TOOLKIT FOR EQUALITY: THE LOCAL LEVEL

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1 ECCAR EUROPEAN COALITION OF CITIES AGAINST RACISM AT HOME IN EUROPE, Open Sciety Fundatins TOOLKIT FOR EQUALITY: THE LOCAL LEVEL Mapping and Clustering f Plicy Appraches Paul Lappalainen, Isabella Meier, Ingrid Nicletti and Klaus Starl May 2015 Survey Reprt 1

2 TOOLKIT FOR EQUALITY: THE LOCAL LEVEL - research prject t develp a practical tlkit cmpiling the mst successful plicies implemented by Eurpean cities t fight racial discriminatin The prject Tlkit fr Equality is financed by the Open Sciety Fundatins prgramme At Hme in Eurpe, the Eurpean Calitin f Cities against Racism (ECCAR), and by member cities with an inkind cntributin by the Eurpean Training and Research Centre fr Human Rights and Demcracy (ETC) Graz. It is implemented by the ECCAR s wrking grup n research, its scientific advisrs, and the ETC Graz in cperatin with the ECCAR member cities. This study was prepared, carried ut and cmpiled in 2014 by Ingrid Nicletti Isabella Meier Klaus Starl Paul Lappalainen 2

3 Executive Summary This paper presents the findings frm a survey amng 40 Eurpean cities n their plicy appraches t cunteracting racial discriminatin. It prvides an verview f the plicies implemented in thse cities and analyses in detail 25 prmising plicy examples frm 23 cities in 10 Eurpean states. Plicies within the same categry are then synthesized int six mdel plicies that highlight the characterizing factrs f prmising plicies and shuld serve as inspiring mdels fr ther cities. In cunteracting racial discriminatin, cities are mst active in their functin as a demcratic institutin, as rule-makers, and as service prviders. Plicies mst frequently emplyed are mnitring, advisry bards, actin plans, training f emplyees, and plicies in different areas f service prvisin. When asked t describe especially successful plicies, the participating cities chse t describe first and fremst actin plans, mnitring, legal supprt fr victims (anti-discriminatin ffices), advisry bards/cmmittees and services fr newly arrived immigrants. Cities in general fcus n plicies that aim t prevent racism and racial discriminatin and supprt victims rather than sanctining racist behaviur. The results indicate that there is an untapped ptential fr many cities t make use f their pwer as an imprtant lcal emplyer and as a cntractr. A quarter f the participating cities still d nt prvide training fr their emplyees in nn-discriminatin. Other ptential plicies in the cities functins as an emplyer are rarely applied. In their functin as a cntractr, nly abut ne third f cities make use f anti-discriminatin clauses in prcurement cntracts, cnditins fr licences, r subsidies. When it cmes t the successful implementatin f plicies, findings indicate fr all kinds f plicies that it is fruitful t have a city entity that has the specific respnsibility and cmpetence t put frward initiatives addressing discriminatin, including racial discriminatin. Secndly, it is imprtant t take up and explicitly invlve the practical expertise f civil sciety actrs and lcal rganisatins int this prcess. Additinally, it needs t be cncluded that prmising plicies are planned and implemented as lng-term endeavurs and are evaluated ver time. Fr sme kinds f plicies, particularly thse cncerning the city as a cntracting authrity, the invlvement f service prviders and ther private actrs is needed. Cities named several difficulties in the implementatin f anti-discriminatin plicies. One is t reach migrants and members f minrities and in particular t encurage victims f discriminatin t reprt cases and make use f supprt services. Thus, an active invlvement f the target grup, targeted utreach wrk and brad public relatins effrts, (e.g. thrugh cllabratin with widely read lcal newspapers) is needed. Anther challenge is t efficiently use the cmpetences f lcal actrs by crdinating activities f different municipal ffices, NGOs, plice, and ther civil sciety actrs. This includes gathering and cmparing data frm varius surces n frms and cases f discriminatin, and t ensure that relevant actrs in the field are infrmed abut each ther s cmpetences and effectively refer clients t the cmpetent bdy. 3

4 Table f Cntents Executive Summary DEFINITIONS CONCEPT AND GOALS DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF HUMAN RIGHTS INDICATORS... 8 Hw t measure prgress and impact?... 8 When is a plicy effective against racial discriminatin? THE TOOLKIT SURVEY Hw was the survey designed? Wh tk part? Limitatins EMPIRICAL RESULTS Overview - Eurpean Cities plicies Plicies presented as particularly successful Discussin f findings with ECCAR cities Trainings n nn-discriminatin fr city emplyees The use f the city s ecnmic pwer as a cntractr PROMISING POLICIES Hw were prmising plicies defined and selected? What characterizes prmising anti-discriminatin plicies? MODEL POLICIES The Mnitring The Migrant Cuncil The Actin Plan The Anti-Discriminatin Office The Infrmatin Service fr Recently Arrived Immigrants Cperatin with Lcal Enterprises NUMBER OF COMPLAINTS Critical discussin n the use f number f cmplaints as an utcme indicatr CONCLUSION Results at a glance Relatin t ECCAR s 10-Pint-Plan f Actin Way frward REFERENCES

5 Annex 1 PROMISING POLICIES Mnitring Advisry Bards Electins Actin Plans Basic legal dcuments Legal Prtectin Anti discriminatin ffices Services fr Migrants Services in husing and neighburhd Annex 2 - OUTCOME INDICATORS English Versin Versin Française Deutsche Versin

6 1. DEFINITIONS This research prject fcuses n plicies t cunteract racism and racial discriminatin. The terms used in this paper are t be understd as fllws: Racial discriminatin is defined by the Internatinal Cnventin n the Eliminatin f all Frms f Racial Discriminatin (ICERD) as any distinctin, exclusin, restrictin r preference based n race, clur, descent, r natinal r ethnic rigin which has the purpse r effect f nullifying r impairing the recgnitin, enjyment r exercise, n an equal fting, f human rights and fundamental freedms in the plitical, ecnmic, scial, cultural r any ther field f public life (Article 1 ICERD). As such, racial discriminatin is banned by the internatinal cmmunity as a serius human rights vilatin. Racism plays a majr rle in the scial prcesses that give rise t, and entrench such racial discriminatin. The term member f minrity grup dentes persns wh are expsed t racial discriminatin in their cuntry f residence due t their appearance, name, language, religin etc. This can include descendants f migrant families even if they are natinal citizens and nt fficially classified as ethnic minrities. The term member f minrity grup is synnymus t the term racialised persn. The term plicy refers t an instrument r prgramme f which the purpse, gals and implementatin have been plitically agreed upn. It has a strategic and an peratinal cmpnent and it is embedded int the (lng-term) institutinal setting f the lcal gvernment. 2. CONCEPT AND GOALS During 10 years since the funding f the ECCAR netwrk, the Eurpean cities have gained experience in the implementatin f a variety f plicies, taking different appraches, and realizing varius ideas. As it is in the cre idea f ECCAR t facilitate exchange f experience in rder t further inspire and imprve the city s plicies t fight racism and discriminatin, the prject TOOLKIT FOR EQUALITY was launched. The gal f this prject is t prvide a tlkit that draws upn the experiences f Eurpean cities with the mst successful plicies against racial discriminatin. There is n intentin t cmpare the cities perfrmance ; the purpse f the prject is rather the dcumentatin and sharing f effective plicies, in rder t prvide the cities with a practical guide n the implementatin f effective antidiscriminatin plicies. In the 1 st phase f the prject, desk research n applied plicies resulted in a cmpilatin f arund 50 equality plicies. These appraches were clustered in 5 areas f municipal activities that frmed the structure fr the further research. Lcal gvernments tk actin in their capacity as * Demcratic institutins * Rule-makers * Emplyers 6

7 * Service prviders and * Public cntractrs The desk research was cmpleted in January The results were presented in a Wrking Paper. The aim f the 2 nd phase f the prject was t include practical experiences in the Tlkit. Therefre a survey was designed, inviting cities t present plicies that the cities state/assert have been successfully implemented. The gal f the survey was t generate a database f prmising plicies and t analyse their central characteristics, their prcess f implementatin, and their challenges in this regard. Additinally it aimed at discussing whether these plicies are effective in terms f prmtin f equality, imprvement f equal pprtunities, fstering inclusin, and/r participatin. By this survey, ECCAR wanted t take the chance t bring tgether the expertise f mre than 120 Eurpean cities that shuld in turn benefit frm the results in the frm f the Tlkit. The results f the 2 nd phase will be presented in this reprt. In a subsequent 3 rd prject phase, the mdel plicies utlined in this reprt will be further develped. T that end, selected cities will be visited t investigate the prcess and arguments needed fr successful plicy implementatin by cnducting qualitative interviews with the stakehlders invlved. Thereby it will be pssible t g in-depth int the key factrs f success and t cnclude with a step-by-step manual fr cities wh wish t implement the plicy in their cntext. 7

8 3. DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF HUMAN RIGHTS INDICATORS Hw t measure prgress and impact? The purpse f the ECCAR-Tlkit survey was t identify prmising plicies fr further investigatin and analysis. The questin f hw t identify prmising plicies implies the questin f hw t measure the effectiveness f a plicy. The use f indicatrs is recgnized t that end. Indicatrs are an imprtant tl fr an bjective, cmprehensive and cmparable assessment. An indicatr is defined by the UN Office f the High Cmmissiner fr Human Rights (OHCHR) as specific infrmatin n the state r cnditin f an bject, event, activity r utcme that can be related t human rights nrms and standards; that addresses and reflects human rights principles and cncerns; and that can be used t assess and mnitr the prmtin and implementatin f human rights. 1 The OHCHR intrduced a fundamental cncept that became widely recgnized, emplying indicatrs n three different levels: Firstly, indicatrs need t measure results, in ther wrds the utcme f a plicy. This assessment needs t be linked with an analysis f the effrts that led t the measured utcme, in rder t assess the prcess f implementatin. This prcess is again shaped by the underlying cmmitment as well as the framewrk cnditins, adding a structural level. This cncept therefre calls fr a triad f structural, prcess and utcme indicatrs. The Cngress f Lcal and Reginal Authrities f the Cuncil f Eurpe adpted this cncept when utlining the Cngress strategy n hw t apprach human rights issues frm the lcal and reginal pint f view. 2 In its reprt Develping indicatrs t raise awareness f human rights at lcal and reginal level (2011), the Cngress als frmulated indicatrs fr selected rights, fcusing n what lcal and reginal authrities are ding t prmte rights f vulnerable grups. The design f the present ECCAR survey is based n these dcuments as well as n ECCAR s Antidiscriminatin Index (ADIX) 3. The ECCAR-ADIX study discussed the cnceptualizatin f human rights law as the principle behind cnstructing indicatrs. It develped a cmmn framewrk fr assessing the lcal situatin in respect t racism and equality, as well as fr the evaluatin f the respective plicies. Further develpment f indicatrs is still needed in rder t prvide tls fr a reliable evaluatin f antidiscriminatin plicies. The relevance f this endeavur has recently been cnfirmed by the findings f the transnatinal prject AMICALL cnducted by the Centre n Migratin, Plicy and Sciety (COMPAS) and funded by the Eurpean Integratin Fund (EIF). The authrs cncluded that althugh there are a number f guides t gd practice and what wrks in this and related areas, 1 Office f the United Natins High Cmmissiner fr Human Rights: HUMAN RIGHTS INDICATORS. A Guide t Measurement and Implementatin, p. 16 (2012). 2 Cngress f Lcal and Reginal Authrities f the Cuncil f Eurpe, Develping indicatrs t raise awareness f human rights at lcal and reginal level (2011) 3 Starl, K., Pinn, J. Study n Challenges in the Develpment f Lcal Equality Indicatrs A Human Rights- Centred Mdel. UNESCO, Paris Starl, K., Möstl, M., Stcker, A. ECAR Mnitring Manual Mnitring Racism and Discriminatin at the Lcal Level, Berlin

9 much f the evidence fr practices being gd is impressinistic and anecdtal. There is a lack f rbust evaluatin f hw interventins have made a difference t utcmes. 4 When is a plicy effective against racial discriminatin? Plicies addressing racial discriminatin need t be rted in recgnized human rights standards. Article 1 f the Internatinal Cnventin n the Eliminatin f All Frms f Racial Discriminatin (ICERD) prvides the nrmative framewrk fr translating the legal dimensins f racist discriminatin int plicy bjectives. In this Cnventin, the term "racial discriminatin" shall mean any distinctin, exclusin, restrictin r preference based n race, clur, descent, r natinal r ethnic rigin which has the purpse r effect f nullifying r impairing the recgnitin, enjyment r exercise, n an equal fting, f human rights and fundamental freedms in the plitical, ecnmic, scial, cultural r any ther field f public life. (Art. 1 ICERD). 5 This definitin therefre stipulates that racist discriminatin may take the frm f (1) distinctin, (2) exclusin, (3) restrictin, r (4) preference In turn, the effectiveness f a plicy needs t be assessed regarding if r t what extent the plicy achieved the psitive cunterparts f these fur dimensins. These cunterparts are understd here as: (1) equality as ppsed t distinctin; (2) inclusin as ppsed t exclusin; (3) equal pprtunities as ppsed t restrictin; (4) equal treatment as ppsed t preference. T cnclude, effectiveness is seen as a quality f a plicy leading t equality, equal pprtunities, equal treatment r inclusin. 4 Centre n Migratin, Plicy and Sciety, Attitudes t Migrants, Cmmunicatin and Lcal Leadership (AMICALL), Executive Summary, available at: (23 January 2015). 5 Internatinal Cnventin n the Eliminatin f All Frms f Racial Discriminatin, General Assembly reslutin 2106 (XX) f 21 December

10 4. THE TOOLKIT SURVEY Hw was the survey designed? The research dne fr Wrking Paper 1 resulted in the clustering f plicies in five areas f municipal activities with 22 plicy types. Fr each f these 22 plicy types, utcme indicatrs were develped in rder t measure an actual impact f a plicy. In peratinalising the dimensins equality, equal pprtunities, equal treatment and inclusin, and frmulating cncrete indicatrs, we fllwed the cncepts mentined abve and tk up suggestins frm existing human rights indicatr sets, such as the nes used by the mnitring cmmittee f the Cngress f Lcal and Reginal Authrities. We als analyzed plicies presented as gd practice in varius dcuments and websites. The guiding perspective hwever, was t define the utcme that wuld reflect the fully guaranteed human right. This cnceptual wrk resulted in the develpment f 144 utcme indicatrs fr 22 plicy areas, frmulated as cncrete questins in three languages (see Annex 2). The questinnaire was structured accrding t its tw purpses: First, t gain an verview ver what kind f plicies are implemented by Eurpean cities, and secnd, t identify prmising plicies based n the assessment f the cities. In the interest f an verview, cities were prvided with the list f 22 plicies in five areas f activities and asked t indicate which f these plicies the city has implemented in rder t address racial discriminatin. In a secnd step, respndents were asked t describe in mre detail ne t three plicies f their city that they cnsidered especially effective in cunteracting racial discriminatin r prmting equality, equal treatment, equal pprtunities and/r inclusin f members f ethnic minrities. In semistructured questins, respndents described the need fr actin, the purpse, target grup and main actins f the plicy. They answered t prcess indicatrs by prviding infrmatin n the actrs respnsible fr the implementatin, duratin and budget. Respndents als specified whether the plicy aimed at the preventin, eliminatin r sanctin f discriminatin, and which legal dimensin was explicitly addressed (equality, equal pprtunity, equal treatment r inclusin). Finally, the respndents were requested t assess the described plicies by rating their effect n a set f utcme indicatrs. This self-assessment f plicies by the cities must nt be perceived as a final evaluatin but rather as a critical reflectin by the city as t whether an implemented plicy had met the expectatins n it. The city representatives are therefre treated as experts n the intended and actual utcme f a plicy. In the last part f the questinnaire, cities were asked t give available numbers f cmplaints against racial discriminatin. The questinnaire was distributed in the frm f an nline-survey in German, English and French. The invitatin t participate in the survey was disseminated repeatedly via the netwrks ECCAR, Intercultural Cities, Eurcities and via the Cngress f Lcal and Reginal Authrities f the Cuncil f Eurpe. In additin, ECCAR member cities were nce mre invited t participate at the cnference n the 10 th anniversary f ECCAR, Octber 2014 in Nuremberg. The invitatin addressed either the mayr f the city r a city fficial delegated t the respective city netwrk (which was ECCAR fr mst cities). 10

11 The invitatin utlined the requirements fr filling ut all questins, namely t have an verview f the cities activities against racism and racial discriminatin, mre detailed infrmatin n ne t three plicies the respndent wishes t present as successful appraches, and available numbers f cmplaints. The invitatin als cntained a brief technical instructin n hw t frward a partly filled ut questinnaire t a clleague if infrmatin was nt lcated in ne persn. Thrugh ffering this pssibility we aimed at maximising the expertise and experience per each plicy. Althugh the participants were annymus, they were asked t name the city they wrk fr at the end f the questinnaire (facultative questin). Wh tk part? By disseminating the invitatin t the survey via the city netwrks mentined abve, the request t participate addressed a ttal f abut 150 cities. ECCAR member cities were repeatedly cntacted and invited t take part. A ttal f 40 cities participated in the survey. 23 cities cmpleted the questinnaire and prvided infrmatin n 41 plicies. The remaining 17 cities ticked the bxes in the verview questins and exited the survey when asked t describe ne plicy implemented in their city in mre detail. The 23 cities that prvided mre detailed infrmatin are lcated in 10 different Eurpean states (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland). Mst f them are medium sized cities with a ppulatin between and inhabitants (tw participants did nt give the name f her/his cities). Table 1 Ppulatin size f participating cities Ppulatin size up t millin 0 ver 1 millin 2 millin 1 ver 2 millin 3 millin 0 ver 3 millin 2 Participating cities Limitatins A quantitative analysis relies n the participatin f numerus respndents. Despite repeated invitatins via varius city netwrks and persnal cntacts, actively reaching ut t ver 150 Eurpean cities, the readiness f cities t participate remained belw expectatins. Althugh the invitatin was addressed t the mayr and/r the persn respnsible fr the city netwrk (mstly ECCAR), we received feedback that respndents were challenged by the requirement t describe ne t three selected plicies in mre detail. Nevertheless, the infrmatin 11

12 gathered thrugh this survey prvides an imprtant verview and cmparative selectin f prmising plicies in the field f anti-discriminatin. In rder t further develp the findings int a practical manual fr cities, an in-depth analysis n hw t implement prmising plicies, thrugh interviews with relevant stakehlders will be the next step. 12

13 5. EMPIRICAL RESULTS Overview - Eurpean Cities plicies The first gal f the survey was t gain an verview int the areas f activities where cities emply plicies against racial discriminatin. 40 cities answered this questin. Figure 1 Plicies cities emply t cunteract racial discriminatin The City as a Demcratic Institutin Mnitring 24 Advisry bard/cmmittee 32 Plicies cncerning lcal electins 21 The City as a Rulemaker Basic legal dcuments including antiracism nrms at the lcal level 19 A charter 22 Actin plan 32 Mainstreaming equality 16 Legal prtectin 24 Subsidies, incentives and sanctins 13 The City as an Emplyer Self cmmitment by staff 19 Equality requirements in emplyment cntracts f city directrs/managers 5 Affirmative actin 13 Trainings n nn-discriminatin 29 Mentring 8 13

14 The City as a Service Prvider Immigrant services Plicies in "Learning Educatin Lifelng Learning Plicies in Health Nutritin Care Plicies in Husing Neighburhd Plicies in Labur market 18 Plicies in Arts Culture Plicies in Sprts The City as a Public Cntractr Antidiscriminatin clauses 16 In cunteracting racial discriminatin, cities are mst active in their functin as a demcratic institutin, as a rule maker and as a service prvider. The mst frequently applied plicies are advisry bards/cmmittees, actin plans and services fr immigrants, each being implemented by 32 ut f 40 cities. The results shw that there is an untapped ptential fr many cities t make use f their pwer as an imprtant lcal emplyer as well as a cntractr. Plicies in the area the city as an emplyer were mentined less ften with the nly exceptin being training n nndiscriminatin. Cmpared t ther plicies, training fr emplyees is frequently emplyed, but still a quarter f the participating cities d nt yet train their staff in nn-discriminatin matters. We can cnclude that nn-discriminatin training is still nt a standard in city emplyees prfessinal educatin. Cities are als rather reserved in addressing lcal entrepreneurs and private actrs, be they cntractrs r subsidized rganisatins. Implemented plicies were mst frequently classified in the area the city as a service prvider by the respndents, whereas cities make less use f equality requirements, be it in emplyment cntracts f city directrs/managers r cncerning subsidies r prcurement cntracts. This indicates that cities prefer plicies that aim at preventing racial discriminatin and supprting ptential victims rather than eliminating discriminatin and discriminatry behaviur by sanctining ffenders. Additinally, we can cautiusly cnclude that plicies addressing racial discriminatin are understd in the sense f diversity and integratin plicies, rather than as anti-racism plicies. 14

15 Plicies presented as particularly successful In the secnd part f the questinnaire, cities were asked t describe ne t three plicies in mre detail. Respndents were free t chse the plicies that they cnsidered particularly successful in cunteracting racial discriminatin in their city. 23 cities cntinued the questinnaire and were ready t describe ne t three f their city s plicies in mre detail. These cities presented 41 plicies. Figure 2 - Plicies chsen by the cities t be described as successful examples (number f plicies) Mnitring Advisry bard/cmmitee Plicy cncerning lcal electins Basic legal dcuments including antiracism nrms at the lcal level Charter Actin plan Mainstreaming equality Legal prtectin fr victims f racial/ethnic discriminatin Subsidies, incentives and sanctins Self-cmmitment by city staff Equality requirements in emplyment cntracts f city staff Affirmative actin cncerning city staff Training n nn-discriminatin fr city staff Mentring fr city staff Immigrant services Plicy in the area f "Learning - Educatin - Life-lng-Learning" Plicy in the area f "Health - Nutritin - Care" Plicy in the area f "Husing - Neighburhd" Plicy in the area f "Labur market" Plicy in the area f "Arts - Culture" Plicy in the area f "Sprts" Antidiscriminatin clauses Cities mst frequently presented actin plans as a successful example (nine cities chse t describe an actin plan). Actin plans may address a variety f issues and therefre include plicies in ther areas i.e. trainings, services etc. Althugh the classificatin f plicies des nt prvide infrmatin abut its cntents, it can be clearly nted that actin plans are cnsidered as successful instruments by mst cities. Five cities described mnitring mechanisms in mre detail. Als five cities chse plicies fr the legal prtectin fr victims f ethnic discriminatin as successful examples. Advisry bards/cmmittees and services fr immigrants were described by fur cities each. In rder t analyse which plicies the cities chse t describe ut f the pl f all plicies they have implemented, we need t cmpare the presented selectin with the verall list f plicies 15

16 applied by these 23 cities. The cmparisn shws that the distributin f implemented plicies f the 23 cities n the whle reflects the distributin f plicies amng the 40 cities discussed abve. It equally applies that cities take actin mst frequently in the city s functins as a demcratic institutin, rule-maker and service prvider. Figure 3 - Plicies implemented in the cities (number f cities (ut f the 23 cities that cmpleted the survey)) The City as a Demcratic Institutin Mnitring 15 Advisry bard/cmmittee 18 Plicies cncerning lcal electins 11 The City as a Rulemaker Basic legal dcuments including antiracism nrms at the lcal level A charter Actin plan 20 Mainstreaming equality 10 Legal prtectin 15 Subsidies, incentives and sanctins 9 The City as an Emplyer Self cmmitment by staff 11 Equality requirements in emplyment cntracts f city directrs/managers 2 Affirmative actin 7 Trainings n nn-discriminatin 19 Mentring 5 16

17 The City as a Service Prvider Immigrant services Plicies in "Learning Educatin Lifelng Learning Plicies in Health Nutritin Care 15 Plicies in Husing Neighburhd 20 Plicies in Labur market 12 Plicies in Arts Culture Plicies in Sprts The City as a Public Cntractr Antidiscriminatin clauses 13 Althugh plicies in each city s functin as a service prvider lead the list f implemented plicies, they are underrepresented when cities are asked t describe successful plicies. 20 ut f the 23 cities have implemented a plicy in the area husing neighburhd but nly ne city selects such a plicy t describe it as a successful example. Likewise, 15 cities mentin that they emply plicies against racial discriminatin in health, nutritin and care, 16 cities that they emply plicies in the area f arts and culture, and 16 cities emply such plicies in the area f sprts yet n city selects ne f these plicies t describe in mre detail. Services fr immigrants make the exceptin in this area as they are chsen by fur cities t be presented in mre detail as a successful example. Mst cities chse t present plicies in the cities functins as a demcratic institutin and as a rulemaker. Mnitring is described by five ut f 15 cities that emply such a mechanism. Half f the cities that use an actin plan present it as a successful example. Legal prtectin plicies are described in mre detail by five ut f 15 cities that prvide such services. Training fr city staff n nn-discriminatin has been implemented in (nearly) the same number f cities as actin plans. Whereas actin plans are als cmparably ften described in mre detail, training plicies by cntrast are described nly nce. Similar fr ther plicies taken by the city as an emplyer: Self-cmmitment by staff is implemented by eleven cities but never chsen t be presented in detail. Affirmative actins are taken by seven cities and described nly nce. These results d nt allw a cnclusin that plicies in ne r the ther area were nt successful; ther factrs may be respnsible fr that selectin. Nevertheless, it is ntable that cities present plicies in their functin as a demcratic institutin r rule-maker much mre ften as a gd 17

18 example than plicies in their functin as an emplyer. This cnfirms the cnclusin that there is still ptential fr cities t becme mre active in their functin as an imprtant lcal emplyer. Even thugh 13 cities state that they have implemented measures in their rle as public cntractrs, nne f them expressed them as imprtant fr the success in equality plicies. This leads t the cnclusin that cities d nt utilize their ptential as pwerful ecnmic actrs. Discussin f findings with ECCAR cities The survey findings n training plicies as well as n the utilizatin f the city s ecnmic pwer t cmbat racial discriminatin were the subject f a panel discussin in the ECCAR s steering cmmittee meeting, April 23, 2015 in Liège. The findings shw that many cities carry ut staff trainings. Hwever, it remained unanswered why nt all cities d and why nne f the respndents identified training as a successful measure in cmbatting racial discriminatin. The use f ecnmic pwer and the applicatin f cperatin mdels with private actrs in rder t influence the private sectr, which is nt under direct cntrl, shw exactly the ppsite results. Only a few cities apply these instruments and reprt them as successful. The discussin culd explain these findings. Trainings n nn-discriminatin fr city emplyees Discussing the questin why cities did nt describe trainings as prmising plicies, cities pinted ut t the fllwing issues: Measuring utcme: Hw t measure the impact f trainings is a majr challenge and an unanswered questin. The lack f tls fr a slid utcme evaluatin makes it difficult t assess the effectiveness f trainings. Target grups: Fr the time being, training activities reach ut nly t a certain strand f emplyees. Mst cmmnly addressed are newly starting civil servants wh undertake an bligatry training prgramme. Further trainings are typically recmmended t emplyees at lwer r middle hierarchical level whereas the persnnel at the management level are nt addressed. Obligatry/facultative: Further trainings fr emplyees are facultative, therefre they dn t reach emplyees wh are nt interested in r even ppsed t changing discriminatry practices. Hwever, experience shws that an bligatin t take part in trainings is n slutin fr reaching these emplyees. Cmmunicatin: The city s human resurces department is typically respnsible fr trainings. This department des nt necessarily cnsult the department n nn-discriminatin issues when setting up the training prgramme. Frmat: The gal f an anti-discriminatin training is a change f behaviur. This cannt be achieved in a ne-time theretical lecture. Meaningful training has t be riented t the individual persn which cnsequently requires mre resurces. Participants ften expect trainings t prvide them with ready-made slutins. Recgnized training appraches hwever are based n encuraging t self-reflectin, which participants are nt always willing t d. Resurces: T reach ut t a significant share f emplyees with a meaningful training frmat (see abve) requires an imprtant amunt f resurces, that is nt easily (made) available. 18

19 With regard t these issues, several cities are currently develping and testing new appraches: Measuring utcme: Cities suggest that a reliable assessment requires a fllw-up evaluatin. This cnsists f asking participants right after the training whether they were satisfied plus cnducting a fllw-up questining after sme years in rder t find ut hw well emplyees are able t apply knwledge in their daily rutine. Target grups: Sme cities are currently develping and testing new appraches t reach a higher number f emplyees, e.g. using web-based capacity building. Fcused training activities are reprted fr emplyees in cntact with clients (especially emplyees wh wrk with clients speaking a different language). One city had psitively experienced ffering jint trainings fr civil servants and civil sciety actrs, facilitating an exchange f experiences. Obligatry/facultative: Obligatry further training is emplyed in ne city within a new security strategy fr plice fficers. With regard t ther city staff, bligatry training is generally nt cnsidered as a successful strategy. One apprach t reach emplyees is t integrate the tpic f nn-discriminatin int trainings/wrkshps with practical use fr emplyees. This means t think abut hw t include nn-discriminatin cntent int all kinds f trainings, e.g. in finance, rather than presenting nn-discriminatin as an extra training ffer. With regard t the bservatin that ne quarter f cities did nt reprt a plicy invlving the training f their emplyees, cities prvided the fllwing explanatins: Awareness: As lng as there is a lack f awareness that discriminatin ccurs within the administratin, trainings are nt a pririty. Cmprehensive perspective: Trainings are nt necessarily perceived as a plicy n their wn, but as ne aspect f a mre cmprehensive prcess. They will therefre be embedded int a brader plicy and nt reprted separately. The use f the city s ecnmic pwer as a cntractr Discussing the questin f ecnmic cperatin and the use f the city s ecnmic pwer in cmbating racial discriminatin, cities refer t the limitatins f lcal pwer. Lcal initiatives are limited by law, fr example if natinal r reginal law des nt allw fr licence requirements. Sme examples f the use f public cntracts are given, e.g. cntracting nly certified security agencies t guard accmmdatins fr refugees, which than can then be held respnsible in case f vilatin f guidelines. Anti-discriminatin clauses have been implemented in several cities, but currently serve mre as a plitical statement rather than as a legal instrument. In the Netherlands clauses are initiated by the natinal state as a multilevel issue. This plicy nw has t be brken dwn t the city level. The cities are challenged t set a gd example befre appraching the private sectr. Cities have the pwer t include clauses int prcurement cntracts; yet the questin is unanswered as t hw t mnitr cmpliance. Cities refer t clauses nt nly as an bligatin f cntract partners t nn-discriminatry behaviur. In a slightly different apprach, clauses are als used t increase diversity amng cntracting partners/suppliers. 19

20 6. PROMISING POLICIES Hw were prmising plicies defined and selected? The selectin f prmising plicies frm the survey was dne in tw steps: a pre-selectin f plicies by the participating cities, and an assessment accrding t a set f utcme indicatrs. Cities self-selectin The cities were asked t describe ne t three implemented plicies that they cnsider particularly effective t cunteract racial discriminatin, respectively prmting nn-discriminatin. Therefre, all plicies entered int the survey are plicies that cities are prud t present. Outcme-Indicatrs In a secnd step, the respndents were asked t give an assessment f the described plicy by answering a set f utcme indicatrs. It is understd that this assessment cannt serve as a final evaluatin f a plicy s impact. It shuld rather invite respndents t take a critical lk at the presented plicy. The assessment f the city s representative is cnsidered as the pinin f an expert, wh is able t prvide infrmatin n the implementatin f lcal plicies. This perspective is in line with the interest f this prject, t supprt the exchange f prfessinal experience amng the calitin s member cities and amng cities in general. Fr each plicy area, a specific set f utcme indicatrs was designed (see Annex 1). T make sure that the scpe f the assessment wuld nt be limited by this predefinitin, the respndents had the pssibility t cmment n every utcme indicatr as well as t describe additinal utcme effects in their wn wrds. This pssibility als served t further imprve the indicatr set. The respndents culd als exclude utcme indicatrs frm the assessment by chsing the answer ptin this was nt the aim f the plicy. The assessment served t identify the prmising plicies that shuld be further analysed. The results were calculated as fllws: The number f utcme indicatrs per plicy made up the number f pssible pints. T each answer stating yes / the plicy had a direct significant effect ne pint was assigned; t the answer rather yes / the plicy had an indirect effect 0.5 pints; and t the answer rather n / the plicy had little effect 0.3 pints. Fr each additinal indicatr r significant effect named by the city, ne pint was added. All indicatrs that a city answered with this was nt the aim f the plicy were subtracted frm the pssible ttal number. Plicies that btained at least 60% f pssible pints were selected as prmising plicies. Starting frm a ttal f 41 described plicies, this prcess led t the selectin f 25 prmising plicies, presented in figure 4. 20

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