraint for NGOs. As an instrument, they are used to perform activities to fulfil certain social goals and as a constraint, they are used as measure of the organizations budgets and their feat for opportunity. These resources translate to action and initiative that are performed with a certain time period, oriented to the goals and objectives from the NGO mission. The sections below give an overview on the types of resources as mentioned above, required by NGOs in order to function.... Finance The availability of financial resources plays an integral role in defining the scope of the NGO sector. In developing countries, collecting local funds is less important because the bulk of NGO funding comes from international sources such as non-governmental and governmental agencies (Lister / Stiles ). The use of technology has enhanced some NGOs fundraising efforts by automating routine tasks thus allowing more time to build relationships with donors and beneficiaries. But struggles over the use of ICT are central to relationships between NGOs and their funders. The international development literature has also noted this especially with the expansion ZEFConsult/SAP Research - IKT für NRO in Sub-Sahara Afrika 8

19 of NGOs, particularly in public service provision. This is a global phenomenon that has been fuelled by the availability of funding, not only from domestic public sources but also from official bilateral and multilateral sources, as well as from northern NGOs (Clark 99 / Dichter 999 / Edwards / Hulme 996). The increased funding to NGOs appears to have been motivated by a number of factors. On one side, it has been driven by evidence of government failure in service provision and an attendant neoliberal economic climate of government retrenchment (Mackintosh 99) while on the other, it has been inspired by a belief that NGOs are not only more efficient service providers than public agencies but that they are also more democratic and effective in reaching the poor despite a dearth of empirical evidence on either count (Bebbington / Riddell 997 / Edwards / Hulme 996 / Tendler 6). As noted earlier in this paper, one of the major factors impacting effective management and sustainability of NGOs is the nature of their dependability on donors for financial support. The majority of NGOs in developing countries were established in order to complement and supplement government developmental and service delivery efforts. With this in mind, multilateral organizations such as the United Nations, World Bank, as well as regional organizations such as the European Union, African Union and SADC have funded NGOs programs and activities and channelled funds through the NGOs to foster developmental and improve service delivery at grassroots level. However, the many NGOs in Africa lack a clearly defined structure in terms of organizational chart, buildings, facilities, equipment and human resources. The main contributory factor to this is the insufficient financial resources to enable NGOs plan, organize, design clearly defined structures and equip their offices with adequate resources which impact upon NGOs carrying out their core business. ICT has facilitated the process of giving, through websites that facilitate donations or funding. Donors, institutional funders, and charities become better informed, more effective and more efficient as the process of fundraising for, and giving to, causes becomes much simpler. GuideStar for example, was established in 99 in an attempt to bring about greater transparency and accountability by making available information about the operations and finances of non-profit organizations. However obtaining ICT resources, its maintenance and training is more time consuming and expensive than anticipated leaving their staff over stretched.... Infrastructure Many NGOs in Africa have been innovative in using ICT in ways consistent with available infrastructure and capacity. Initially, the limited use of the internet by NGOs, attributed by physical access and high costs, was seen as a limitation. In contrast, while most NGOs now have access to the web and make use of it, they remain uncertain of its value. It is simply not a suitable platform in ZEFConsult/SAP Research - IKT für NRO in Sub-Sahara Afrika 9

20 contexts where connectivity is relatively slow and expensive. The use of technologies such as has become the norm rather than the exception within NGO communities (Esterhuysen ) but the information highway appears as a limited access system not available to smaller NGOs because they lack the technology and expertise to obtain computerized information (Stoecker / Stuber 997). The dramatic lack of a reliable infrastructure is the main physical obstacle for ICT-based services to be offered to populations living in Africa (Civil Society declaration, WSIS ). Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by high level of disparity in access to the ICT and usage, low level of digital and information literacy, limited quality, availability and affordability of the physical network including telecommunications, electricity and transport networks (Jensen ). This lack of access to physical infrastructure has been a key barrier to NGOs progress to the next level, which is using network technologies creatively for information production and dissemination, campaigning, internal and external collaboration and research (Surman/Rielly ). Jensen adds that national disparities are even worse since the divide trails the contours of economic progress of states: over 7% of internet activity takes place in South Africa, about % in North Africa, and the remaining 8 countries share % of its use. A major problem NGOs experience is their lack of prioritization to technology investments as opposed to investments. The scarcity of financial resources is a crucial aspect in investment decisions. NGOs tend to concentrate their investments in programs and operational activities directly related with the social impact of their work and as a result neglect investments in support activities, such as information technology. Cost is another significant barrier to access information and communication technologies by NGOs. As a result, even if the device and connection costs decrease, the cost of training and upgrading still remains high. In addition, there is the overutilization of the available bandwidth. Jensen (Jensen ) shows that almost 6% of African countries have bandwidth that is less than that of a typical institution in the developed world. He further states that only six African countries have a reasonable outgoing bandwidth. As a result, where technology is available and accessible, NGOs face difficulties due to the lack of understanding of ICT implications to their activities and the high costs related to it. The Association for Progressive Communications (APC) and other donor driven development networks such as the Sustainable Development Network, have played a key role in providing access to NGOs for example, by beginning with low cost technologies in the early 99s and culminating with improving capacities of groups such as women, human rights NGOs, professional associations and media groups in order to raise their voices at global levels (Africa ICT Policy Monitor Project ). There has also been an increase in the use of mailing lists for collaboration and communication. For example, the African Information Society Initiative list used by NGOs to bring ZEFConsult/SAP Research - IKT für NRO in Sub-Sahara Afrika

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