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1 ISSN Euro April atw atw 2014 Autorenexemplar International Journal for Nuclear Power Safe and Reliable Operation of the Dutch Borssele Nuclear Power Plant Hot Resin Supercompaction Enhanced Productivity in Reactor Decommissioning and Waste Management An Integrity Assessment Methodology for the VHTR Graphite Structure

2 Content International Journal for Nuclear Power 4 April 2014 Official organ of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft e. V. (KTG) Editorial 207 No Fun with Gas in Europe Kein Spaß mit Gas in Europa Nuclear Today 209 Vendors Woo South Africa as a Potential J. Shepherd New Powerhouse for Nuclear Hersteller werben in Südafrika als mögliches neues Powerhouse für Kernkraftwerke Situated in Taishan City of Guangdong Province, Taishan Nuclear Power Project is planned with 4 PWR units including 2 units for Phase I (Page 218) Spotlight on Nuclear Law 210 Nothing is as Consistent as Change U. Feldmann What new EU-BSS Offer Nichts ist so beständig wie der Wandel Was uns die neuen EU-BSS bringen Content in brief 214 L. Mitev 218 EPR Construction at China s Taishan Progressing Well, Says Areva Die Arbeiten am Kernkraftwerksneubau Taishan schreiten nach Angaben von Areva gut voran HRSC at NPP Philippsburg (Page 231) Y. Broy 219 EPZ and AREVA A Longstanding M. Linger Partnership for the Safe and Reliable Operation of the Dutch Borssele Nuclear Power Plant EPZ und AREVA Eine langjährige Partnerschaft für einen sicheren und zuverlässigen Betrieb des niederländischen Kernkraftwerks Borssele Cover: Outside view of the Borssele nuclear power plant. The 512 MWe gross pressurised water reactor was build by KWU (today AREVA) and is in commercial operation since The site with a nuclear power plant, a coal fired plant with biomass co-firing and a wind park is operated by N.V. Elektriciteits-Produktiemaatschappij Zuid-Nederland EPZ. (Courtesy: EPZ) M. Bojinov 221 Effect of Chloride Transients on the E. Nowak Corrosion Behavior of Low-Alloy Steels in M. Stanislowski Cladding Flaws of Reactor Pressure T. Saario Vessels under Oxygenated High-Temperature Water Conditions Einfluss von Chloridtransienten auf das Korrosionsverhalten von niedriglegierten Stählen in Plattierungsfehlern von Reaktordruckbehältern unter oxidierenden Hochtemperaturwasserbedingungen H. Fehrmann 228 Hot Resin Supercompaction the Development through the Years Heiß Harz Hochdruckverpressung Die Entwicklung im Laufe der Zeit 212 >>> atw atw 2014 Autorenexemplar

3 Content K. Wasinger 234 Enhanced Productivity in Reactor Decommissioning and Waste Management Produktivitätsverbesserung im Rückbau von Reaktoren und im Reststoffmanagement M. Sokcic-Kostic 240 Neutron Measurement Method for the R. Schultheis Detection of Transuranic Elements in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Neutronenmessverfahren für den Nachweis von Transuranen im Kernbrennstoff-Kreislauf OEE performance in Cadarache (non value added time reduction in %). (Page 238) Ch. Lee 246 An Integrity Assessment Methodology M. Jae for the VHTR Graphite Structure Eine Methode zur Bewertung der Grafitstrukturen eines VHTR DIN Normenausschuss 251 New Trends in the Field of Nuclear Materialprüfung Standardization on National, European and International Level with the Background of the German Energiewende Neuausrichtung der nationalen, europäischen und internationalen Normung im Bereich der Kerntechnik vor dem Hintergrund der Energiewende in Deutschland Imprint 255 Brennelement Geiger-Mueller Zähler Spaltkammern FAMOS Monitor with inserted fuel element. (Page 241) News 255 Market Data 264 Publications 266 Calendar 267 KTG-Mitteilungen 268 DAtF-News 270 Insert: Publication of the Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology 2014 Registration Form. >>> atw atw 2014 Autorenexemplar 1/12 Section of the Fuel Assembly and Fuel Element. (Page 248) 213

4 Content in Brief Vendors Woo South Africa as a Potential New Powerhouse for Nuclear (Page 209) J. Shepherd South Africa is a country which is increasingly seen as a potential new nuclear market that promises to give one or more of the world s major nuclear vendors an important foothold on the continent. South Africa has two pressurised water reactors operating at the Koeberg nuclear plant. The 930-megawatt (MW) first unit entered commercial operation in July 1984, followed by the second (900 MW) unit in November These are the only commercial nuclear power plants on the continent of Africa. South Africa s updated draft integrated resources plan (IRP) for electricity for , for which a public consultation period ended in February of this year, included revised projections. that suggested no new nuclear baseload capacity would be needed until after A capacity at least 6,600 MW less is required in terms of reliable overall generating capacity in However great South Africa s demand for a clean, affordable and reliable supply of nuclear-generated electricity, coupled with the economic benefits such developments will bring, investors also understand the potential for nuclear growth in this part of the world. Nothing is as Consistent as Change What new EU-BSS Offer (Page 210) U. Feldmann Since the publication of the first version of the Euratom-Guideline in 1959 about the fundamental safety standards for protection of danger caused by ionised radiation, these basic radiation safety standards in short called EU-BSS have been changed so far seven times. Last, recently by the Euratom- Guideline 2013/59 on December 5 th, Viewed from the context of the latest recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007 a thereupon resulted revision of the IAEO-BSS as well as due to new scientifically insights, the European legislation to radiation protection with its seventh amendment of the EU-BSS should be remodelled and consolidated. The revised version is to be put to practice as domestic legislation until February 6 th, 2018 Revised BSS provide quite structural as well as with regards to content improved reforms partially of fundamental nature. Some reforms indicate more or less great implementation problems others were moderated over the negotiation. Some require getting used to them at first. For the implementation into national legislation, the right touch is wished for the persons responsible when dealing with evident side effects and problems, so these will not settle. On EU level first problems become apparent: the implementation of environmental protection against radiation turns upside down former principle which states: if men are protected, environment is protected as well. Thereby new material for the transformation into an eighth version of the EU- BSS would be available. EPR Construction at China s Taishan Progressing Well, Says Areva (Page 218) L. Mitev Construction of two EPR units at the Taishan nuclear site in China s southern Guangdong province is progressing well, with 95 percent of procurement orders placed and 82 percent of engineering work completed, Areva has said. All primary heavy components have been delivered and installed for the first unit, Taishan-1, and the delivery of heavy components for Taishan-2 is under way. Areva is nuclear island supplier for the two 1,600 MW units. Its customer is the China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Corporation (CGNPC), represented by the Taishan Nuclear Power Company (TNPJVC). TNPJVC is a joint venture between CGNPC and France s EDF. Negotiations for Taishan-3 and -4 are expected to restart soon following the suspension of new-build authorisations after the Fukushima-Daiichi accident in March China plans to have 58,000 MW of installed nuclear capacity. EPZ and AREVA A Longstanding Partnership for the Safe and Reliable Operation of the Dutch Borssele Nuclear Power Plant (Page 219) Y. Broy and M. Linger After 40 years of service, it belongs to the safest 25 % of all light-water reactors in the western hemisphere thanks to continuous modernization. In doing so, Borssele is setting standards for maintenance and upgrades. In view of the continuation of operation until 2034, further comprehensive modernization projects are planned. The plant operator, the Dutch N.V. Elektriciteitsproduktiemaatschappij (EPZ), decided to tackle this challenge with the support of its long-standing partner AREVA. Another milestone is coming up soon: The safety I&C shall gradually be changed to digital technology in the next years. Apart from close cooperation in plant technology, EPZ and AREVA also cooperate in fuel supply, as well as in the area of service and maintenance work. Effect of chloride transients on the corrosion behaviour of low alloyed steel in cladding flaws of reactor pressure vessels under oxygenated high-temperature water conditions (Page 221) M. Bojinov, E. Nowak, M. Stanislowski and T. Saario Strain-induced corrosion cracking in low alloy steels (LAS) has been extensively investigated during the last decades. One finding from recent investigations is the detrimental role of even small amounts of chlorides, which has been shown to increase the cracking susceptibility of LAS. In order to evaluate this finding a demanding research programme has been established. In light water reactor plants, the pressure vessel and in some cases also the piping is made of LAS, covered with welded stainless steel cladding for improved corrosion protection. In structural failure assessments of primary circuits, penetrating cladding flaws have to be assumed, which could locally expose the underlying LAS to the cooling water. Due to the narrow opening of such weld defects the aqueous solution in contact with the underlying LAS would have a different composition from that of the bulk cooling water. In this paper, first detailed calculations of the water chemistry prevailing in such conditions revealed that oxygen concentration decreases rapidly when going from the mouth of the cladding flaw towards the bottom, bringing the redox potential to values, much lower than those typical for oxygenated high temperature water (HTW). Also, chloride was found to en-rich into the cladding flaw volume by a factor of x30. The material studied was 20MnMoNi55 used for the reactor coolant line of a German NPP. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that chloride transients up to 50 ppb in the bulk HTW, resulting in an enrichment of chloride in a penetrating cladding flaw up to 1,500 ppb, do not result in any serious consequences for the corrosion of LAS at the bottom of the cladding flaw. Hot Resin Supercompaction the Development through the Years (Page 228) H. Fehrmann The Hot Resin Supercompaction (HRSC) is a thermal spent resin treatment process which is installed in several Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The first installation was in the mid 1990 at NPP Philipsburg (Germany), followed by NPP Tihange (Belgium) in 2008 and NPP Sanmen (China) in Characteristically the HRSC process provides completely dry spent resin and final waste products that are volume reduced and contained in so called pellets. The pellets themselves are qualified waste products according to 214 >>> atw atw 2014 Autorenexemplar

5 Content in Brief German repository requirements which enable flexible handling. Through the years development was carried out to adapt the HRSC process from its first application with a mixture of powder and bead resins to treatment of pure bead resins. Up to now the HRSC process is successfully used in the operational phase for spent resin treatment. Its application for the post operation and decommissioning phase is a valid option as the integrated Supercompactor can be used for other waste streams resulting out of decommissioning. Enhanced Productivity in Reactor Decommissioning and Waste Management (Page 234) K. Wasinger As for any industrial facility, the service live of nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities, research and test reactors ends. Decision for decommissioning such facilities may be motivated by technical, economical or political reasons or a combination of it. As of today, a considerable number of research reactors, fuel cycle facilities and power reactors have been completely decommissioned. However, the end point of such facilities lifetime is achieved, when the facility is finally removed from regulatory control and the site becomes available for further economical utilization. This process is commonly known as decommissioning and involves detailed planning of all related activities, radiological characterization, dismantling, decontamination, clean-up of the site including treatment and packaging of radioactive and/or contaminated material not released for unrestricted recycling or industrial disposal. Decommissioning requires adequate funding and suitable measures to ensure safety while addressing stakeholders requirements on occupational health, environment, economy, human resources management and the socioeconomic effects to the community and the region. One important aspect in successful management of decommissioning projects and dismantling operation relates to the economical impact of the endeavor, primarily depending on the selected strategy and, as from commencement of dismantling, on total duration until the end point is achieved. Experience gained by Areva in executing numerous decommissioning projects during past 2 decades shows that time injury free execution and optimum productivity turns out crucial to project cost. Areva develops and implements specific performance improvement plans for each of its projects which follow the philosophy of operational excellence based on Lean Manufacturing principles. Means and methods applied in implementation of these plans and improvements achieved are described and examples are given on the way Areva offers to support owners to benefit from this experience. Neutron Measurement Method for the Detection of Transuranic Elements in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (Page 240) M. Sokcic-Kostic and R. Schultheis By handling and storing burned-down fuel elements it is duty to measure the existing nuclear fuel content. For the criticality analysis of the interim storage, for instance, it is imperative to know the nuclear fuel inventory in order to give a detailed description on the safety of storage to the supervisory authority. Among other things, it is necessary to consider that the possibility of mixing up stored fuel elements in the fuel pool was not able to be excluded. Due to high penetration of matter and its origin from decay or spontaneous fission of transuranic elements neutron verification methods are suited best for the proof of fission material as long as it has been burneddown beforehand. If fission chambers are additionally used as detectors, measurements can be even carried out in environments with high gamma levels. A highly improved measuring quality can be achieved, by comparing measurement results with the results of computer-aided simulations such as e.g. burn-up programs or MCNP- calculations. Hereby the impact on the measurement result by special marginal conditions of the measuring environment (e.g. addition of boric acid into the water of the fuel pool) can be estimated and thus revised. It is shown, that the passive neutron measurement is much easier to manage as an active measurement. As restriction it is to be considered, that measurements refer essentially to transuranic elements. Uranium such as U-235, however, is difficult to detect. For fuel elements applies, that the creation of transuranic elements is directly linked to the burn-up of U-235. Hence direct conclusions to the burn-up of U-235 can be drawn, by measuring transuranic content. An Integrity Assessment Methodology for the VHTR Graphite Structure (Page 246) Ch. Lee and M. Jae The VHTR, one of the next generations of nuclear power plants, uses graphite as fuel block, moderator, and support post. To decompose water into hydrogen and to improve thermal efficiency, the VHTR operates under conditions of high temperature above 950 o C. In case of the Prismatic Modular Reactor 600, one type of the Korean VHTR, graphite is used as a fuel block and support post inside the reactor core. It can be exposed to high temperature and neutron irradiation. Therefore it is necessary to consider its integrity by estimating its safety under this condition. In order to evaluate the integrity of the graphite structure, a new assessment methodology >>> atw atw 2014 Autorenexemplar has been developed and applied. The proposed model turned out to be appropriate to assess graphite integrity. The safety of VHTR can be improved by the quantification of the graphite structure integrity and a more reliable design. New Trends in the Field of Nuclear Standardization on National, European and International Level with the Background of the German Energiewende (Page 251) DIN Normenausschuss Materialprüfung Participation in standardization in the nuclear energy field in Germany is still very high, because the involved parties have recognized that standards in the context of the energy transition in Germany will remain very important. However, in the last few years, international standardization has been carried out without German participation. Existing international bodies are currently greatly influenced by the leadership of France, which is also reflected in the content of international standards. In addition, on French initiative, a European body (CEN/TC 430 Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection ) has been set up with the remit to replace all national standards in Europe with international standards. The present article summarizes this development and offers an overview for German experts on how they can respond to this trend. atw Vol. 59 (2014) No. 4»atw - International Journal for Nuclear Power«is published monthly by INFORUM Verlags- und Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbh Robert-Koch-Platz 4, Berlin, Germany phone fax Publisher: Editorial:

6 Content in Brief (German) Hersteller werben in Südafrika als mögliches neues Powerhouse für Kernkraftwerke (Seite 209) J. Shepherd Die Rolle Südafrikas wird wieder zunehmend als möglicher Markt für Kernkraftwerksneubauten gesehen. Damit ist Südafrika für Hersteller auch von Interesse als gewichtiges Standbein auf dem afrikanischen Kontinent. In Südafrika sind zwei Druckwasserreaktoren am Standort Koeberg in Betrieb. Die 930-MW Reaktoren nahmen in 1984 und 1985 den kommerziellen Betrieb auf. Es sind bislang die einzigen Kernkraftwerke in Afrika. Der aktualisierte Entwurf des Integrierten Ressourcen Plans (IRP) für die Stromversorgung 2010 bis 2030 enthält neue Projektionen für den Kernenergiebedarf des Landes. Rund MW neue Kernkraftwerkskapazitäten werden nach 2025 als erforderlich gesehen. Wie groß auch immer Südafrikas zukünftiger Bedarf an sauberer, kostengünstiger und zuverlässiger Versorgung mit Nuklearstrom sein wird, so wird diese Entwicklung mit wegweisend für diese Region sein und Südafrikas Entwicklung und Bedarf sind somit auch bedeutend für die Anlagenhersteller. Nichts ist so beständig wie der Wandel Was uns die neuen EU-BSS bringen (Seite 210) U. Feldmann Seit der 1959 veröffentlichten ersten Fassung der Euratom-Richtlinie über die grundlegenden Sicherheitsnormen zum Schutz vor den Gefahren ionisierender Strahlung sind diese Strahlenschutzgrundnormen kurz EU-BSS genannt bisher siebenmal geändert worden, zuletzt jüngst durch die Euratom-Richtlinie 2013/59 vom Vor dem Hintergrund der neuen Empfehlungen der Internationalen Strahlenschutzkommission (ICRP International Commission on Radiological Protection) von 2007 und der daraufhin erfolgten Revision der IAEO-BSS sowie neuer wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse soll das europäische Strahlenschutzrecht mit der siebten Novelle der EU-BSS modernisiert und konsolidiert werden. Die revidierte Fassung ist bis zum 6. Februar 2018 in innerstaatliches Recht umzusetzen. Die revidierten BSS bringen durchaus strukturelle wie inhaltliche Neuerungen teilweise von wesentlicher Natur mit sich. Einige Neuerungen bedeuten mehr oder weniger große Umsetzungsprobleme, andere konnten im Laufe der Verhandlungen abgemildert werden, manche sind erst einmal mindestens gewöhnungsbedürftig. Bei der Umsetzung in nationales Recht ist den Verantwortlichen eine glückliche Hand im Umgang mit den ersichtlichen Nebeneffekten und Problemen zu wünschen, damit diese sich nicht niederschlagen. Auf EU-Ebene zeichnen sich schon erste Problemstellen ab: Die Aufnahme des Schutzes der Umwelt vor Strahlung, womit der bisherige Grundsatz, dass, wenn der Mensch geschützt ist, auch die Umwelt geschützt ist, aus den Angeln gehoben würde und Stoff für eine achte Wandlung der EU-BSS vorhanden wäre. Die Arbeiten am Kernkraftwerksneubau Taishan schreiten nach Angaben von Areva gut voran (Seite 218 L. Mitev Die Bauarbeiten am Kernkraftwerksprojekt Taishan in Chinas Provinz Guangdong schreiten nach Angaben des Herstellers Areva gut voran. Rund 95 % der Aufträge sind platziert und 82 % der Engineering-Arbeiten sind abgeschlossen. Errichtet werden zwei Kernkraftwerksblöcke vom Typ EPR. Alle Schwerkomponenten für den Block Taishan 1 sind geliefert und installiert, die Auslieferung für den zweiten Block befindet sich in der Vorbereitungsphase. Areva liefert das Nuclear Island der zwei MW-Blöcke. Kunde ist die China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Corporation (CGNPC), vertreten von der Taishan Nuclear Power Company (TNPJVC), einem Joint Venture der CGNPC und der EDF. Die Verhandlungen für Taishan 3 und 4 werden voraussichtlich in Kürze wieder aufgenommen, nachdem sie durch das Moratorium nach den Fukushima-Ereignissen unterbrochen waren. China plant den Bau von Kernkraftwerken mit rund MW Leistung. EPZ und AREVA - Eine langjährige Partnerschaft für einen sicheren und zuverlässigen Betrieb des niederländischen Kernkraftwerks Borssele (Seite 219) Y. Broy und M. Linger Der Druckwasserreaktor Borssele in den Niederlanden ist das erste noch im Betrieb befindliche AREVA/Siemens KWU-Kernkraftwerk. Dank stetiger Modernisierung gehört Borssele auch nach 40 Betriebsjahren zu den sichersten 25 % aller westlichen Leichtwasserreaktoren und setzt damit Maßstäbe für Instandhaltung und Ertüchtigung. Im Rahmen der geplanten Laufzeitverlängerung bis zum Jahr 2034 sind nun wieder umfassende Modernisierungsprojekte geplant. Der Betreiber des Kernkraftwerks, die niederländische N.V. Elektriciteitsproduktiemaatschappij (EPZ) entschied, sich dieser Herausforderung mit Unterstützung des langjährigen Partners AREVA zu stellen. Demnächst steht ein weiterer Meilenstein an: Die Sicherheitsleittechnik soll in den kommenden Jahren schrittweise auf digitale Technik umgestellt werden. Doch nicht nur im Bereich der Anlagentechnik arbeiten EPZ und AREVA eng zusammen, sondern sie kooperieren auch bei der Brennstoffversorgung sowie bei Anlagenservice und -instandhaltung. Einfluss von Chloridtransienten auf das Korrosionsverhalten von niedriglegierten Stählen in Plattierungsfehlern von Reaktordruckbehältern unter oxidierenden Hochtemperaturwasserbedingungen (Seite 221) M. Bojinov, E. Nowak, M. Stanislowski und T. Saario In den letzten Jahren wurde bei Untersuchungen zum Korrosionsverhalten niedriglegierter Stähle (LAS) unter oxidie-renden Hochtemperaturwasserbedingungen (HTW) festgestellt, dass auch geringe Mengen von Chloriden eine Er-höhung der Risswachstumsgeschwindigkeit in LAS bewirken können. Ein neues Untersuchungsprogramm wurde aufgelegt, um dieses Ergebnis zu bewerten. In Leichtwasserreaktoren bestehen Komponenten des Primärkreises aus LAS. Mediumberührte Oberflächen sind mit austenitischen Schweißplattierungen als Korrosionsschutz versehen. Im Fall von potenziell durchgehenden Plattie-rungsfehlern, welche Bestandteil von rechnerischen Sicherheitsnachweisen sind, hätte das Primärkühlmittel direkten Kontakt mit dem darunter liegenden LAS. Da derartige Plattierungsfehler als schmale Spalte anzunehmen sind, wäre die Zusammensetzung des Mediums am Fehlergrund anders, als die des umgebenden Kühlmittels. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden erstmalig detaillierte Bewertungen zur Wasserchemie in einem Plattierungsfehler vorgestellt. Es wurde festgestellt, dass das Redoxpotential am Fehlergrund deutlich geringer ist, als das für HTW- Bedingungen typische und dass sich die Chloridkonzentration im Fehlervolumen um den Faktor 30 erhöht. Für die Untersuchungen wurde der Reaktordruckbehälterstahl 20MnMo- Ni55 verwendet. Die Untersuchungen haben ergeben, dass Chloridtransienten bis zu 50 ppb im Kühlmittel eine Erhöhung des Chlo-ridgehalts auf ppb im Volumen eines Plattierungsfehlers bedeuten können. Dabei wurde die wichtige Erkenntnis gewonnen, dass sich selbst dieser Chloridgehalt nicht negativ auf das Korro sionsverhalten von LAS innerhalb von Plattierungsfehlern auswirkt. Heiß Harz Hochdruckverpressung Die Entwicklung im Laufe der Zeit (Seite 228) H. Fehrmann Die Heiße-Harz-Hochdruckverpressung (Hot Resin Supercompaction (HRSC)) ist ein thermischer Behandlungsprozess für Reststoffe und in einer Reihe von Kernkraftwerken in Anwendung. Erstmals wurde eine Anlage mit diesem Verfahren Mitte der 1990-Jahre im Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg in Betrieb genommen, gefolgt von Einrichtungen in Tihange (Belgien, 2008) und Sanmen (China, 2013). Charakteristisch für den HRSC-Prozess ist, dass das Produkt vollkommen wasserfrei ist, volumenreduziert und in Form von sogenannten Pellets vorliegt. Die Pellets sind qualifiziert endlagerfähig gemäß den deutschen Anforderungen an Endlagergebinde. Im Verlauf der 216 >>> atw atw 2014 Autorenexemplar

7 Content in Brief (German) Entwicklung wurde der HRSC-Prozess ausgehend von den ersten Anwendungen an weitere technologische Anforderungen angepasst. Bis heute wird der Prozess erfolgreich bei in Betrieb befindlichen Anlagen eingesetzt. Der Einsatz in der Nachbetriebsphase sowie beim Rückbau ist eine Option, wobei der integrierte Superkompaktor für andere Abfallarten des Rückbaus verwendet werden kann. Produktivitätsverbesserung im Rückbau von Reaktoren und im Reststoffmanagement (Seite 234) K. Wasinger Wie bei jeder industriellen Anlage endet auch bei Kernkraftwerken und Anlagen des nuklearen Brennstoffkreislaufs sowie bei Forschungsund Versuchsreaktoren die betriebliche Lebensdauer. Die Entscheidung zur Außerbetriebnahme solcher Anlagen fällt entweder aus technischen, wirtschaftlichen oder politischen Gründen. Anlagen im Front End und im Back End werden durch neuere, produktivere ersetzt, die darüber hinaus entsprechend den neuesten sicherheitstechnischen Anforderungen ausgelegt sind. Bis heute wurde bereits eine beachtliche Anzahl von Anlagen im Brennstoffkreislauf sowie von Leistungsreaktoren außer Betrieb genommen und vollständig zurück gebaut. Andere wurden endgültig abgeschaltet weil ihr weiterer Betrieb unrentabel wurde oder infolge einer Änderung der nationalen Energiepolitik ein Beispiel hier ist die von der deutschen Bundesregierung im Jahr 2011 getroffene und mit der 13. Novelle zum Atomgesetz umgesetzte Entscheidung, bis 2022 die Stromerzeugung mittels Kernenergie in Deutschland zu beenden. Das endgültige Betriebsende einer nuklearen Anlage wird allerdings erst mit der Entlassung aus der atomrechtlichen Überwachung erreicht, wodurch der Standort zur weiteren Nutzung zur Verfügung steht. Dieser Prozess wird als Stilllegung und Rückbau bezeichnet und umfasst Konzept- und Detailplanung aller durchzuführenden Arbeitsschritte, radiologische Charakterisierung, Zerlegeaktivitäten, Dekontamination, Sanierung des Standorts und schließlich die Behandlung, Konditionierung und Verpackung jener radioaktiven und/oder kontaminierten Stoffe, die nicht der schadlosen Verwertung zugeführt werden können. Die Stilllegung nuklearer Anlagen erfordert das Bereitstellen entsprechender finanzieller Mittel sowie das Ergreifen geeigneter Maßnahmen, um die erforderliche Sicherheit zu gewährleisten. Zugleich sind die berechtigten Interessen aller Beteiligten hinsichtlich Arbeitssicherheit, Strahlen- und Umweltschutz, Wirtschaftlichkeit, Personalführung sowie die sozialwirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen auf die betroffenen Gemeinden und Regionen zu berücksichtigen. Ein wesentlicher Aspekt für die erfolgreiche Durchführung von Stilllegungsprojekten ist die Wirtschaftlichkeit des Vorhabens. Die insgesamt entstehenden Aufwendungen sind einerseits von der gewählten Rückbaustrategie abhängig und andererseits von der Gesamtlaufzeit bis zum Erreichen des Rückbauziels, das heißt, die Übergabe des Standortes für eine weitere Nutzung. Die von AREVA bei der Durchführung zahlreicher Rückbauprojekte in den vergangenen 2 Jahrzehnten gewonnene Erfahrung zeigt, dass verzögerungsfreie Durchführung und optimierte Produktivität die Höhe der Rückbaukosten bestimmen. Konzept, Planung und Projektmanagementprozesse beeinflussen den Erfolg von Rückbauprojekten weit mehr als die verwendete Technik. AREVA entwickelte daher für jedes Rückbauprojekt spezifische Produktivitätsverbesserungspläne. Die bei der Umsetzung angewandten Methoden sowie die damit erreichten Verbesserungen werden beschrieben und Beispiele dafür aufgezeigt, wie AREVA die Betreiber stillgelegter Anlagen bei ihren Rückbauprojekten unterstützen kann, damit diese von der vorliegenden Erfahrung profitieren. Neutronenmessverfahren für den Nachweis von Transuranen im Kernbrennstoff-Kreislauf (Seite 240) M. Sokcic-Kostic und R. Schultheis Bei der Handhabung und Lagerung von abgebrannten Brennelementen ist es eine Aufgabe, den vorliegenden Kernbrennstoffgehalt zu messen. Für die Kritikalitätsauslegung des Zwischenlagers zum Beispiel ist es wichtig, das Inventar an Kernbrennstoff zu kennen, um die Sicherheit des Lagers den Aufsichtsbehörden darstellen zu können. Dabei ist u.a zu berücksichtigen, dass die Möglichkeit nicht ausgeschlossen werden konnte, dass im Brennelementlagerbecken gelagerte Brennelemente vertauscht werden. Neutronennachweisverfahren eignen sich aufgrund der hohen Durchdringung von Materie und ihres Ursprungs aus dem Zerfall oder spontanen Spaltung von Transuranen hervorragend für den Nachweis von Spaltmaterial, solange dieses vorher abgebrannt wurde. Wenn man als Detektoren noch dazu Spaltkammern benutzt, so kann man die Messungen auch in Umgebungen mit hohen Gammapegeln durchführen. Eine erhebliche Verbesserung der Messgüte erreicht man, wenn man Messergebnisse mit den Resultaten aus Simulationsrechnungen wie z.b. Abbrandprogramme oder MCNP- Rechnungen vergleicht. Hierdurch kann man die Beeinflussung des Messresultates durch spezielle Randbedingungen der Messumgebung (z.b. Zugabe von Borsäure zum Wasser im Brennelementlagerbecken) abschätzen und somit korrigieren. Es wird gezeigt, dass die passive Neutronenmessung sehr viel einfacher zu bewerkstelligen ist als eine aktive Messung. Als Einschränkung ist zu beachten, dass die Messverfahren sich im Wesentlichen auf Transurane beziehen, Urane wie U-235 dahingegen nur schwierig sich erfassen lassen. Für Brennelemente gilt allerdings, dass der Aufbau der Transurane durch Brüten direkt mit dem Abbrand von U-235 verknüpft ist. Somit können durch Messung des Transurangehalts direkte Rückschlüsse auf den Abbrand von U-235 gezogen werden. Eine Methode zur Bewertung der Grafitstrukturen eines VHTR (Seite 246) Ch. Lee und M. Jae >>> atw atw 2014 Autorenexemplar Der VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) ist eine Entwicklung der nächsten Generationen von Kernkraftwerken. Im Reaktor kommt Grafit als Brennelementmaterial, Moderator und für Kerneinbauten zum Einsatz. Um einen möglichst hohen Wirkungsgrad zu erreichen sowie die thermischen Voraussetzungen für eine Wasserstofferzeugung zu gewährleisten, werden Reaktorkühlmitteltemperaturen von 950 C angestrebt. Bei der koreanischen Entwicklung des Prismatic Modular Reactor 600 ist dementsprechend Grafit als Brennelementstrukturmaterial sowie für Kerneinbauten vorgesehen. Aufgrund der Kühlmitteltemperaturen und der Neutronenbestrahlung muss unter diesem Bedingungen die Integrität des Werkstoffs nachgewiesen werden. Dazu wurde eine Bewertungsmethodik entwickelt. Das Modell ist geeignet, um die Integrität der Grafikstrukturen zu beurteilen sowie die Sicherheit nachzuweisen und Impulse für konsturktive Optimierungen zu geben. Neuausrichtung der nationalen, europäischen und internationalen Normung im Bereich der Kerntechnik vor dem Hintergrund der Energiewende in Deutschland (Seite 251) DIN Normenausschuss Materialprüfung Die Beteiligung an der kerntechnischen Normung in Deutschland ist nach wie vor sehr hoch, da die Anwender erkannt haben, dass die Normen mit Hinblick auf die Energiewende in Deutschland auch künftig eine große Bedeutung haben werden. Die internationale Normung wurde aber in den letzten Jahren zum großen Teil ohne deutsche Beteiligung durchgeführt. Die internationalen Gremien bei der International Organization for Standardization (ISO) sind sehr stark durch die Führung Frankreichs geprägt, was sich auch in den Inhalten der Internationalen Normen widerspiegelt. Darüber hinaus wird nun auf Initiative Frankreichs ein europäisches Normungsgremium (CEN/TC 430 Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection ) gegründet, und zwar mit dem Ziel, viele nationale Normen in Europa durch Internationale Normen zu ersetzen. Der Artikel fasst diese Entwicklung zusammen und stellt die Möglichkeiten für die deutschen Experten dar, sich in den Prozess einzubringen und ihn aktiv zu beeinflussen. atw Vol. 59 (2014) No. 4»atw - International Journal for Nuclear Power«is published monthly by INFORUM Verlags- und Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbh Robert-Koch-Platz 4, Berlin, Germany phone fax Publisher: Editorial:

8 Waste Technology The installation of the HRSC in SRTF Sanmen is under commissioning and the first run is expected for In SRTF Sanmen the new improved drum design will be used. The development of HRSC Next- Gen including the Resin Grinding and the improved drum design has proved its performance in full scale testing successfully. With the HRSC NextGen the achievable VRF is improved up to 40 %. Each installed HRSC system can be upgraded to HRSC NextGen. This provides a great flexibility so each user can chose the configuration of the HRSC process according to his targets and requirements. The HRSC process represents an effective waste treatment technology which can deal with the challenges of volume constraints, political uncertainties and changing requirements. The HRSC process is also a good choice in the post operation and de-commissioning phase as it consists of multipurpose components like the Supercompactor. 7. List of references 1. Schenke, J. and Roth, Andreas: Experiences from over 10 years operation of the Resin Hot High Force Compaction as well as new applications for PWRs. Dresden : s.n., KONTEC 07 Conference Transcript. 2. Johan Braet, David Charpentier, Baudouin Centner, Serge Vanderperre. Radioactive Spent Ion-Exchange Resins Conditioning by the Hot Supercompaction Process at Tihange NPP Early Experience. Phoenix, Arizona, USA : s.n., WM2012 Conference. Comapct Brennecke, Dr. Peter: Anforderungen an endzulagernde radioaktive Abfälle (Endlagerungsbedingungen Stand: Oktober 2010) Endlager Konrad. s.l. : Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz Fachbereich Sicherheit nuklearer Entsorgung, SE-IB-29/08-REV A. Alan Moghissi, Herschel W. Godbee, Sue A. Hobart. Radioactive waste technology. [ed.] Amer Society of Mechanical p Decommissioning and Waste Management Enhanced Productivity in Reactor Decommissioning and Waste Management Karl Wasinger, Offenbach/Germany 1. Introduction As for any industrial facility, the service live of nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities, research and test reactors ends. Decision for decommissioning such facilities may be motivated by technical, economical or political reasons or a combination of it. Front-end and back-end facilities are shut down to be replaced by new, more efficient plants, designed in compliance with up to date safety standards and regulatory requirements. As of today, a considerable number of research reactors, fuel cycle facilities and power reactors have been completely decommissioned. Others have already been shut down for decommissioning either because further operation results economically unreasonable or following a change in the national energy generation Address of the Author: Karl Wasinger Areva GmbH Kaiserleistraße Offenbach plan such as decided by the German Federal Government in 2011 and determined by the 13 th Amendment of the German Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz AtG). However, the end point of such facilities lifetime is achieved, when the facility is finally removed from regulatory control and the site becomes available for further economical utilization. This process is commonly known as decommissioning and involves detailed planning of all related activities, radiological characterization, dismantling, decontamination, clean-up of the site including treatment and packaging of radioactive and/or contaminated material not released for unrestricted recycling or industrial disposal. Decommissioning requires adequate funding and suitable measures to ensure safety while addressing stakeholders requirements on occupational health, environment, economy, human resources management and the socioeconomic effects to the community and the region. One important aspect in successful management of decommissioning projects and dismantling operation relates to the economical impact of the endeavor, primarily depending on the selected strategy and, as from commencement of dismantling, on total duration until the end point is achieved. Experience gained by Areva in executing numerous decommissioning projects during past 2 decades shows that time injury free execution and optimum productivity turns out crucial to project cost. Areva develops and implements specific performance improvement plans for each of its projects which follow the philosophy of operational excellence based on Lean Manufacturing principles. Means and methods applied in implementation of these plans and improvements achieved are described and examples are given on the way Areva offers to support owners to benefit from this experience. 2. Strategic Approach Determining the right strategic approach to decommissioning is crucial for optimization of works and the resulting economic burden. The variety of constraints and challenges involved with decommissioning requires a systematic approach to define the strategy to be adopted for each individual case for which IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) has published related guidance on Policies and Strategies for the Decommissioning of Nuclear and Radiological Facilities [1]. Strategies which may be adopted for decommissioning disused nuclear facilities typically include immediate dismantling or deferred dismantling 1. A third option denominated as entombment is described as to enclose the radioactive inventory of a disused facility for long time until it is decayed to such level permitting unrestricted 1 For more detailed definition see [1] 234 >>> atw atw 2014 Autorenexemplar

9 Decommissioning and Waste Management release. Due to its purpose, entombment is not relevant for long lived isotopes and thus not appropriate for fuel cycle facilities or nuclear power generating plants. The benefit of a deferred dismantling strategy comes from the fact that radioactivity decays to certain degree and exposure to radiation is reduced at the time dismantling operations are performed. However, one has to assure that confinement of the radioactive inventory is reliably maintained and monitored during the entire period of deferral, and availability of adequately qualified and trained staff is assured in order to be able to execute dismantling operations and to adequately manage radioactive waste in full compliance with the regulatory requirements applicable at that time. The latter may not pose too much of a problem in countries with continued nuclear power generation programs. In countries like Germany, which have decided to end nuclear power generation within a period of about only eight years to come, maintenance of related expertise for a couple of decades until dismantling starts while professionals prospects for occupational career are fading may turn out virtually impossible. Consequently, decision making on the way to go is to be based on careful investigation and analysis of all related facts and stakeholders concerns. Prima facie, nuclear safety and technology appear obvious to be key drivers for selecting appropriate strategies for dismantling nuclear power reactors and clean-up of sites. However, the demand of cooling water for example remains at just a few kg/s after shutdown compared to about 20,000 kg/s during full power operation and consequently, the time available for intervention following internal or external events increases from a few hours to up to a couple of days. Defueling the plant and full system decontamination (FSD) reduces the radioactive inventory by a factor of 100 million. Hence, actual key drivers to decide on optimized strategy for decommissioning are first to be seen in occupational safety, radiation protection and protection of the environment in a dynamic safety case, followed by the economic impact on productivity, the means and methods applied, and the management of social transition of people and regions concerned. Following the considerations outlined above, starting with dismantling and removal of activated and highly contaminated components right after shut down appears beneficial by all means. The effort to be assumed in reliable achievement of the fundamental safety goals is essentially dependent on the existing radioactive inventory [2]. With defueling, system decontamination, disassembly and packaging highly contaminated and/or activated components, the radioactive inventory is removed almost completely. Consequently, the greater part of the remaining works will be straightforward by means of proven industrial methods and technologies. With the experience gained in ongoing decommissioning projects and many others successfully executed during the past 20 years, Areva developed and continuously strives to perfect detailed planning and methodologies for efficient decommissioning and material management. These works include front-end and back-end fuel cycle facilities and power reactors, executed in different levels of involvement including management and operation (M&O) of large decommissioning sites in France, the UK and the US. The methods applied are based on proven management philosophy successfully implemented in the production sector and adapted to the specific needs to comply with the requirement of the applicable nuclear regulation. 3. Project Management Early removal of large activated components is admittedly an ambitious endeavor. For such type of work a strong project management team experienced in major nuclear construction or backfitting projects is to be set up and efficient management processes are to be implemented in order to achieve optimized and disruptionfree work flow and to avert potential risks from occurring or at least mitigating its potential impact. Most activities for disassembly and removal of plant equipment and components and subsequent demolition of civil structures are interdependent. Any disruption in one, even minor action will most likely end up in disruption of other work and impact the total progress of the project. Inevitable consequences are delay in completion and extra cost due to Fig. 1. Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM). >>> atw atw 2014 Autorenexemplar changes in sequencing, idle time and extra work to catch up. Therefore, the development of the work breakdown structure (WBS) of decommissioning projects deserves particular attention. The WBS involves splitting major project deliverables into smaller work packages (WP) allowing adequate estimation of cost and duration as well as clear allocation of responsibilities. The workscope allocated to the individual work packages is to be defined such as to allow a larger part of the workscope being grouped to logistically interconnected deliverables. The hierarchical structure of all activities performed for decommissioning of nuclear facilities serves not only for the organizational allocation of the tasks and their logical sequence in the project program. Linkage with an appropriate costing structure as for example a structure suggested by OECD/NEA (Organisation for Economic Development Nuclear Energy Agency) with its ISDC [3] assures completeness of cost estimation and efficient cost control and monitoring during project execution. Reasonably sized sub-projects are recommended to be assigned to one responsible organization or contractor which would then facilitate coordination and management of interfaces resulting in significant benefits from utilization of common infrastructure and equipment. Such approach avoids or at least considerably mitigates problems in identification of the originator and thus allocation responsibilities for the performance of the contract. The intersection of the hierarchical project organizational breakdown structure (OBS) and the WBS produces a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) used to clearly allocate responsibility for the respectively allocated part of the works to the responsible party as illustrated with the example shown in Figure

10 Decommissioning and Waste Management Fig. 2. Earned Value Management (EMV) cycle. Fig. 3. Risk and Opportunity Management (R&OM) cycle. Built on past successes and difficulties, Areva developed integrated project management processes and related tools and methods for efficient planning and control of decommissioning projects. The fundamental principles of these processes are based on are anticipation, continuity, efficiency, standardization and certainty in order to assure project managers being provided with reliable information on physical progress achieved, degree of completion, risk status and unresolved issues, changes and deviations and events which may impact project execution. Besides efficient procedures applied to manage scope, changes, cost and finance, quality, human resources, communication and procurement, particular attention is paid to the management of time, risks and opportunities. Timely feedback on progress is important to identify potential problems at early stages and to decide on adjustments and to take on effective countermeasures preventing delays and cost overrun. Thus, Areva applies Earned Value Management (EMV) method according to PMBOK [3] in order to control and report project performance which provides the project team with early warning of any deviation from plan. As illustrated with Figure 2, EMV reporting provides true information of the actual situation of project. Cost analyses using the Cost Performance Index (CPI) 2 method indicate how resources are used on the project and provide reliable information on trends. Schedule performance is analyzed by comparing earned value to planned value following the Schedule Variance (SVt) 2 method. EVM analysis is conducted to highlight WPs with significant variance to plan enabling thorough investigation on causes and definition of corrective actions. 2 As defined in [4] Risks are defined as uncertain events that, if occurring, usually have a negative effect on the performance of a project whereas an opportunity constitutes a condition that, if occurring, will have a favorable effect to it. The Risk and Opportunity Management (R&OM) method (Figure 3) applied involves risk identification following a structured, proactive and systematic process, assessment of probability and potential impact, and the development of the strategic approach for effective response. Effectiveness of action plans is systematically monitored and adjusted as necessary in order to maintain control on identified risks and opportunities. Areva project management and realization processes are integrated part of the quality management system assuring lean, rapid and sufficient flow of information for effective and successful management of demanding decommissioning projects. 4. AREVA Performance Improvement Approach on Decommissioning and Dismantling Projects Decommissioning of nuclear power reactors, research and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities requires well planned and coordinated work programs in order to optimize utilization of resources for cost effective performance. In order to improve performance in ongoing decommissioning projects Areva currently executes for its clients and of own disused facilities, a specific performance improvement plan was developed and successfully implemented for each of the projects. The Areva productivity improvement approach follows the operational excellence philosophy based on Lean Manufacturing, a management philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS) where Lean is centered on preserving value with less work. Following this philosophy, expenditure of resources that do not create value for the end customer is targeted for elimination and value is defined as any action or process that a customer is willing to pay for. Lean goals are improving quality, elimination of waste, reducing time and total cost. For this, it is essential getting the right things to the right place at the right time in the right quantity in order to achieve perfect work flow, while minimizing waste and being flexible and able to change. It is a requirement which involves management, communication and workforce to achieve that these concepts are understood, appreciated and embraced by the actual employees who build the product and therefore own the process that delivers the value. Success requires an integrated system of technical, managerial, and cultural excellence (see Figure 4 ) where Organization defines the way physical assets and resources are configured and optimized to create value and minimize losses, Technical issues include the formal structures, processes, and systems through which the operating systems are managed to deliver the business objectives, and area Mindset and behaviors concerns the way people 236 >>> atw atw 2014 Autorenexemplar Fig. 4. An integrated system of technical, managerial, and cultural excellence.

11 Decommissioning and Waste Management Fig. 5. Phases of performance improvement. think, feel, and conduct themselves in the workplace, both individually and collectively. Implementing Areva s philosophy, the phased approach for performance starts with Diagnosis followed by Item prioritization, Initial implementation, and concludes with Standardization (Figure 5). Analyzing the facts at the source, the diagnosis phase covers the seven dimensions of excellence comprising productivity, quality, cost, delivery, management, and environment. It defines the baseline of the current situation as well as areas of progress, and is launched against the 3 aspects of operational excellence covering managerial issues, mindset and behavior, and the operating system. This baseline analysis aims to completely understand the gaps and weaknesses in how people and processes are managed; it explores the concerns and agendas of the people in charge of performing the different functions within the entire organization and examines the degree of trust among the key stakeholders. This phase of the process is completed with identification of sources of loss in the current operating system. Defining the actions required to achieve the objective, virtually the whole management and employees involved are required to cooperate in this phase of Item prioritization, taking in account all existing knowledge and local culture. Key issues and relevant approaches are identified and prioritization of actions is defined as a function of potential impact and dismantling cost. This approach is effectively supported by setting up respective coaching structures promoting intensive dialogue on methods, rates, sharing, and implication to achieve the intended added value of performance. The outcome of these initial phases are detailed mapping of current processes and material flows with known dysfunctions, clear vision of key performance indicators to meet the needs of customers, a complete cost database detailed by functions and cost centers and a comprehensive evaluation of the performance management systems and determination of key improvement areas. The initial implementation phase is broken down into waves with a typical duration of about 5 months each and updated every month based on the results of respective audits regularly performed. Implementing the lessons learned from the initial phase, resulting initiatives are integrated during standardization stage and efforts are made to benefit from continuous improvement. 5. Areva s Successful Program: Performance First Organized around 6 main areas of improvement, Areva implements a specific performance improvement plan for each of the projects. These 6 areas comprise Dismantling strategy and scenario optimization, Waste management and logistics, Supply chain, Site Management and operations, Dismantling operations, and Regulatory monitoring and controls. Dismantling strategy and scenario optimization follows a holistic approach involving identification and assessment of potential options focusing on logic WBS, planning, development of useful partnership, and thorough review of the applicable safety processes. It includes investigation on operation productivity and potential synergies with other projects and is completed by detailed planning of material flow and waste management including optimization of radioactive waste packaging. Particularly important for mitigating radwaste generation is to obtain clear vision on key issues involved with its generation and further treatment such as dismantling methods applied, radiological characterization and respective verification, available information on acceptance criteria for repository, available packages certified for storage, shipment and disposal and related methods of conditioning. Key to mitigate radwaste generation and for optimized utilization of packages is obtaining detailed knowledge on the actual radiological status of the parts and material to be treated. Based on samples directly taken from the components to be removed and dismantled, realistic assessment of the radioactive inventory is performed by Fig. 7. Value Stream Management process. >>> atw atw 2014 Autorenexemplar Fig. 6. Life cycle cost evolution at La Hague following performance actions (%). means of advanced 3-D activation modeling, providing most realistic data for selecting optimized technology, best suited for further processing. Implementation of the strategies identified in these major areas of progress have led to reducing life cycle cost of Areva s decommissioning project of major facilities at La Hague by a total of about 16 % as shown with Figure 6. Waste management and logistics includes the management of material flow from generation to treatment for recycling or disposal. In order to identify potential options for optimizing processing of residues resulting from dismantling activities, and following the Lean Management philosophy, Areva consequently applies the Value Stream Management method (Figure 7) where Value Stream Mapping as a first step is used to analyze in detail all activities to be performed from generation to completion of the production process where, at its end, material released for recycling or conditioned as radwaste package for disposal is understood as the product. For this purpose, a detailed material flow scheme including all sequential steps of the process and related logistics of handling and transportation is defined and optimized by eliminating all non value adding expenditure. The outcome of this analysis serves as a basis for defining respective lay out and optimized capacity of the treatment processes to be applied, dimensioning of areas for interim storage, etc. Longterm and medium-term programming covering periods of 1 year to 4 months and 3 237

12 Decommissioning and Waste Management Fig. 8. Areas of improvement of site management and operations. Fig. 9. months to 1 month, respectively, is performed to provide for workload planning while short-term programs typically covering 1 month to 1 week are used for process control. Key performance indicators such as productivity index are used for measuring process efficiency and to identify areas of improvement. Significant advances were achieved in Supply chain, through implementation of specific procurement plans and related contract models, developed for due consideration of the evolving constraints of input data and dismantling operations. Specific work segmentation is developed for each individual project. Proven performance based incentive models and well defined key performance milestones are applied. The program is completed by specialized training programs to improve and align contractors skills prior to start work in the project. Other areas of most significant potential for cost reduction relate to Site management and operations and Dismantling operations. Linked with waste management, support facilities maintenance and operation (such as: utility supply, waste processing and conditioning, waste shipping, related to production facilities etc.), an extensive performance improvement plan Performance First was launched by Areva in Concrete actions, implementing the Lean Management approach, were adopted as shown in Figure 8 and production facilities were adjusted to meet the requirements in terms of productivity, quality, cost, customer expectations, safety, security, environment, and skills. Managing human resources during transition from operation to decommissioning constitutes another major challenge to the project. Transfer people s mind-set and competences from plant operation to dismantling while maintaining skills, motivation and excellence requires careful planning and organization. Competence mapping and assessment of existing qualification and determination of future needs per organizational unit and activity is crucial to define and to implement adequate training and re-deployment, as appropriate, in order to manage transition in social consensus without impact to project performance. In combination with defining a carefully selected set of key performance indicators such as e.g. productive hours, on-time completion, workload and utilization of available resources, and on-site operational safety, closely followed-up and communicated via visual management boards located close to on-site operations, significant improvement of Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE) was achieved. In the case of a major decommissioning project at Cadarache original OEE was increased from original 50 % by almost 30 % to current 64 %. Standardization of work preparation and implementation of accelerated work authorization processes as well as optimization of dressing time significantly contributed to this achievement as shown in detail in Figure 9. Efforts to facilitate compliance with the requirements related to Regulatory monitoring and controls resulted in streamlined procedures with optimized monitoring and inspection plans and safety related controls. Tools and infrastructure were adapted to the changing requirements from operation to post-operation followed by dismantling. These efforts are completed by strengthening global safety through production operators training and clear allocation of responsibilities within the workforce organization and implementation of synergies and lessons learned from other ongoing projects of similar scope. 6. Summary Essential lessons learned from execution of decommissioning projects during more than 20 years and significant improvements achieved in productivity of ongoing works are that careful planning of processes results crucial for efficiency of means and methods applied in decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power reactors. Implementation of the philosophy of operational excellence based on Lean Manufacturing and adapted to nuclear regulatory requirements results particularly rewarding and turns out considerable supportive to overall project management and control. Areva offers sharing this valuable experience with nuclear facility owners in facing the challenges resulting from decommissioning of their facilities including consulting and training services for the development, implementation and driving continuous improvement for efficient management of their projects and operations. This include planning and definition of related work break down structures, time scheduling and project control and monitoring as Overall Equipment Efficieny (OEE) performance in Cadarache (non value added time reduction in %). 238 >>> atw atw 2014 Autorenexemplar

13 well as provision of specific methods and tools for the measurement of the actual physical progress of works and analysis of possible deviations and risk mitigation strategies. Capitalizing of lessons learned from previous projects and from detailed studies based on actual power reactor designs and verified in-situ, experienced experts are available to assist owners in development and/or performing respective feasibility studies and economical analyses as well as in the assessment of safety related scenarios of events and preparation of safety analysis reports and documents required to obtain respective works authorization and licenses as required by the applicable regulation. Radiological characterization based on Areva s highly developed nuclear measurement technologies and direct sampling methods using specifically developed equipment as well as most advanced radiological modeling and verification in own accredited radiochemical laboratories complete the group s capabilities to optimize material flow and the management of remaining radioactive waste. Experience in successful transition management of human resources is further available to support re-qualification of owners staff through own training facilities and experts providing assistance in skills-mapping and development of adapted staffing plans, creating thus solid grounds for the successful execution of the customers decommissioning projects. With noteworthy success achieved in improving productivity in decommissioning of nuclear facilities and power reactors Areva concludes that decommissioning strategy and scenarios and particularly the implementation of optimized processes and adequate management methods are key for success; far more than the technology selected and used for actual dismantling operations. References: [1] IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NW- G-2.1, Vienna 2011 Policies and Strategies for the Decommissioning of Nuclear and Radiological Facilities. [2] Leitfaden zur Stilllegung, zum sicheren Einschluss und zum Abbau von Anlagen oder Anlagenteilen nach 7 des Atomgesetzes; BMU, 26. Juni 2009 (Guide for decommissioning, safe enclosure, and for dismantling plants or parts of it according to article 7 of the Atomic Energy Act, dated June, ). [3] OECD 2012 / NEA No International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations. [4] American National Standard ANS/PMI Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide). Advertisement >>> atw atw 2014 Autorenexemplar PROFESSIONELLE ROHRLEITUNGS- TECHNOLOGIE In den eigenen Werken in Deutschland mit einer eigenen Cleanhalle werden Rohrleitungssysteme nach den höchsten Qualitätsnormen vorgefertigt. Engineering, Vorfertigung, Montage und Inbetriebnahme der Rohrleitungssysteme werden weltweit effektiv und effizient durchgeführt. Bilfinger Piping Technologies ist in Europa mit ihren Tochter- und Schwesterngesellschaften sowie innerhalb der CIS, GCC, RSA und in Asien präsent. BILFINGER PIPING TECHNOLOGIES GMBH 239

14 atw-digital 2013 The Year 2013 of Nuclear Power on One CD International Journal for Nuclear Power atw-digital 2013 j Expert's articles, reports, interviews, and news covering all technical, economic and political topics of nuclear power and nuclear technology. j All 11 issues on more than 700 pages. j Navigate quickly to the desired papers with a few mouse clicks. j Read the articles on your computer or print them out. j Convenient search function in all papers as full-text search and/or deliberate search for authors and documents titles. International Journal for Nuclear Power Internationale Zeitschrift für Kernenergie atw-digital 2013 I would like to order the CD atw-digital 2013 (single user license), payment by invoice: (Germany, incl. postage and VAT) (Special price for DAtF- and KTG-Members, incl. postage and VAT) (EU member states, without VAT number, incl. VAT, excl. postage) (EU member states with VAT number and all other countries, no VAT, excl. postage) Network license (corporate license) and license for Research & Education on request. Please send your order to: INFORUM Verlags- und Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbh Robert-Koch-Platz Berlin GERMANY Fax-No or order online: Surname, First Name Organization/Order no. Street Postal Code City Country Telephone/ VAT no. (EU countries except Germany) I order the CD atw-digital 2013 and agree to the terms and cancellation rights referred to below. Date Signature Cancellation: This order may be cancelled within 14 days. A notice must be sent to INFORUM Verlags- und Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbh, Robert-Koch-Platz 4, Berlin, Germany, within this period. The deadline will be observed by due mailing. Prompt dispatch of the notification is sufficient for compliance with the cancellation conditions.

15 Subscription International Journal for Nuclear Power Herewith, I would like to subscribe to the atw International Journal for Nuclear Power from now on. Surname, First Name Organization/Order no. Street Post code City Country Telephone/ VAT no. (EU countries except Germany) I agree to the terms and cancellation rights referred to below. Date Signature Preferred payment method (please tick): By SEPA Name of bank IBAN BIC By invoice Please send your order to: INFORUM Verlags- und Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbh Robert-Koch-Platz Berlin Germany or by Fax to Terms and cancellation rights You will receive the atw (11 issues/year) at the subscription price. Germany: Per issue/copy (incl. VAT, excl. postage) 15.- Annual subscription (incl. VAT and postage) All EU member states without VAT number: Per issue/copy (incl. VAT, excl. postage) 15.- Annual subscription (incl. VAT, excl. postage) EU member states with VAT number and all other countries: Per issue/copy (no VAT, excl. postage) Annual subscription (no VAT, excl. postage) The publisher must be notified of cancellation of the subscription no later than 4 weeks before the end of the subscription period. Unless terminated with a notice period of one month to the end of the subscription period, the subscription will be extended for a further year in each case under the subscription terms applicable at the time. Cancellation guarantee: This order may be cancelled within two weeks of the order form being received at INFORUM Verlags- und Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbh, Robert-Koch- Platz 4, Berlin, Germany. Prompt dispatch of the notification is sufficient for compliance with the cancellation conditions.

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